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kansas city 
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kansas city, 





In Twelve Volumes 










Volume Three 




Copyright 1917, 1918, icjuj, 19-21, 1922, 1923, 192,, 1926, 1927, 1928 
W. F Quarnc & Company 


Copyright: 1929, 1930 
W. F Quarrie & Company 

Printed in U. S. A. 








CHALK, a soft, granular variety of limestone, 
consisting chiefly of the skeletons of minute 
animals that lived in shallow seas ages ago. 
When seen through the microscope, a piece 
of chalk shows hundreds of these tiny shells of 
different forms and sizes. Some resemble 
snail shells; others are circular and beautifully 
marked. There may also be present needlelike 
objects which came from sponges. Chalk is 
almost wholly carbonate of lime, with traces 
of silica and in some cases of magnesium car- 
bonate, ferric oxide, and alumina. It is 
whitish or yellowish in color. The great white 
cliffs in France and England, on each side of 
the Strait of Dover, are composed of chalk. 
Those on the English side were the reason for 
giving the name of " Albion" to England 
centuries ago, for Albion is derived from Gaelic 
words meaning white and hill. There are also 
extensive beds of chalk under the city of Lon- 
don. In the United States, there are minor 
chalk deposits in Arkansas, Texas, Iowa, and 


some other states. In geological classification, 
the chalk formations are characteristic of the 
European Cretaceous System (which sec). 

Though the crayons used for writing on 
blackboards in schools are called chalk, in 
America they are usually manufactured from 
magnesia. Chalk mixed with clay is used in 
the manufacture of portland cement. It is 
also used to make whiting. The latter enters 
into the preparation of rubber goods, paint, 
putty, silver-cleaning powders, and other prod- 
ucts. Chalk is sometimes used as a top 
dressing for soils, and when purified, it is an 
ingredient in tooth powders. French chalk, 
so-called, used by tailors, is a variety of talc. 


CHALONS, shah loN', BATTLE OF. See 


opment in a statesman- 
ship which was at first 
local, then national, and 
lastly imperial 

A* a Local Leader. 

CHAMBERLAIN, the family name of a 
father and son in English political life: 

Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914), one of the lead- 
ing English statesmen of his day and frequently 
called the greatest Colonial Secretary England has 
ever had He began 
public life as a Radical; 
he ended it as a Unionist, 
exactly the opposite. 
Twice he deserted his 
political chief once 
Gladstone, the Liberal, 
once Balfour, the Con- 
servative and both 
times his withdrawal 
caused the defeat of the 
Ministry and the divi- 
sion of the party of which 
he had previously been 
a member. These 
changes of party repre- 
sented a gradual devel- 


For more than a generation 
one of the leaders in Eng- 
lish political affairs. 

Chamberlain was born on 
July 8, i8.{6, in London, where his father was a pros- 
perous business man. At sixteen he began work in 
his father's office, but two years later went to Bir- 
mingham to assist in the management of a screw 
factory in which his father had an interest. At the 
age of thirty-eight, Chamberlain retired from active 
business with a fortune. Meanwhile, he had become 
prominent in the political as well as the business life 
of Birmingham, and in 1873 was elected mayor. 

A National Figure. Chamberlain's work in Bir- 
mingham gave him a national reputation, which was 
recognized by his election to the House of Commons 
in 1876, and only four years elapsed before his ability 
won him a place in Gladstone's Cabinet as President 
of the Board of Trade. In 1886 Gladstone appointed 
him President of the Local Government Board, but 
his opposition to Gladstone's Home Rule Bill led him 
to resign after two months With other Liberals who 
opposed this measure, he then organized the Liberal 
Unionist party, and succeeded in overthrowing the 
Ministry, but he returned to the more conservative 
fold in 1805, when he became Secretary of State for 
the Colonies in the Salisbury Cabinet. In 1888 he 
was one of the three delegates sent to the United 
States to settle the Canadian fisheries dispute, but 
the most important result of the visit, so far as 
Chamberlain himself was concerned, was his marriage 
to Miss Mary Endicott, the daughter of President 
Cleveland's Secretary of War. 

"Think Imperially!" The keynote of Chamber- 
lain's life from then until his death was expressed in 
this appeal to his countrymen. It was as Colonial 
Secretary, an office which he held for eight years, that 
his most important work was done. After i8gs the 
"economic necessities of a world-wide empire" were 






his first care. He determined that the colonies, in- 
stead of being alternately neglected and exploited, 
should be steadily encouraged and given cooperation. 
It was during his term in office that the Australian 
colonies were united into a commonwealth. 

In 1003 Chamberlain introduced tariff reform as an 
issue in British politics, by proposing to give the 
colonies a preference in trade. Balfour, as Prime 
Minister and leader of the party, tried to keep the 
tariff out of politics. Chamberlain refused to compro- 
mise, resigned from the Cabinet, and finally, in 1905, 
forced the issue before the people. The Liberals won 
a sweeping victory, which was generally interpreted 
as the deathblow to tariff reform. In 1006 Chamber- 
lain's health began to fail, but he sat in Parliament 
until the year of his death, though his active leader- 
ship was at an end. 

Sir [Joseph] Austen Chamberlain (1803- ), the 
oldest son of Joseph Chamberlain, had already won 
honors before his father died He was educated at 
the University of Cambridge, and entered Parliament 
in 1802 From 1805 to 1005, he was a member of the 
Balfour Ministry, in which he held the posts of Civil 
Lord of the Admiralty, 
Financial Secretary to 
the Treasury, Post- 
master-General, and 
finally Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. After 1006, 
when his father retired 
from active leadership, 
Austen Chamberlain was 
the atk nowledged cham- 
pion of the tariff re- 
formers From 1 892 un- 
til 1914, he represented 
East Worcestershire in 
Parliament, but in 1014, 
after the death of his 
fathcr,he was elected by 
Birmingham West, the 
constituency which his 
father had represented 
for twenty-nine years. 
In May of the next year, he became Secretary of 
State for India in the coalition Cabinet headed by 
Asquith, which the World War made necessary. 
In the ensuing Lloyd George Cabinet, he became 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and when Bonar Law 
retired, he was recognized as the head of his party. 
In the Baldwin Conservative Ministry, succeeding 
the MacDonald Labor Ministry, Chamberlain was 
given the post of Foreign Secretary. 

and Rivers). 

CHAMBER MUSIC. See Music, subhead. 

TION OF COMMERCE), an organization of traders 
and merchants for their mutual benefit, or for 
the wider purpose of promoting the business 
and commercial interests of their community. 
Membership in these local organizations is 
voluntary, and their usefulness depends on the 
energy and ability of the members. The 
fundamental purpose is to increase the pros- 
perity of the community, and incidentally of 
its individual business interests. To this end 
a chamber of commerce may investigate 

Photo PA A 


general business conditions at home and 
abroad, transportation facilities and their 
possible improvement, extension of credit, 
and any other business factors. The recom- 
mendations of such a body frequently influence 
local, state, or provincial, and occasionally 
even national, legislation. One of the most 
common activities of such chambers is the 
distribution of printed matter in which the 
advantages of the city or district are set forth 
to attract new industry. 

UNITED STATES, an organization in which 
membership is open to local chambers of com- 
merce and other associations of business men. 
It was organized at a national commercial 
conference called by President Taft and held 
in Washington, D/C., in 1012. Its purpose, 
roughly defined, is to do nationally what the 
individual chamber of commerce does locally 

It studies and encourages the organization of 
associations of business men, and puts the re- 
sults of its investigations at the service of 
organizations which desire to add to their 
efficiency. It analyzes the statistics of com- 
merce and production, both at home and 
abroad, watches dangers which might retard 
commercial development, and makes note of 
opjK>rtunities which might result in expansion. 
One of its objects is to keep a close watch on 
Congressional legislation affecting the commer- 
cial interests of the countrv. In a general way, 
it aims to do for the commercial interests of 
the nation what the American Federation of 
Labor does for labor. It should be noted, 
however, that the methods of the two organi- 
zations are quite different; the Federation of 
Labor maintains agents in Washington and 
operates through a central organization, 
whereas the Chamber of Commerce maintains 
no lobby and operates through its constituent 
members and their influence upon the members 
of Congress. 

Unlike the chambers of commerce in France, 
Germany, and other European countries, the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
has no official relation to the government. The 
government pays no part of its expenses, nor 
is an arbitrary tax levied for its support, as is 
done in some European countries. The cham- 
ber, however, acts voluntarily as an adviser, 
with respect to appropriations, executive orders, 
and legislation, and has exercised a considerable 
influence in the framing of paragraphs of new 
laws that relate directly to commercial and 
industrial operations. 

^ Membership. The membership of this na- 
tional Chamber of Commerce includes organiza- 
tions and individual persons or firms. Every 
commercial or manufacturers' association, not 
organized for private purposes, is eligible to 
membership. Such associations include or- 


1 299 



ganizations whose membership is confined to a 
single trade or group of trades, and also those 
local or state organizations whose chief pur- 
pose is the development of the commerical and 
industrial interests of a community. Indi- 
vidual persons or firms which belong to any 
association already a member of the Chamber 
of Commerce of the United States are eligible 
to individual membership. The number of in- 
dividual members is limited to 5,000, but there 
is no limit to the number of organization mem- 
bers. The national headquarters are at 
Washington, D. C., in the organization's own 
$3,000,000 building, dedicated in 1025. 

Control of Its Policy. One feature of the 
work of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States is unique the method by which 
its policy is framed. The board of directors 
has no right to commit the chamber to any 
project or policy. Expression of the chamber's 
opinion upon any public question can be made 
only after a referendum has been taken and the 
vote of the members recorded. The right to 
vote is restricted to organizations; individual 
members are required to express their opinions 
through their respective local bodies. This 
unique procedure, never before used to obtain 
an expression of public opinion either in the 
United States or in any other country, has 
been found effective in convincing legislative 
bodies when they would not be influenced by 
the action of a board of directors. 

a popular American novelist and writer of short 
stories, born in Brooklyn, N. Y. Before he 
began his career as an author, he studied art in 

the Julien Academy at Paris, and for a time 
made illustrations for Life, Truth, Vogue, and 
other New York periodicals. In 1893 he pub- 
lished In the Quarter, 
beginning then a long 
and successful liter- 
ary career. 

Chambers has an 
undeniable gift for 
writing an interesting 
story, but has been 
criticized because of 
his fondness for un- 
pleasant themes and 
his frank treatment 
of them. Many of his 
stories have been 
made into moving 

Some of His Books. 

Among the best known 
of his numerous stones 
are lole, The Fighting Chance, The Firing Line, Ailsa 
Page, The Common Law, The Business of Life, Athalie, 
The Girl Philip pa, The Crimson Tide, The Slayer 
of Souls, Little Red Fool, Eris, The Hi-Jackers, The 
Rake and the hussy, Cardigan, The Maid-at-Arms, The 
Man They Hanged, The Sun Hawk, The Rogue's Moon. 

VANIA (back of map). 


CHAMELEON, ka me' le un, a lizard remark- 
able for its ability to change its color. The 
true chameleons comprise a family of about 
fifty species found most commonly in Africa, 






but occurring also in some other parts of the 
Old World. They live in trees. The chame- 
leons are awkward and slow of foot, and their 
habitual changes of color serve to protect them 
from their enemies by enabling them to lose 
themselves in their sur- 
roundings (see PROTEC- 
This power of changing 
color has been carefully 
studied. The chame- 
leon does not arbitra- 
rily imitate the hue of 
the object on which it 
rests, nor is the proc- 
ess wholly under its 
control. The changes 
are reactions to certain 
conditions of light and 
temperature and to 
various emotional 
states, such as fear and 
anger. The physical 
cause may be traced to 
two differently colored 
layers of pigment under 
control of the nervous 
system. Thebest known 
species is ordinarily a 
greenish-gray, from 
which it changes to 
emerald-green or to dull black, sometimes 
showing reddish or yellowish spots. 

This lizard is six to seven inches in length, 
and has long, slender legs, a large head, and a 
long, prehensile tail. Its toes are so divided as 
to give all feet the power of grasping like a 


. . . Like the wild chamois from her Alpine snow, 
Where hunters never climbed, secure from dread. 

HOOD: Ode to the Moon. 


(Photographed by the Section of Photography of 
the Field Museum of Natural History.) 

hand. Though slow and sluggish, the chame- 
leon catches insects with lightning rapidity, 
having a sticky tongue which it can shoot out 
as much as six inches. It is also aided by its 
great bulging eyes, which are set in sockets in 
such a way as to move independently of each 
other. Chameleons require much water and 
will die without it. They have the power of 
inflating themselves with air, a process that 

gave rise to the fable that they live on air. 

They are the only lizards that do not drag the 

body on the ground. 
AJI American species of this name, though 

not related to the Old World chameleons, has 
the same power to 
change its hue. Its 
most common colors 
are brown and green. 
This lizard has a body 
not over three and a 
half inches long. It is 
more active than the 
true chameleons. See 

Scientific Name. The 

true chameleons belong 
to the family Chamaeleon- 
tidae The common species 
of the Old World is Cha- 
maeleon vulgar is. The so- 
called American chameleon 
is Anolis carolinensis, of 
the family Iguanidae. 

mie nahd f , CECILF 
(1861- ), one of the 
best-known women 
musicians of modern 
times, was born in 
Paris. When only eight years of age, she com- 
posed sacred music that won the praise of 
Bizet, the composer of Carmen. She studied 
for several years under excellent teachers, began 
a successful career as a pianist at the age of 
eighteen, and became in time well known as a 
music conductor. Chaminade's fame, however, 
rests chiefly on her compositions, which include 
such familiar instrumental pieces as The Scarf 
Dance, The Flatterer, and Morning, and many 
charming, melodious songs. Among the latter 
are Madrigal, Rosamunde, Berceuse, and The 
Silver Ring. As a composer she is distinctly 
original, and her compositions are valuable ex- 
ercises for the piano student. 

CHAMOIS, sham' mih, a shy member of the 
goat antelope family, famed for its fleetness 
and its keenness of scent. It lives in the high 
mountains of Europe and Western Asia, and 
was once very common in the Swiss Alps. In 
the summer it is found near the snow line; in 
the winter, lower down, in the forests. It is a 
rather small animal, with a brownish summer 
coat that changes to fawn color in winter and 
gray in the spring. Its head is pale yellow, 
marked by a black band surrounding the eyes 
and extending from the nose to the ears. Its 
horns, which are about six or seven inches long, 
are round and almost smooth, and they grow 
straight upward until near the tip, where they 
suddenly end in a sharp hook that is bent 
backward. Both horns and tail are black. 




During the feeding time, which is in the 
morning, one animal is always standing on 
guard in some prominent place, for the purpose 
of warning the rest of approaching danger. 
The pursuit of chamois is difficult and danger- 
ous, as they live in the steepest, roughest 
mountains, and are so quick and light that 
they can easily jump across a ravine fifteen 
feet wide. Though the flesh is highly prized 
as food, the chief value of a chamois lies in its 
skin, which is used to make the very soft, warm, 
flexible leather known as chamois skin. Most 
of the skin now sold as such, however, comes 
from the skin of sheep, and it lacks the velvety 
softness of the genuine chamois. See AN- 

Scientific Name. The chamois is a member of the 
family Bovidae, and its scientific name is Rupicapra 

mile (same pronunciation for both), the com- 
mon name of a genus of plants belonging to 
the composite family, some species of which 
have medicinal properties. The species most 
commonly cultivated is called common, or 
Roman chamomile. It is a perennial, with a 
slender, trailing, much-branched stem. The 
flowers have white rays and yellow centers. 
Flowers and leaves are bitter and aromatic, 
and are used as poultices to cure ailments such 
as toothache, and medicinally in the form of 
tea, as a tonic for the stomach. The common, 
troublesome, ill-smelling mayweed, with its 
small, white, yellow-centered flowers, is a 
related species. B.M.D. 

Scientific Names. The chamomiles belong to the 
family Composttae. Roman chamomile is Anlhcmis 
nobilis. The mayweed is A cotula. 

CHAMPAGNE, sham pane', an expensive 
wine, first made in France, white or red, spar- 
kling or "dry," sweet or acid. It originated in 
the department of Marne, in the former prov- 
ince of Champagne, although a similar wine 
is made elsewhere. A large trade in champagne 
made in California had been developed before 
the era of prohibition. 

The best qualities are made almost exclu- 
sively from black grapes. The creaming or 
slightly sparkling champagnes are more highly 
valued and are higher in price than the full- 
frothing wines. The small quantity of alcohol 
which the latter contain nearly all escapes from 
the froth as it rises to the surface, carrying 
with it the fragrance and leaving the liquor 
nearly tasteless. The property of creaming, 
or frothing, possessed by these wines is due 
to the fact that they are partly fermented in 
the bottle, carbonic acid being thereby pro- 
duced. Because this fermenting takes place 
under pressure, the bottles used must be of 
the strongest quality. Keeping champagne 
cool prevents too much frothing, and that is 

one reason why it is usually served from a 
bucket of ice. See WINE. 



CHAMPLAIN, sham plane', a lake 125 miles 
long and from one to fifteen miles wide, lying 
between the states of New York and Vermont, 
with its northern end in Quebec. It covers 
an area of about 600 square miles, contains 


many islands, and is a beautiful and popular 
summer resort. Salmon, trout, and sturgeon 
abound, and the lake is navigated by large 
excursion steamers. In 1929 a bridge span- 
ning the lake was opened between Crown 
Point, N. Y., and Chimney Point, Vt., short- 
ening the traveler's road between the states. 

Battle of Lake Champlain. On September 11,1814, 
a naval engagement was fought between British and 
United States vessels in the harbor of Plattsburg, on 
Lake Champlain. The forces were almost evenly bal- 
anced, any superiority existing being on the side of 
the British. After severe fighting and heavy losses 
on both sides, the British were defeated. 

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE (1567-1635). This 
French explorer and colonial pioneer, the 
founder of Quebec, was known in history as 
the "Father of New France." He was the 
real creator of the French dominion in Amer- 
ica. Parkman, the great historian of the 
French in America, sketches him in these 

Of the pioneers of the North American forests, his 
name stands foremost on the list It w,as he who 
struck the deepest and boldest strokes into the heart 
of their pristine barbarism. His character belonged 
partly to the past, partly to the present. The preux 
chevalier, the crusader, the romance-loving explorer, 
the curious knowledge-seeking traveler, the practical 
navigator, all found their share in him. 

Champlain was born in Brouage, a little 
town on the Bay of Biscay. His father, a ship 





Who laid the foundations 

for a vast French domain 

in America. 

captain, taught him the principles of navi- 
gation, but the boy entered the army. His 
seaman's training stood him in good stead, 
however, in 1599, 
when he was offered 
the command of one 
of several vessels 
about to sail to the 
West Indies. During 
the next two years 
he visited all the prin- 
cipal ports of Mexico 
and the West Indies, 
and even traveled in- 
land to Mexico City. 
His account of this 
voyage, which 
brought him to the 
notice of King Henry 
IV of France, is note- 
worthy for one of 
the earliest sugges- 
tions, if not the first, 
for a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. 

Champlain went to Canada in 1603, ex- 
ploring the Saint Lawrence River as far as 
the Lachine Rapids. In following years he 
returned, accompanied by his patron, the 
Sieur de Monts; they cruised along the New 
England coast to Cape Cod and founded Port 
Royal (Annapolis, Nova Scotia). This was 
unsuccessful, however, and with De Monts' 
permission, Champlain in 1608 established 
Quebec, which 
he gave its pres- 
ent name. On 
his previous ex- 
plorations he 
had maintained 
friendly rela- 
tions with the 
Algonquin and 
the Huron In- 
dians, and joined 
them in a suc- 
cessful raid 
against the Iro- 
quoisin 1609. In 
this expedition 
he discovered 
the beautiful 
lake which has 
since borne his 

name. Cham- " oto - u * u 

plain's help at STATUE AT ORILLA . ONTARIO 
this time won for the French the lasting friend- 
ship of the Algonquins, but also the hatred of 
the Iroquois, who were forced to make friends 
first with the Dutch and then with the English. 

After this exciting adventure, Champlain 
returned to France to tell his story and secure 
further aid. From then until 1629 he crossed 
the Atlantic every year. He was lieutenant 

governor of the colony, but more than that, 
he was the very life of New France. Yet he 
was not able to strengthen and protect Quebec 
as much as was necessary, and in 1629 was 
compelled to surrender his settlement to an 
English fleet. Taken a prisoner to England, 
he was soon released, and after Canada was 
restored to France, in 1632, he returned to 
Quebec as lieutenant governor. He died on 
Christmas day, 1635. See MONTS, SIEUR DE; 
CANADA (History) ; QUEBEC, the city. 

CHAMPLAINIAN, sham pla' ni an. See 

CHAMPLEVfi, shamp leh va'. See ENAMEL. 


CHAMPS fiLYSfiES, shahN za le za', a 
Paris boulevard, one of the most beautiful in 
Europe, extending from the Place de la Con- 
corde to the Place de 1'Etoile. It is nearly 300 
feet wide, double the width of most American 
boulevards, and ii miles in length. At the 
end near the Place de 1'Etoile is the famous Arc 
de Triomphe, erected to celebrate the victories 
of Napoleon (see ARCH OF TRIUMPH). The 
boulevard is lined with trees and beautiful 
buildings. There are many cafes, before which 
those Frenchmen known as boulevardiers love 
to sit and partake of refreshments while watch- 
ing the passing stream of vehicles and pedes- 
trians. See PARIS. 

CHANCELLOR, chan' set ur y a word meaning 
originally doorkeeper, now used to designate 
various important officers of the government. 
In Germany, for instance, the chief adminis- 
trator, in England known as the Prime Min- 
ister, is called the Chancellor, Bismarck having 
been the first to hold the title. 

In England, the Lord High Chancellor is 
not an administrative but a judicial officer, 
the highest in the kingdom. He is the ad- 
viser of the Crown, the Keeper of the Great 
Seal, the official sign of royal authority, and is 
the highest civil officer of the realm, below the 
royal family. He is a member of the Cabinet 
and the presiding officer of the House of 
Lords. His duties are very numerous, chief 
among them being the supreme judgeship of 
the Court of Chancery. He is the official 
guardian of all infants, as well as of people of 
unsound mind. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the British 
Minister of Finance, and a member of the 

In the United States and Canada, the term 
has no official meaning, but is sometimes used 
instead of president as the title of the head of 
a university. 

CHANCELLORSVTLLE, chan' sel urz ml, 

CHANCERY, chan' sur ie, COURT OF. The 
court of chancery was formerly the highest 
court of England, and second in authority 




only to Parliament. At present, it is a division 
of the High Court of Justice. It is presided 
over by the Lord High Chancellor, and from 
this circumstance it derived its name. The pur- 
pose of the court is to settle cases which do not 
fall under the common law. In the United 
States, the terms chancery and equity, court of 
chancery and court of equity, are practically 
synonymous. See EQUITY. 


CHANEY, cha' ne, LON. See MOVING PIC- 
TURES (list of players). 

CHANGA, chang' gah. See MOLE CRICKET. 


CHANNEL ISLANDS, a group of islands 
in the English Channel, ten miles from the 
coast of France, representing all that remains 
to England of its once great possessions in 


France. Their combined area is seventy-five 
square miles. Although politically English, 
the islanders are typically French in manners 
and customs, and they pride themselves on 
belonging to the race which conquered England 
in the days of William I, the Conqueror. The 
islands are not bound by acts of the English 
Parliament unless specifically named in them. 
Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark are the 
only inhabited islands, but there are numerous 
rocks and islets, many of which are submerged 
at high tide. The climate is mild and healthful, 
and flowers and vegetables are grown in great 
quantities, reaching the London markets 
several weeks before the English crops. Stone 
for building purposes is exported, and the 
islands are famous for their dairy cattle, the 
Jerseys, Guernseys, and Alderneys. These 
breeds originated here. Population, 90,000. 

one of the most famous American preachers, 
whose influence is still felt in social and political 
reforms, through his memory and his writings. 
He was born at Newport, R. I., and studied 
at Harvard College. His first appointment as 
a pastor was in 1803, when he was placed in 
charge of the congregation of the Federal 
Street Church in Boston. At first his sermons 
did not show strong denominational spirit, 
but gradually he became a decided Unitarian 

Photo. Brown Broa. 

and taught the doctrines of that Church with 
great zeal and success. Noble and fearless, he 
was a strong advocate of temperance, in- 
ternational peace, 
and freedom. Cole- 
ridge said of him, "He 
has the love of wis- 
dom and the wisdom 
of love." See UNI- 

Worthy of Note. His 

most popular essays are 
those on National Litera- 
ture, John Milton, and 
Self -Culture. 


CHANUTE, cha- 
w00/',KAN. See KANSAS (back of map). 

ier than Air). 

CHAPALLA, chahpah'lah, LAKE. See 
MEXICO (Waters). 

CHAPARRAL, chaparal', a dense growth 
of rigid and often thorny shrubs or small trees 
that grow in poor soil on dry slopes in the 
Western states and Mexico. The word is 
derived from the Spanish chaparro, meaning 
evergreen oak, and was first used in the United 
States about 1846, during the Mexican War. 
References to chaparral occur in the writings 
of Bayard Taylor, Robert Louis Stevenson, 
Helen Hunt Jackson, Stewart Edward White, 
and others who have written of the Western 
country. Mrs. Jackson's description of this 
shrubby plant in her Glimpses of Three Coasts 
is often quoted: 

Nobody will ever, by pencil or brush or pen, fairly 
render the beauty of the mysterious, undefined, unde- 
finable chaparral. G M.S. 


CHAPLAIN, chap' lin, a clergyman attached 
to an army or navy, or to any non-religious 
group, performing the duties a minister per- 
forms for his congregation. 

United States army chaplains are appointed 
by the President, with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, the Secretary of War making 
assignments and transfers. There are no re- 
strictions as to denomination; all churches are 
represented. Each regiment of cavalry, in- 
fantry, and field artillery has its chaplain; 
one is assigned to the corps of engineers and 
to the Military Academy, and there is a 
specified number, varying from time to time, 
for the coast artillery corps. The number 
allowed to the navy bears a definite relation 
to the total membership in the navy and 
marine corps. 

The rank, pay, and allowances of a chaplain 
in the United States army, after seven years' 




service, are those of a captain of infantry; 
until then his grade is that of a first lieutenant. 
Unusual ability is recognized by advancement 
to the rank of major, though there may be 
among the chaplains no more than fifteen 
majors at any one time. A chaplain in the 
navy begins as an acting chaplain, with the 
rank of junior-grade lieutenant, and after 
three years becomes chaplain, progressing 
through the various grades of lieutenant, lieu- 
tenant commander, commander, and captain. 

TURES (list of players). 

CHAPMAN, GEORGE (1557 or 1559-1634), 
the poet and dramatist of Shakespeare's day 
who is remembered chiefly as having been the 
first to translate into English verse Homer's 
immortal epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such 
critics as Pope, Lamb, and Coleridge greatly 
admired these translations for their lofty lan- 
guage and swiftness of action; and they in- 
spired one of the finest sonnets Keats ever 
wrote On First Looking into Chapman's 
Homer in which occur these oft-quoted lines: 

Oft of one wide expanse had I been told 

That deep-browed Homer ruled as his demesne; 

Yet did I never breathe its pure serene 

Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold: 

Then felt I like some watcher of the skies 

When a new planet swims into his ken. 

Chapman was born near the town of Hitchin, 
in Hertfordshire, and learned his Greek at 
Oxford. When he was about thirty-five he 
published his first long poem, The Shadow of 
Nighty and in 1598 his first play, a comedy, 
which bore the quaint title of The Blinde 
Beggar of Alexandria, Most Pleasantly Dis- 
coursing His Variable Humours. The Iliad and 
Odyssey translations were published in instal- 
ments, appearing at intervals throughout a 
period of nearly twenty years. It was not until 
1611 that the entire twenty-four books of the 
Iliad were completed, and not until 1616 that 
the Odyssey was published in its entirety. 

All this time, however, Chapman was writing 
successful plays, among the most popular being 
the comedies of Al Fooles, The Widow's Tears, 
and Monsieur d'Olive, and the tragedy of 
Bussy d^Ambois. A play called Eastward 'Hoe, 
written by Chapman in collaboration with Ben 
Jpnson and John Marston, led the Stuart 
king, James I, to send him to prison because 
of a satirical remark about the Scotch, and 
the play was ordered reprinted with the offend- 
ing passage omitted. As a writer for the stage, 
however, Chapman did not equal the other 
dramatists of the Elizabethan period, either 
in his handling of plot or of character. 

[He also wrote a number of long poems, made some 
translations from Latin literature, and completed the 
paraphrase called Hero and Leander which Christopher 
Marlowe had begun and left unfinished at his death.] 


CHAPULTEPEC, chah pool' te pek, BATTLE 

grade boy who had been guilty of persistent 
pilfering in the school garden went to this 
same garden one morning to pick his own care- 
fully tended watermelon and found that it 
had disappeared during the night. Thereafter 
he took a very different attitude toward 
theft. He had been stealing repeatedly without 
the slightest compunction; but the minute he 
found himself the victim of another's disregard 
of property rights, a new light dawned on his 
mind. He went to his principal, voluntarily 
confessed the wrongs he had committed, and 
promised there should be no repetition a 
promise which he faithfully kept. "I never 
knew before how it felt to lose a thing you had 
worked for," was the explanation he gave of 
his change of heart. 

The Golden Rule. "Put yourself in the other 
fellow's place." This is the essence of right 
doing; he who can do this completely will no 
more wrong another than he will cut off his 
right arm. He will tell the truth to his neighbor 
because his neighbor wants and needs the 
facts, because human society cannot exist 
without mutual confidence, because by his 
example he inevitably does something either 
to increase or decrease the amount of truthful- 
ness in the world. He will keep his word and 
refuse to defraud or steal in any form, for the 
same reasons. He will be charitable in his 
judgments and as conscientious about injuring 
other people's reputations as he wishes them 
to be about his own. He will control his temper, 
will be helpful in his personal relations and 
generous to those whom he can help with his 
time, his energy, or his money In short, he 
will follow the Golden Rule. To develop this 
power to put self in the place of others, or 
rather to produce a character which will act in 
this spirit, is the aim of moral education. 

Unselfishness is Fundamental. This capacity 
to realize how other people feel is distributed 
through the race in very unequal degrees; 
but some germs of it will be found in every 
human being. It arises spontaneously in every 
home worthy of the name; but it extends far 
beyond these narrow limits. One evidence for 
this statement is the fact that it seldom fails 
to appear in a crisis. After the sinking of the 
Titanic, Mr. George Kennan, the celebrated 
traveler and authority on Russian affairs, 
wrote a letter to the Outlook, a part of which 
reads as follows: 

The courage and unselfishness shown by an over- 
whelming majority of the passengers on the ill-fated 
steamship Titanic have recalled to my mind the re- 
markable exhibition of the same heroic and generous 
characteristics by the citizens of San Francisco during 
the great earthquake and fire of 1906. I did not my- 


self reach the city until some weeks after the disaster, 
but the remembrance of the events of that period of 
strain and suffering was still fresh in the mind of 
every observer or participant, and I was greatly im- 
pressed by the enthusiasm and deep feeling shown by 
everybody in speaking of the behavior of the popula- 
tion. One friend of mine in Oakland, a man not at all 
inclined to be "gushing" or effusive in speech, said to 
me: "I am glad that I lived to see the things that 
happened in the first ten days after that great catas- 
trophe. Those days were the best and most inspiring 
part of my life. Religious people talk about the 
'kingdom of heaven, ' but few of them expect to live 
long enough to see it realized on earth. I saw some- 
thing that very nearly approached it in San Fran- 
cisco, Berkeley, and Oakland in the week that 
followed the fire. Cowardice, selfishness, greed, and all 
the baser emotions and impulses of human character 
practically disappeared in the tremendous strain of 
that experience, and courage, fortitude, sympathy, 
generosity, and unbounded self-sacrifice took their 
place. Men became, and for a short time continued 
to be, all that we may suppose their Creator intended 
them to be, and it was a splendid and inspiring thing 
to witness. We imagine that we live in a selfish and 
materialistic age, and perhaps we do; but T know now 
of what human nature humanity as a whole is 
capable, and I can never again take a pessimistic view 
of the world's future." 

These crises arouse men out of their habitual 
moral sluggishness, because they force them to 
realize what deprivation and suffering mean, 
but they could not act unless there were some- 
thing to move them to action. This something 
we call altruism. It consists in direct regard for 
the good of others. It is present in great or less 
degree not merely in the ordinary men and 
women about us, but, however hidden, even 
in the worst criminals. 

A man by the name of Schunicht murdered a young 
woman in the most brutal manner and with an in- 
difference absolutely revolting. He had already left 
the apartment when it occurred to him that the body 
might remain undiscovered for weeks, and in that 
event, the canary belonging to the murdered woman 
would starve to death. Thereupon Schunicht re- 
traced his steps, scattered enough food upon the floor 
of the cage to last the bird for several days, and 
opened the cage-door and the window in the adjoining 
room so that in any event the bird could make its 
escape. (Lombroso ) 

In returning to the apartment where lay the dead 
body of the murdered woman, this brutal criminal 
risked his life in order to save a canary from starva- 

Social Advancement Depends upon Char- 
acter. Progress depends largely upon the 
utilization of hitherto unused forces. Thus, our 
machinery is driven by coal and oil, which lay 
in the ground untouched for countless centuries. 
When we know more about the human mind 
than we do now, we shall be able in like manner 
to tap the half -sealed fountains of moral 
energy, and thereby transform society more 
completely than it has been transformed during 
the past one hundred and fifty years by steam 


and electricity. We are still a long distance 
from this goal, but while we cannot yet ac- 
complish all we could wish, we can nevertheless 
do a great deal. And we are bound to put our 
best efforts into the attempt. Our children's 
own highest and permanent welfare demands 
it, while the society of which we are members 
could no more exist without character than the 
particles of matter which form our earth could 
hold together without gravitation. 

Value of the Imagination. From time to 
time great educators appear who know how to 
exercise an almost unbounded influence upon 
their pupils. Such was the most famous of 
English headmasters, Thomas Arnold of 
Rugby; such a man was and is our own Wil- 
liam George, of the Junior Republic. Their 
successes will be ours if we can catch their 
spirit and learn and apply their methods. 

From what has been said, it will be obvious 
that our first task must be to develop in our 
children the power to realize the feelings of 
others. This power we may call the imagi- 
nation. The imagination is developed by using 
it, like any other form of ability Consequently, 
what we must do is to supply our children with 
opportunities and incentives to put them- 
selves in the place of other people and help 
them to do so successfully. A child, for ex- 
ample, misjudges his mother. The father can 
often help him see why the mother is timid 
about his swimming, why she spoke crossly 
to him this morning, why she made him stay 
in the house and help her last Saturday when 
he wanted to go out and play with the boys. 
And if no complete justification can be found 
for her hasty temper, he can call attention 
to other traits in her character and thus help 
him to a proper perspective. In all this he 
has not merely helped the boy to understand 
and appreciate his mother; he has trained 
his powers of insight into other persons' lives. 
The mother, of course, can do the same for 
the father and for the sisters and brothers. 
If she will take a little trouble, she can perform 
the same service for those of his playmates 
whom he teases or bullies. 

A ten-year-old school boy was afflicted 
with pathological fears, and in consequence 
was very "queer" in his actions. His class- 
mates made his school day, as far as in them 
lay, one long horror, and were rapidly strength- 
ening the hold of the disease upon his nervous 
system. Thereupon, the able woman in charge 
of mental hygiene in the school told the entire 
story to the four leading boys of his class, 
and they passed it on to the others. In conse- 
quence, they all changed from enemies to 
helpful friends. Now, two years after this 
event, the boy is perfectly normal, while his 
classmates have risen to a distinctly higher 
level of thoughtfulness and consideration for 




Often pupils harass their teacher, and the 
parents, instead of trying to get the teacher's 
point of view and revealing it to the children, 
amuse themselves by tacit encouragement. To 
help the child to observe and reflect upon what 
goes on behind the mask which men wear, 
to see things somewhat as the wearer himself 
sees them, to feel something of what he feels 
this is one of the first steps in the moral edu- 
cation of children after they have reached 
school age. If the revelation is sometimes 
painful, it will not injure the child. On the 
contrary, the habit of thinking concretely 
about others will quicken his intelligence 
immensely, give him new interests, make 
certain of his school studies, such as history 
and literature, far more real, and render him 
eager to play his part in the life of the family 
and in the little community of boys and girls 
of which he is a member, instead of being a 
complainer or a shirk. 

In this work of developing the imagination, 
the right kind of books will be of very great 
assistance. The child should, therefore, be 
supplied with good stories, that is, those which 
represent life in concrete, vivid fashion. This 
condition, to be sure, excludes most of those 
of the current weekly and monthly periodicals, 
but there are plenty of others. Biographies 
are likely to offer more satisfactory material. 
One of the best for children of grade-school 
age is Miss Nicolay's Life of Lincoln', while for 
high-school children there is James Morgan's 
Abraham Lincoln, the Boy and the Man. This 
may profitably be followed by Booker T. 
Washington's Up from Slavery, a very inter- 
esting story, well told, which is calculated as 
are few others to develop the power of seeing 
and realizing how the other half of the world 
feels and lives. The effect of contact with such 
characters will ordinarily be greatly increased 
if the parents read these records of life with 
their children and discuss with them some of 
the issues which they raise. 

Thoughtfulness is Important. More often 
than not, the wrong we do others and the good 
we fail to do are the results of sheer ignorance 
and thoughtlessness on our part. No one can 
realize what he does not even think of. Moral 
education therefore involves training our chil- 
dren to trace out the effects of their actions, 
the effects upon their happiness and upon those 
of others, the effect upon their own character 
and that of others; the indirect, and often 
widely diffused effects, as well as the direct 
and obvious ones. For example, what are the 
effects of giving way to bad temper? Our 
biting words hurt our immediate victim, the 
object of our wrath. Well, that is precisely 
what we want. But there are other conse- 
quences: his temporary or permanent enmity; 
if he is someone who loves us, a slight and yet 
perhaps permanent cooling of that love. There 

are two great foes of friendship and love, in 
fact, of everything that binds men together 
in our too often lonely lives; one of these is 
selfishness, the other is bad temper. The 
effect upon our character of each outbreak 
of our temper is to make such outbreaks more 
difficult to control; we are strengthening a 
habit as dangerous in its own way as drunken- 
ness. The effects of anger frequently do not 
cease with hurt feelings on the part of the 
victim; for example, if he is my brother, our 
mother will suffer also. Generally, anger, in 
tending to produce ill-will and a sense of in- 
justice on the part of its victim, tends to mak% 
him bitter in his turn; tends not merely to 
arouse his ill-will against us, but also does its 
part to make him feel sour toward the world 
and thus tends to eat away the foundations 
of his good will toward his fellow men. These 
bare suggestions as to the results which may 
follow a single failure in self-control are only 
the beginnings of an all but limitless subject. 
The parent must not tell these things to the 
child. He must by questions and suggestions 
help the child to discover them for himself. 

There is a certain effect upon self resulting 
from the control of bad temper and similar 
feelings which must never be overlooked 
the joy of feeling your own moral fiber as a 
consequence of your conquest of your im- 
pulses. The admiration for power is at the 
basis of all the worship of athletes. Every 
boy desires, at some period of his life, to be an 
athlete. But there are other fields besides the 
gridiron where a good fight is demanded and 
strength is at a premium, and with the con- 
sciousness of strength goes the glow of victory. 

We may train our children in though tfulness, 
furthermore, by helping them to discover and 
work out possible modes of helpfulness 
for example, methods by which an overworked 
mother may be saved weary steps, methods 
by which some lonely classmate's life may be 
made a bit more happy, methods by which 
dishonest practices in school athletics, in class 
politics, in the care of the money of school 
organizations, and in class work, may be 
broken up. In sum, then, we must seek to 
develop in our children (i) what Thomas 
Arnold called "moral thoughtfulness," or the 
power and the habit of observing and re- 
flecting upon conduct, our own and others', 
so that we shall be aware of the effects of 
what they are doing; (2) we must develop 
the power, as far as possible, of realizing these 

Doing Is As Essential As Feeling. Finally, 
we must not allow their interests and good in- 
tentions to evaporate, or we shall have on our 
hands the most hopeless specimen of the 
human race a sentimentalist. This means a 
being who knows what to do and feels great 
enthusiasm about doing it, but never actually 




does it. To avoid this fatality, we must see 
to it that knowing and feeling are followed 
by doing. It must be admitted, however, that 
this is largely a matter in the child's own hands, 
not ours. Much muddled thinking goes on 
about forming habits in other persons. I can 
create in my child a habit of keeping his room 
in order or getting to school on time by threat- 
ening him with punishment in case he fails. 
I can do the same thing for honesty and 
veracity, at least in his relations with me and 
perhaps with his teacher. But in all this I am 
simply developing a habit not of seeing and 
realizing the importance of truth-telling so 
that he is willing to suffer loss in order to be 
truthful, but simply the habit of being afraid 
of punishment. If that is all there is to it, 
when he gets out from the confines of the 
home he will usually drop the habit the minute 
he has turned his back on the door. 

All I can do for him in this particular phase 
of his moral life, then, is to protect him as 
far as possible from temptations clearly too 
strong for him to resist, surround him with 
opportunities to do the right thing where he is 
likely to rise to them, and counsel and en- 
courage him as best I can when he hesi- 
tates or is in doubt. This is not quite all, 
however. When I punish him for wrong doing, 
I may merely make him more wary about being 
caught the next time. But if I punish him, 
not in anger, but because I know, and he will 
sometimes see, its justice, I may accomplish 
something far more important. I may make 
him appreciate the seriousness of the wrong 
he has committed. He has inflicted a harm 
on someone else. He would not have done so 
had he realized how the other would feel under 
the blow. Punishment, wisely administered, 
may open his eyes as to how it feels to suffer; 
the evil he has inflicted upon others may come 
home to him, and this experience may create 
genuine repentance and with it a permanent 
change of attitude. 

Duties Owed to Others. We have obligations 
to individuals, such as members of our family, 
our neighbors, our employers; we have, in 
addition, public obligations, as to our native 
city, our country. A sense of these duties is 
harder to develop than a sense of the former 
class. It can, perhaps, best be produced by 
developing in the mind a vivid, concrete picture 
of the difference between a well-conducted 
and an ill-conducted society; for example, 
between a community, on the one hand, where 
all the drivers of cars habitually break every 
traffic rule they dare, cut in ahead of each 
other regardless of who has the right to the 
road, and run down without hesitation every 
passenger or every lighter car that does not 
keep out of the way; and a community, on 
the other hand, where mutual deference and 
regard for others' rights to the road are prac 

deed as a matter of course. Imagine a society 
where there is mutual respect for rights, and 
mutual aid where necessary, and mutual good- 
will everywhere; imagine again a society 
where everyone lives in constant danger of 
ruin through fraud or violence, where there 
is no chance of getting one's rights except 
through the courts, and no chance of getting 
one's rights in court except through bribery 
a society, in short, where "man is a wolf to 
man " If the difference between two such 
societies is brought home to a normal child, 
he will wish for the first, and be willing to do 
his part to create and maintain it. Under 
proper guidance, furthermore, he may be led 
to discover what kind of action this involves. 
It means, for example, business men who are 
willing to say, with the late W. H. Baldwin, 
Jr., when he went to Fargo as agent of the 
Northern Pacific: "1 will get freight honestly 
or not at all." 

The Home a Character Laboratory. If such 
pictures are to mean anything to a child, the 
society which he knows best, namely, the fam- 
ily, must exemplify the traits which he is ex- 
pected to embody in his conduct in the larger 
world. If the members of this smaller group 
exhibit good will, consideration for each other's 
interests, charity in their judgments of each 
other, willingness to help each other, evenness 
of temper, ability to count absolutely upon 
each other's loyalty in time of stress, here is 
the first step toward the' appreciation of the 
value of the qualities which are to be incor- 
porated into the life of the larger world about 
him; here it is that he really learns the mean- 
ing of such words as justice, loyalty, and good- 
will. For no one really understands a word, 
or at any rate, realizes its significance, unless 
it represents something which he has observed 
or experienced. 

The Idea of Progress. For the full liberation 
of the forces within the child which make him 
willing to do his part in maintaining the modes 
of action upon which society depends, not 
merely for its welfare but for its very existence, 
there must be a belief that this society is 
capable not merely of being preserved at its 
present level, but of rising to higher levels 
than it has yet attained. The best preparation 
for this view of life is an inborn spirit of hope- 
fulness which is most intimately associated 
with abounding physical vigor and thus with 
perfect health. Another is some actual knowl- 
edge of the slow but sure progress of the race. 
Many history teachers know nothing of these 
things; they know only names, dates, and 
changes in boundary lines and in dynasties. 
Therefore, the parent ought to be prepared to 
attend to this matter himself. He may, for 
instance, read with the child such historical 
books as Breasted's Ancient Times. Another 
suggestion: a study of the men of the Stone 




Age is likely to be especially attractive to 
twelve-year-old children and may leave upon 
their young minds an indelible impression 
of the distance which man has traveled on 
the road toward a worthy civilization, and 
may thus implant a fixed belief in the power 
of mankind to go the rest of the way. 

Team Work. The child, like the adult, must 
feel also that he has and has had co-workers 
in this field. The marvelous examples of de- 
votion which are strewn through the records 
of every great war are due in part to the feeling 
of each soldier that he is only doing what 
countless comrades are doing, and to the 
consequent determination that where everyone 
else is contributing his part, he himself will 
not play the shirk. The victories of peace 
and the devotion to duty which peace demands 
even more insistently, though not so loudly 
as war, require, in like manner, a sense of the 
solidarity of human effort. We often fail to 
find it even where it is present. It is necessary, 
therefore, to become acquainted as intimately 
as possible with some of those who have been 
leaders in this great work of bringing civili- 
zation to, and preserving its benefits for, a 
world descended from roving bands of naked 
savages. Here again we may get much through 
biography and sometimes from history; also, 
an appreciation of the work of our contem- 
poraries from certain journals and magazines. 

One aspect of our relation to society our 
children should never be allowed to miss is 
the fact that every unprincipled man is a 
parasite or a sponge. He defrauds, for example, 
by taking advantage of the confidence between 
man and man, built up by millions of honest 
and kind acts; or he takes advantage of forms 
of helpfulness that have grown up on- the 
supposition that they will not be misused, 
whether it be a lift on the road or the liberty 
to use a book in a school library paid for by 
the taxpayers. 

Our Social Inheritance. The fact is that 
almost everything we have which is worth 
having we owe to others, and very much of it 
to their devotion, their public spirit, and often 
to their courage. The right of habeas corpus 
(which see), which protects us from arbitrary 
imprisonment; freedom of conscience; repre- 
sentative government and democratic insti- 
tutions in general; our own national inde- 
pendence; the unity of our country; our system 
of free schools all these were toiled for with 
unbounded efforts, and most of them were 
fought for at the risk of property and life. 
All these advantages the sponge greedily 
appropriates, and does not even do his part 
toward keeping them going. Such persons 
need to be shown that the first principle of a 
gentleman's code of honor is to row your own 
weight, and that of all the various types of 
men, the parasite is the most disgusting. 

Character in Spirit of Action. What we 
have to do in character education is not to 
attempt to create a lot of isolated qualities 
such as obedience, truthfulness, honesty, and 
charity of judgment, as we attempt to teach 
a dog a lot of unrelated tricks. All virtues are 
the expressions under varying conditions of 
a single spirit. Accordingly, what we have to 
do as parents and teachers is, as far as in 
us lies, to awaken this spirit where it sleeps, 
to make it more fully alive, to strengthen it 
where it already exists, and to render it as 
farseeing, as consistent, and as intelligent 
as we possibly can. A man who has money in 
his pocket can use it to buy a great variety 
of goods and services. Similarly, he who has 
the altruistic spirit possesses that which will 
enable him to assume the right relations in 
the home, on the playground, in the school, 
in his associations with his neighbors, with his 
customers, with his competitors, and in his 
capacity as a citizen, both of his native country 
and the world. F.C.S. 

Related Subjects. Parents who desire to explore further 
into the problems confronting them in rearing children are 
referred in these volumes to the following allied articles 

Anger in Childhood 

Childhood, Behavior in 

Dishonesty in Children 

Habits in Childhood, Troublesome 

Heredity (Inheritance of Intellectual and Moral Traits) 

Mental Conflict, a Cause of Misconduct 

CHARADE, sha rode', a popular form of 
riddle, the answer to which is a word of several 
syllables, each of which alone is in itself a 
word. Each syllable, taken as a word, is de- 
scribed, and finally a puzzling definition of the 
whole word is given. The following is an 
example: "Someone threw my first and sec- 
ond at me, and it hit my third. It did not 
hurt me, for it was only a branch of my whole." 
The answer is Mistletoe. 

A pleasing charade requiring more thought 
is in the form of a rhyme, as 

My first is a circle, ray second a cross; 

If you meet with my whole, look out for a toss. 

The answer is Ox. Charades may be presented 
in tableau form, that is, by persons in positions 
suggesting the word. A girl sitting under a 
high table would suggest the word misunder- 
stand. When charades are presented in the 
form of little plays, each syllable represents 
a scene; they are then called acting charades. 
This form of amusement is much in vogue on 
social occasions, especially with children. 

Derivation. It is thought that the word comes 
from the French word charade, meaning idle talk, 
which in turn was derived from the Spanish char- 
rod a and charro, meaning speech and actions of a clown. 

CHARCOAL is the familiar brittle, coal- 
like material produced when wood burns 
incompletely, and hence often found in the 
ashes of a wood fire. Wood consists chiefly 




Photo. Visual Education Sanrio* 


An old-time pit, stacked for burning; a group of modern retorts, from which black oak is being pulled. 

of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Charcoal 
was formerly made in large quantities by cut- 
ting down trees, piling the logs into mounds or 
pyramids, covering these with earth, and setting 
the wood on fire. The earth restricted the 
draught, or supply of air, to the fire, and thus 
kept the wood from burning completely to 
ashes. In countries where hardwood is plentiful, 
charcoal is still made in ways similar to that 
described. Sometimes the heating is carried out 
in closed iron retorts, and the escaping gases 
are cooled so as to condense the acetic acid, 
wood alcohol, and acetone which they contain. 

Although hardwood charcoal is the most 
common variety, almost any plant or animal 
material can be charred. 

Commercial charcoal is carbon mixed with 
the impurities which remain as ashes when the 
charcoal is burned. After wood charcoal, the 
next most common commercial varieties are 
lampblack, and animal charcoal, or boneblack. 
Boneblack is made by charring bones; lamp- 
black, by burning oil and letting its yellow 
flame strike against a cold metal cylinder 
which turns slowly so that it will not become 
overheated in any one part. See BONEBLACK. 

Uses of Charcoal. Wood charcoal is used as 
a fuel, and to produce a smokeless fire. It was 
formerly the only fuel used in the smelting of 
iron ores, but for this purpose it has been 
almost completely replaced by coke, a form 
of carbon made from coal in much the same 
way as charcoal is made from wood. Large 
quantities are still used in the old-fashioned 
black gunpowder, which is a mixture of char- 
coal, sulphur, and saltpeter. For military pur- 
poses this kind of gunpowder has now been 
largely replaced by other explosives, which 
have the double advantage of being much more 
powerful and of yielding little or no smoke. 
Charcoal gunpowder, however, is cheaper than 
these smokeless powders, and is therefore com- 
monly used in blasting rocks, in clearing land 
of tree stumps, and in loosening soil in some 
places, so that the roots of trees and plants can 
grow to greater depths than would otherwise 
be possible. 

Charcoal has the property of absorbing large 
quantities of gases. Boxwood charcoal will 
absorb ninety times its own volume of am- 
monia gas, and coconut charcoal 170 times its 
own volume. Charcoal is sometimes used to 
sweeten the air of rooms. Lampblack is much 
used in paints and in printing and drawing 
inks. Carbon inks, such as India ink and 
printing inks, do not fade like ordinary writing 
inks. Animal charcoal is largely used in the 
sugar refinery and in the distillery. Black as 
it is, it has the power of removing the color 
from crude sugar, syrups, and crude liquors, 
leaving them as clear and colorless as water. 

Derivation. The origin of the word char is doubt- 
ful, but some authorities derive it from the Anglo- 
Saxon c car dan, meaning to crackle. 


valuable but not extensively cultivated vege- 

table. It is a 

form of common 

garden beet, but 

its roots are 

small and woody. 

The central rib 

of the leaf and 

the enlarged 

stalk are pre- 

pared for the 

table in much 

the same way as 

asparagus, and 

the succulent 

leaves them- 

selves are cooked 

as greens or used 

as a salad. Swiss 

chard is culti- 

vated in about 

the same man- 

ner as the gar- 

den beet, and 

deserves a place 

in the home 

garden, for a continuous supply of greens 

may be had all summer by means of succes- 





sive leaf cuttings and thinnings. Like other 
leafy vegetables, chard is valuable for its min- 
eral salts and vitamins. See BEET. B.M.D. 

CHARGfi D'AFFAIRES, shahr zha' da- 
fair', a French phrase meaning charged with 
affairs, now used generally to indicate a diplo- 
matic agent of inferior rank sent by one country 
to another. He takes rank after ambassadors, 
ministers, and resident ministers, and is given 
his credentials not by the ruler of his state 
but by the minister of foreign affairs. Nor 
is he accredited to the ruler of the state to 
which he goes, but to the minister of foreign 
affairs. When two nations are on the verge 
of a break and ambassadors and ministers have 
been withdrawn, special charges d'affaires may 
be appointed to carry on the necessary com- 
munication. At any time that an ambassador 
is absent from his post, a member of his staff 
is made charge d'affaires. See DIPLOMACY. 

stirring, patriotic poem by Alfred Tennyson, 
written to celebrate the memory of the English 
brigade of light cavalry whose heroic charge 
against the Russian center, in the Battle of 
Balaklava, has won it undying fame. This bat- 
tle, one of the most important engagements 
of the Crimean War (see CRIMEA), was fought 
on October 25, 1854, with the Turkish, French, 
and English forces contending against the 
Russians. Through a mistake in issuing orders, 
the English cavalry brigade under Lord Car- 
digan, numbering about 600 men, was com- 
manded to charge the Russian guns at the end 
of a long valley. Though they knew "someone 
had blundered," they rode to the attack at the 
word of command, while, in the language of 
the poet 

Cannon to right of them, 
Cannon to left of them, 
Cannon in front of them 
Volley 'd and thunder 'd. 

Storm *d at with shot and shell, 
Boldly they rode and well, 
Into the jaws of Death, 
Into the mouth of Hell 
Rode the six hundred. 

Only a remnant of the brave company re- 
turned from the ride into the "jaws of Death." 
A French officer who witnessed the charge said, 
"It is magnificent, but it is not war." Yet 
that splendid example of devotion to duty has 
been an inspiration to the world through all 
the years that have passed, and whoever reads 
the story of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" 
feels as Tennyson did when he wrote the closing 
words of the poem: 

When can their glory fade? 
O the wild charge they made! 

All the world wondr'd. 
Honor the charge they made! 
Honor the Light Brigade, 

Noble six hundred. 

Related Subjects. For additional information on the 
historical setting, see the articles BALAKLAVA; CRIMEA 
(Crimean War). 


CHARIOT, the original of all modern 
wheeled vehicles. The chariot of ancient times 
had two wheels surmounted by a boxlike body 
in which the driver stood, and was probably 
first used in war. Two or four horses were used, 
and in many cases the axles of the wheels were 

Arms on armour clashing bray'd 
Horrible discord, and the madding wheels 
Of brazen chariots ray'd; dire was the noise 
Of conflict MILTON: Paradise Lo\t 

armed with scythelike blades with which to 
mow down the ranks of the enemy. The ancient 
Britons used chariots both in war and for state 
occasions, and the conquering Romans took 
back home with them many of these vehicles 
and used them in their triumphal processions. 
Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, and Romans vied 
with each other in the magnificence of their 
chariots, which were built for display and 
effectiveness and not for speed. 

The reins of the harness were sufficiently 
long to be tied round the waist of the driver, 
leaving his hands free for the use of weapons. 
The wheels had four, sometimes eight, spokes, 
and were cumbersome and heavy. Many noted 
groups of statuary exist which depict a chariot 
drawn by two horses urged on at full speed 
by a warrior whose spear and quiver of arrows 
are ready to his hand. In olden days, chariot 
races were common; what is regarded as the 
finest description of such an event is found in 
Lew Wallace's historical novel Ben Hur. 

Derivation. The word chariot is derived from the 
Latin car r us, from which also descend the words car 
and carriage 




CHARIOTEER, a name applied to the con- 
stellation Auriga (which see). See also, PHAE- 
THON; MYTHOLOGY (The Story of Phaethon); 


Conference of Social Work. See SOCIOLOGY. 

CHARITY. In the word charity are sum- 
med up the acts of mercy that man performs 
for the relief of his fellow creatures who are 
suffering from poverty, sickness, or other ills. 
Charity is a practical working out of the 
doctrine of the Brotherhood of Man; it is an 
expression of man's love for humanity, and 
offers a common meeting ground for afi those 
who find it "more blessed to give than to 
receive," regardless of their faith or creed. 
In the words of Pope (from the Essay on 

For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight; 
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right 
In faith and hope the world will disagree, 
But all mankind's concern is chanty. 

Individual charity, the kind advocated in 
the Biblical parable of the Good Samaritan, 
where a wayfarer saw another in trouble and 
"had compassion on him," has always existed 
and always will exist as long as there is suffer- 
ing in the world. In modern times, however, 
charity has come to be especially identified 
with organization, and with groups of indi- 
viduals who are working together for perma- 
nent and not temporary results. When charity 
or relief is administered in this form, the term 
"charity" is now generally dropped from the 
titles of administrative agencies and the terms 
"welfare" and "social work" are substituted. 
The primary reason for this substitution of 
terms is that the words "charity" and 
"relief" have come to signify in the minds of 
the poor an unfavorable distinction between 
themselves and their benefactors. 

Regulated Charity. Relief work of an or- 
ganized character had its beginning in the 
early Christian Church, and the churches are 
still active agents in the field of charity. But 
religious bodies being numerous and varied, 
more united efforts were needed for widespread 
success. With the realization of this fact, there 
developed a more universal cooperation. First 
came the formation of relief societies whose 
purpose was to do away with haphazard 
methods of giving and to place the work on a 
systematic basis. Later the idea was extended 
to improving permanently the condition of 
the poor. Relief societies now are maintained in 
almost countless numbers in various parts of 
the world, including in their work the care of 
destitute, neglected, and delinquent children, 
impoverished families in fact, people of every 
description who are in need of a helping hand. 

Bureaus of Charities. The final step in 
systematized charity was the formation 01 
societies under various names, such as As- 
sociated Charities, United Charities, Boards 
and Bureaus of Charities, and, more recently, 
Family Welfare societies and associations. 
The first of these societies, and the one on 
which the others have been modeled, was 
started in London in 1869, receiving the 
support of such eminent men as Gladstone and 
Ruskin. Its founders stated that its main 
object was "cure, as distinguished from the 
mere alleviation of distress." Hardly less im- 
portant was the aim to bring about such co- 
operation between existing relief societies as 
would do away with any overlapping of their 
fields of effort. 

Societies of this character are now main- 
tained in nearly all the larger cities of the 
United States, Great Britain, Canada, and 
Australia. Various charitable organizations 
similar to these are also found on the conti- 
nent of Europe. The first American society 
was founded in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1877. 

All of these societies work on certain funda- 
mental principles. First of all, they investigate 
all cases that come to their attention. A rec- 
ord is made for each family and placed on file 
for reference. All possible information is ob- 
tained, and this is placed at the disposal of 
individuals or relief societies that are inter- 
ested. In this way the charity-organization 
society makes possible cooperation among all 
the philanthropic agencies of the city. 

A certain amount of personal service is con- 
ducted by voluntary workers called friendly 
visitors, and especially, more recently, by paid 
professional case workers. The purely al- 
truistic and sympathetic motive is giving way 
to the more constructive philanthropy of en- 
couraging self-help and assisting the individual 
to make his own adjustments. 

Indeed, a new note has been sounded 
throughout the entire field of charities. While 
the older type of social service, as typified by 
relief societies, was directed toward the needs of 
the individual, the emphasis is now placed 
increasingly upon community reorganization 
and control. The work of these organizations 
now includes the effort to bring about certain 
social reforms to mitigate poverty, immorality, 
inefficiency, and crime by endeavoring to 
interest the community in establishing play- 
grounds, public baths, swimming pools, and 
comfort stations, and in improving housing 
conditions and sanitary conditions in general. 

Social work is coming to be recognized as a 
profession, requiring men and women of edu- 
cation and high ability, and the necessity for 
scientific method in attacking social problems 
has led to the establishment of special training 
schools and departments in universities. More- 
over, increased attention is being given to 




research and a scientific study of human be- 

The chanty bureaus are supported by volun- 
tary contributions, and are administered by 
boards of directors chosen from among the 
contributors. See SOCIOLOGY. L.L.B. 

CHARITY, SISTERS or, also written SISTERS 
or MERCY, is the name given to a number of 
Orders of women in the Roman Catholic 
Church which are devoted to the care and edu- 
cation of the sick, the poor, the aged, or the 
orphaned. Each order is known by its special 
gown or habit, usually loose robes of black, 
relieved at the throat and about the face by 
a touch of white. The members of all the 
orders are forbidden to marry. The first or- 
ganization was established in France by Saint 
Vincent de Paul in 1629 and was approved by 
the Pope, after which it spread rapidly wherever 
the Roman Catholic Church was found. These 
orders have become one of the strongest, best- 
known, and generally appreciated organizations 
within the Church. Because of their self- 
sacrificing lives and their systematic devotion 
to assisting the needy, the members have been 
spared persecution many times during religious 
conflicts. They have been saved by opposing 
forces when cities in which they were estab- 
lished were besieged and nearly destroyed. 
There are now a number of orders in America 
which are popularly known as the Sisters of 
Charity. G.W.M. 

CHARLEMAGNE, shahr' le mane (742-814), 
the first of the Holy Roman Emperors and the 
only ruler of whose name the Great has been 
made a real part for Charlemagne means 
literally Charles the Great. His influence on 
the history of Europe is hard to overestimate, 
for he lived just at the close of the Dark Ages, 
and by his enlightened measures did much to 
hasten the dawn of a better civilization. 

He was the son of Pepin the Short and the 
grandson of the famous Charles Martel. On 
his father's death in 768, he became joint king 
of the Franks with his brother Carloman, but 
three years later Carloman died, and Charle- 
magne was recognized as sole king of the 
Franks. Desiderius, king of the Lombards, 
already angered because Charlemagne had mar- 
ried his daughter and divorced her, supported 
the claims of Carloman's children to their 
father's part of the kingdom, and against him 
Charlemagne undertook his first campaign. 
This being victoriously ended, he seized all 
the Lombard possessions and placed on his 
own head the famous Iron Crown of Lombardy. 
In 774, before leaving Italy, Charlemagne vis- 
ited Rome and formally approved the donation 
of certain lands made by his father to the 
Pope. This is looked upon as the beginning 
of the Papal claims to temporal power, which 
caused so much disturbance in Europe through- 
out medieval times. 

Campaigns. From this time on, his long 
reign was filled with wars; it is said that he 
made, in all, fifty-two campaigns. Lombards, 
Saracens, and Saxons especially were time after 
time forced to defend themselves against him, 
usually in vain. Yet despite his success, Charle- 


The inscription declares that "Charles the Great 
ruled as emperor for fourteen years'*; the sword 
and the orb represent, respectively, his might and 
his divine right, while the emblems above, the eagle 
of Germany and the fleur-de-lis of France, indicate 
that his empire marked the beginning of those 
two great states. [The original painting of the 
above was by Albert Durer; it is now in the National 
Museum at Nuremberg, Germany. J 

magne was not a great warrior. His genius lay 
rather in organization, and this helped him 
not only to win his victories but to weld his 
great empire with its unrelated peoples into 
something approaching unity. The religious 
motive was often strong in his wars. For this 
reason, he undertook, in 777, an expedition 
against the Saracens in Spain, and it was on 
his return march that his rear guard under 
Roland was attacked and cut to pieces by the 
wild peoples of the Pyrenees in the famous 
Pass of Roncesvalles. He was determined, too, 
to establish Christianity among the Saxons, 
and for almost thirty years waged intermittent 
war against them. During the struggle, after 
one of numerous revolts, Charlemagne had 
4,500 Saxon prisoners put to death at one time 




all in air effort to force the Saxons to become 
Christians. In time they yielded to these 
forceful methods; Saxony became a part of 
Charlemagne's empire, and most of the Saxon 
leaders of the old regime were put to death. 

Holy Roman Empire. In 800 Pope Leo III 
called Charlemagne to Rome to ask his aid 

Photo Visual Education Service 

in a struggle against a hostile faction. After 
Charlemagne was victorious, the Pope rewarded 
him by placing upon his head a crown of gold 
and proclaiming him emperor of the Romans, 
the successor of Augustus and Constantine. 
Thus was established the Holy Roman Empire, 
that curious monarchy which played so large 
a part in the history of medieval Europe. 

Importance in History. It is not only or 
chiefly as a conqueror that Charlemagne was 
an important world figure. He was as well a 
statesman who bound together his empire and 


As divided in 843- 

prevented the great nobles from becoming too 
powerful, by employing his missi dominici, or 
officials appointed by him and responsible to 
him. He protected commerce, punishing se- 


verely the robbers who had made perilous the 
life of traveling merchants, and encouraged 
and improved agriculture. Then, too, he was 
an enthusiastic patron of learning. He formed 
at his court a school for nobles and their sons, 
with Alcuin as teacher, and he himself learned 
to read Latin and even Greek, though he could 
not write legibly. 

His great empire, which included not only 
modern France but Germany, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Switzerland, Hungary, most of Italy, and 
a part of Spain, was left to his son, Louis I, 
but the son was not as strong as the father, 
and the carefully built structure was in time 
torn apart. 

Related Subjects. For additional information connected 
with the life and work of Charlemagne, see these articles 
Charles (France) Franks 

Charles Muriel Holy Roman Empire 

Crown (Iron Crown) Pepin 

Dark Ages Roland 

CHARLEROI, shahr le roi' , PA. See PENN- 
SYLVANIA (back of map). 

CHARLES [England], the name of two Eng- 
lish sovereigns of the royal Scottish House of 


The famous triple portrait, by Van Dyck. 

Stuart, both of whom were firm believers in 
the doctrine of the "divine right of kings." 
The life of the first of the two was a sacrifice 
to this belief. 

Charles I (1600-1649), son of James 1, persisted in 
a course of tyranny throughout his reign that ended 
in his execution and the establishment of the Com- 
monwealth of England. He came to the throne of 
England in 1625, within the next four years he con- 
vened three Parliaments and dissolved each of them 
because they refused to submit to his arbitrary ways. 
To the famous Petition of Right, drawn up by the 
third Parliament, he at first agreed, but speedily 
violated its most important clauses by attempting to 
raise money by unlawful taxes and loans. Between 
1629 and 1640, Charles governed England without a 
Parliament, using the courts of the Star Chamber 
and High Commission to make his various methods 
of raising money seem legal. 




In 1639 the king's attempt to force Scotland to use 
English forms of worship led to a rebellion, and he 
was obliged to call a Parliament in order to have 
money voted to crush the insurrection. In 1640 the 
famous Long Parliament assembled (so-called because 
it remained in session twelve years), but Charles 
succeeded no better 
with this assembly 
than with the others, 
and civil war began 
when he attempted to 
seize five of its lead- 
ing members. The 
king had on his side 
the nobility, gentry, 
and clergy, while the 
Puritans and the 
people of the great 
trading towns sup- 
ported Parliament. 
In the course of the 
struggle the "man of 
the hour," Oliver 
Cromwell, came into i -v 
prominence, and his 
great victories at 
Marston Moor (1644) 
and Naseby (1645) marked the ruin of the king's 
cause. In 1646 Charles escaped to Scotland, but 
was delivered up to the English Parliament. In 
1649 he was tried, condemned as a public enemy of 
the nation, and beheaded. The private life of this 
unfortunate king was blameless. 

Charles II (1630-1685), son of Charles I, was the 
first of the restored Stuart line. In 1651 he was pro- 
claimed king by the Scotch, but his army was defeated 
by Cromwell at Worcester, and he fled to France 
The death of Cromwell in 1658 and the popular dis- 
satisfaction with the Commonwealth as a form of 
government opened the way for his return, and in 
1660 he was crowned as Charles II. His first Parlia- 
ment gave him all the privileges which earlier as- 
semblies had fought to keep his father from enjoying 
Among the important events of his reign were a war 
with the Dutch, the great plague and fire of London, 
the Rye House Plot, and the passage by Parliament 
in 1679 of the famous Habeas Corpus Act. 

The court of Charles II was accounted the most 
immoral in all English history, and the evil life of the 
king and his associates was reflected in the literature 
of the Restoration Period. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 


Commonwealth of 


Cromwell, Oliver 
Divine Right of Rings 
Habeas Corpus 
Hampden, John 

Long Parliament 
Naseby, Battle of 
Petition of Right 
Restoration, The 
Rye House Plot 
Star Chamber 

CHARLES [France], the name of ten sov- 
ereigns who have worn the crown of France. 
The first was Charles the Bald, youngest son 
of Charlemagne's son Louis, who received the 
western portion of his father's empire when it 
was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. 
The kingdom 'over which he ruled until 877 
was the nucleus of modern France, and he is 
therefore known as Charles I of France. 

Charles II, surnamed THE FAT, ruled from 885 
until 887, when his subjects, wearied by his 
cowardly method of defending the country 
from the attacks of the Northmen, deposed 
him; Charles III soon succeeded him. 

CharlesIII, called 
to the throne in 
893. During his 
reign the territory 
later known as Nor- 
mandy was ceded 
to the Northmen, 
and Lorraine was 
conquered. Im- 
prisoned during a 
revolt of his sub- 
jects, he died in 
captivity in Q2Q. 
Charles IV, known 
as THE FAIR, was 

Photo V^Educ.tioBS.rrice king flOTI \V* tO 

1328, the last of 
the Capetian line 
(see CAPETIAN DYNASTY) . His rule was marked 
by the strengthening of the royal power and 
the suppression of the lawless nobles in the 

Charles V, surnamed THE WISE (1337-1380), was 
born in the same year in which the Hundred Years' 
War (which see) began When his father, John the 
Good, was taken captive by the English at the Battle 
of Poitiers, in 1356, Charles ruled in his stead and 
was crowned king in 1364. He fought England for 
several years, wresting from his enemies nearly all 
that they had won from his father, and was equally 
successful in establishing order in his own kingdom 
Charles was a patron of art and literature, and laid 
the foundations of the National Library of France 
(see BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALS). The famous prison 
known as the Bastille (which see) was built by him 
to keep the lawless citizens of Paris in order. 

Charles VI (1368-1422), son of Charles V, was a 
boy of twelve when his father died. Four of his 
uncles divided the kingly power among them, and 
their personal ambitions soon brought the country 
to a state of great disorder. Finally, in 1388, Charles 
took the governing power into his own hands and 
ruled wisely until 1392. In that year he suffered 
from an attack of insanity, and when it became evi- 
dent that his mind was permanently weakened, his 
uncles regained their power. 

The rivalry between two of these, the Duke of 
Burgundy and the Duke of Orleans, split the country 
into two warring factions. Henry V of England, 
making the weakness of France serve his own pur- 
poses, invaded the country, and in 1415 won a great 
victory at Agincourt (which see). Five years later, 
the Peace of Troyes was signed, by which Charles VI 
acknowledged Henry V as his successor and disin- 
herited his own son. When the king died, in 1422, 
nearly all of France was under the control of the 

Charles VII (1403-1461), who succeeded his father 
Charles VI in 1422, fell heir to a crown that was 
claimed by the English for their king, Henry VI. 


With nearly all of his realm in the hands of the 
foreign foe, the young king looked on helplessly while 
the English continued their conquests, and when 
Orleans was besieged in 1428 the outlook for France 
was dark indeed. In 1429 came another terrible de- 


Behind the monarch stands Joan of Arc, the deliverer 

of France from the English. [Photograph from the 

painting by Jules Eugene Lencpveu 1 

feat, but in that year the deliverer of France ap- 
peared the heroic Joan of Arc (which see) Inspired 
by her faith and enthusiasm, the French raised the 
siege of Orleans, and on July 17, 1429, Charles was 
crowned at Rheims In the years that followed, the 
French drove the English from all their holdings in 
France except Calais. 

As soon as Charles knew that his claim to the 
throne was secure, he began to reorganize the govern- 
ment, and in the course of time peace and prosperity 
returned to France. He was, however, a timid and 
irresolute ruler, and it is to his lasting discredit that 
he made no effort to save Joan of Arc from her 
terrible fate. 

Charles VIII (1470-1498) succeeded his father, 
Louis XI, in 1483, when he was only thirteen years 
of age. For the next eight years, the kingdom was 
wisely governed by the boy king's sister, Anne of 
Beaujeu. In 1491 he married Anne, Duchess of 
Brittany, thereby adding the duchy to the French 
realm. Charles became king in fact as well as in 
name at the age of twenty-one, and his reign is 
memorable because of his invasion of Italy in I4Q4- 
This was an epoch-making event in European history, 


for it was the beginning of four centuries of interfer- 
ence by the northern nations in the affairs of Italy. 
Charles accomplished the conquest of the kingdom 
of Naples in 1495, but a league was formed against 
him and his efforts came to nothing. 

Charles IX (1550-1574), son of Henry II and 
Catharine de' Medici (which see), succeeded his elder 
brother, Francis II, at the age of ten. Even after he 
was declared of age, his mother, who had acted as 
regent, was the real sovereign of the nation. His 
reign was one of the unhappiest in French history, 
disturbed continually by civil wars, intrigues, and 
strife between the Roman Catholics and Protestants 
Though not vicious, the young king was weak and 
easily influenced, and so was persuaded by his mother 
to permit the greatest outrage of his entire reign, the 
massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day (August 24, 
1572). Charles himself suffered terrible remorse for 
having given his consent to the massacre, and died 
two years later. See SAINT BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY. 

Charles X (1759-1836), younger brother of Louis 
XVI and Louis XVIII, and the last sovereign of the 
older Bourbon line of kings, was a striking example of 
the old saying, "A Bourbon never learns anything and 
never forgets anything" (sec BOURBONS). Succeeding 
his brother, Louis XVIII, in the year 1824, he began 
at once to revive the old despotic rule which had 
driven the French people to the Revolution of 1789 
(see FRENCH REVOLUTION). All liberal measures 
were disregarded, the clergy was restored to power, 
the Constitution was ignored, and laws were changed 
merely by the king's proclamation. In 1830 the 
people of Paris rose in revolt, and in August of that 
year Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, 
Henry of Bordeaux. The French, however, chose 
Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, as their king. 
Charles escaped to England, and afterward took up 
his residence in Austria, where he died. See FRANCE 

Related Subjects. Within each of the paragraphs de- 
tailing the lives of the above kings are references which 
should be consulted, to amplify the text. 

CHARLES I (1887-1922), popularly known 
as KARL I, was the last emperor of Austria 
and the last king of Hungary, succeeding his 
uncle, Francis Joseph, on the Austro-Hungarian 
throne, November 21, 1916. Before that date 
he was the Archduke Karl Franz Joseph. 
Before he became heir to the throne through the 
assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdi- 
nand, there were many at the Viennese court 
who had never seen him. In the World War he 
served at the front as nominal head of the army 
until German officers assumed the Austrian 
commands. Upon the defeat of his country, he 
fled to Switzerland. Later, he secluded him- 
self and family in the Madeira Islands, where 
he died. His wife, former Empress Zita of 
Parma, and the six former royal children were 
later permitted to return to Europe to live; 
they reside in Spain. See AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

CHARLES [Sweden], the name of several 
Swedish monarchs. 

Charles IX (1550-1611), third son of Gustavus Vasa 
(see GUSTAVUS I), began his rule as regent of the 
kingdom in 1592, on the death of his brother John. 
In this position he gave his support to the establish- 




meat of Protestantism in Sweden. He was crowned 
king in 1604, and during his reign engaged in wars 
with Poland, Russia, and Denmark. Charles was the 
founder of the University of Gothenburg and the 
author of a rhymed history of his war with Poland. 

Charles X, GUSTAVUS (1622-1660), who reigned 
from 1654 to 1660, was the nephew of the great 
Gustavus II Adolphus (which see), and successor of 
Queen Christina. Soon after his accession he invaded 
Poland, and having forced Frederick William, elector 
of Brandenburg, to give him aid, defeated the Poles 
in a famous battle at Warsaw (1656). During a war 
with Denmark, he secured for his own kingdom the 
Danish provinces of Scania and Holland, and laid 
siege to Copenhagen. The Dutch then came to the 
help of the Danes, and Frederick William turned 
against Charles so successfully that the Swedish forces 
were defeated both on land and on sea. 

Charles XI (1655-1604) succeeded his father, 
Charles X, in 1660, at the age of five, but the kingdom 
was ruled by his mother, Hedwig, until the boy had 
reached the age of seventeen. His reign began with 
wars against the Germans, the Dutch, and the Danes. 
After the restoration of peace, Charles began a period 
of reform. He diminished the power of the nobles, 
cut down the public debt, reorganized the army and 
navy and brought them to a high degree of excellence, 
and by his wise management of the public revenues, 
put the finances of the kingdom on a firm basis. 

Charles XII (1682-1718), one of the most remark- 
able kings of the middle period, was the eldest son of 
Charles XI, whom he succeeded in 1697. At that 
time Sweden was one of the great European powers, 
and the Baltic Sea was practically a Swedish lake. 
The growing power of the Scandinavian kingdom to 
the north was jealously watched by three European 
sovereigns Frederick IV of Denmark, Augustus of 
Poland, and Peter the Great of Russia. When the 
young king ascended the Swedish throne, these rulers 
decided that the time was ripe for them to strike for 
the control of the Baltic, and in 1700 the War of the 
North began 

Charles threw himself into the conflict with a reck- 
less daring that has won for him the name of "Mad- 
man of the North." Though he won several brilliant 
victories, in the end he overestimated his strength and 
made a foolhardy invasion of Russia. At Pultowa 
(1709) his army was nearly wiped out by the forces of 
Peter the Great, and he fled southward to Turkey. 
After spending five years in fruitless plots and schemes 
for revenge, which led to his imprisonment by the 
Turks, he escaped to Stralsund, a Swedish possession 
in Prussia. For a year he conducted a brilliant de- 
fense of the place, yielding finally to a combined force 
of Danes, Saxons, Prussians, and Russians. Soon 
after this, he invaded Norway, and was killed while 
besieging Frederikshald. 

CHARLES, in the history of the Holy Ro- 
man Empire, the name of seven monarchs who 
bore the title HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR. In 
theory the Holy Roman emperors were suc- 
cessors of Charlemagne, but in fact they ruled 
over the German dominions and Italy. Ex- 
cepting Charlemagne (Charles the Great), 
Charles V and Charles VI were the most im- 
portant of the emperors who bore the name 
of Charles. 

Charles V (1500-1558) was one of the most powerful 
sovereigns of the sixteenth century. Heir to the rich 

and populous provinces of the Netherlands and to the 
dominions of Spain and the Austrian House of Haps- 
burg, he became king of Spain as Charles I in 1516, 
and was crowned Emperor Charles V in 1520 as suc- 
cessor to Maximilian I. His reign was greatly dis- 
turbed by wars with Francis I of France and Solyman 
the Magnificent, sultan of Turkey. In his second war 
with Francis I, an imperial army plundered Rome and 
took the Pope prisoner. Charles and Francis ended 
their struggles in 1544, but in the meantime the great 
Reformation movement had developed in the German 
dominions of the emperor. 

Had Charles been able at the beginning of his reign 
to turn his attention to religious matters in Germany, 
he might have prevented the growth of Protestantism 
during his lifetime. When, in 1546, the year of 
Luther's death, he began serious efforts to suppress 
the movement, he found the Protestants too strong 
for him, and by the Peace of Augsburg (1555) it was 
agreed that the people of each German state should 
adopt the religion, whether Protestant or Roman 
Catholic, of the ruling prince of that state. Charles 
began, however, the persecution of the Protestants 
in Spain and the Netherlands that were continued by 
his son Philip II of Spain. 

Wearied by his years of warfare and saddened by 
his failure to make all of his subjects think alike in 
matters of religion, the emperor in 1555 and 1556 
gave up to his son, Philip, the crowns of the Nether- 
lands and Spain, and to his brother, Ferdinand, his 
imperial authority. 

Charles VI (1685-1740), the last of the direct male 
line of the House of Hapsburg, and the second son of 
the Emperor Leopold I, was Holy Roman emperor 
from 1711 to 1740. In 1700, on the death of Charles 
II of Spain, Charles of Hapsburg claimed the Spanish 
throne as the rival of Philip of Anjou. This brought 
on the War of the Spanish Succession, in which Great 
Britain and Holland aided Charles. When he became 
emperor of Germany in 1711, Charles was forced by 
his allies to give up his claim to the Spanish crown, 
but was permitted to retain the Spanish possessions 
in the Netherlands and in Italy. In 1713 he published 
the Pragmatic Sanction, by which his daughter Maria 
Theresa was to inherit all the possessions of the House 
of Austria. Charles spent more than twenty years 
of his reign trying to win the consent of the European 
powers to the Pragmatic Sanction. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred to the following 
important articles. 

Charlemagne Pragmatic Sanction 

Hapsburg, House of Reformation 

Holy Roman Empire Spain (History) 

Maria Theresa Succession Wars 

Netherlands (History) Utrecht, Peace of 


GAS, subhead. 

CHARLES MARTEL, sharl mar id' (about 
688-741), a famous leader of the Franks, who 
won his title of Martel, meaning the hammer, 
by his celebrated defeat of the Arabs on the 
plain of Tours, in A.D. 732. It was this battle 
which saved the Christian civilization of West- 
ern Europe from being overwhelmed by the 
power of Mohammedanism. Under the last 
Merovingian kings, Charles held the position 
of mayor of the palace, but exercised real 




kingly authority. He thus prepared the way 
for his son Pepin. 

Related Subject!. The fight at Tours is considered as 
one of the few decisive battles of the world (see FIFTEEN 

(Coast and Rivers). 




Sensational New Dances). 

CHARLESTON, S. C., the largest city of 
the state, and one of the most conspicuous 
historical cities in the South. In its harbor, 
in 1 86 1, the War of Secession began with the 
bombardment and capture of Fort Sumter, 
and it was the first Southern city to participate 
in the Revolutionary War. Charleston is the 
county seat of Charleston County. It is situ- 
ated on the southeastern coast of the state, on a 
tongue of land between the Ashley and Cooper 
rivers. These two rivers unite immediately 
below the town to form the spacious harbor 
which communicates with the Atlantic Ocean 
at Sullivan's Island, about seven miles below. 
Savannah is 130 miles southwest, and Colum- 
bia, the state capital, 124 miles northwest. 
Population, IQ28, 80,180 (Federal estimate). 

General Description. With its stately 
colonial mansions, its gardens of magnolias, 
camellias, jessamine, and azaleas, and its wide 
streets, with their borders of shade trees, 
Charleston has retained the Southern charm and 
leisurely spirit that are in sharp contrast with its 
thriving commercial aspect. Especially is it 
known for its gardens, which John Galsworthy 
called the most beautiful in the world. The 
loveliest of these are the Magnolia Gardens, on 
the old estate "Magnolia-on-the- Ashley." 
Created by the Reverend John Drayton. who 
was ordered by his physician to recuperate his 
health by life in the open, they arc a monument 
to his exquisite taste. Mr. Drayton planted, 
in 1843, the first Azalea indica grown in the 
United States. See full-page illustration of 
these gardens, in article MAGNOLIA. 

Charleston has nine miles of water front, 
and its harbor has been so improved by the 
construction of jetties as to admit large vessels. 
Fort Sumter, Fort Johnson, and Fort Moultrie, 
on Sullivan's Island, guard the harbor, but 
these defenses are now obsolete; the artil- 
lery post at Fort Moultrie is one of the best 
equipped in the United States. On the Cooper 
River, seven miles from the city, the govern- 
ment maintains the only navy yard on the 
South Atlantic coast. 

Transportation. The city is served by the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad, the Seaboard Air Line, and 

the Southern Railway system. The last-named 
was one of the first railroads in the United States 
to be operated by steam locomotives (1830); it 
extended from Charleston to Hamburg, and was 
called the South Carolina Railroad. Charleston is 
also a port of call for important lines of steamers. 

Commerce and Industry. The city is a great dis- 
tributing point and wholesale jobbing center for the 
Southeast. It is the only coal-export port on the 
South Atlantic coast; ships coal here for Cuba and 
South America. There are located in Charleston more 
than 150 industrial plants. The Standard Oil Com- 
pany operates an oil refinery here. The city has one 
of four "tobacco terminals" of the United States, and 
is the chief tobacco port on the Atlantic. It is also 
one of the chief shipping centers for commercial fer- 
tilizer, and has one of the largest asbestos plants in 
the world. The principal exports are cotton and cot- 
ton goods, oil, tobacco, coal, iron, and steel; leading 
imports are chemicals, lumber, ore, paper, and 

Education. Besides the public-school system, the 
city has the College of Charleston, dating from 1788; 
the Citadel Military College, the Avery Normal 
Institute (colored); Porter Military Academy; and 
the Medical College of South Carolina There are 
also numerous academies and business schools. The 
library of Charleston is maintained by subscription 
and is the third oldest in the United States, having 
been established in 1743 Charleston Museum, 
founded in 1773, is the oldest in the United States 

History. Charleston is one of the oldest 
American cities. An English settlement, made 
here in 1670, was named Charles Town, for 
King Charles II. A company of Huguenots 
joined the settlement in 1685. By 1775 it had 
become the third seaport in importance in 
America. In 1776 the provincial congress of 
South Carolina met in Charles Town, and in the 
same year the first independent state consti- 
tution was adopted. In 1783 Charleston was 
incorporated, and until 1790 it was the capital 
of the state. Its conspicuous part in the 
War of Secession is told under that title in 
these volumes. 

The city was visited by the greatest earth- 
quake known in the history of the United 
States, in August, 1886; more than $8,000,000 
worth of property was destroyed, three-fourths 
of the homes were demolished or damaged, and 
many people were killed. Since that time the 
city has made steady progress, as is detailed 
above. C.C.M. 

CHARLESTON, W. VA., the state capital 
and the county seat of Kanawha County, is a 
prosperous industrial and residential city, 
located in the middle- western part of the state, 
midway between the northern and southern 
borders. The city occupies an attractive site 
in the western foothills of the Appalachians, 
at the junction of the Elk and Great Kanawha 
rivers, the latter navigable the year round. It 
is fifty miles east of Huntington, 272 miles 
west and south of Wheeling, and 211 miles east 
and south of Cincinnati, O. Population, 1928, 
55,000 (Federal estimate). 


Charleston lies between high hills a mile 
apart. A beautiful, tree-lined boulevard, ex- 
tending for miles along the banks of the Great 
Kanawha, is the center of the finest residential 
district, but everywhere there is a profusion of 
flowers and foliage. The city is named in 
honor of the son of Captain Charles Clenden- 
nin; the son, George Clendennin, erected a fort 
in the vicinity about 1789, and a settlement 
grew around it. The first industry was the 
exploitation of the salt-brine resources. The 
place was incorporated as a town in 1794, and 
as a city in 1870. Since the latter date, it has 
been the capital of the state, except during the 
decade 1875-1885, when Wheeling was the 
seat of government. 

Transportation. The city is served by four trunk- 
line railroads the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Baltimore 
& Ohio, the New York Central, and the Virginian; 
and there is steamboat connection with all the leading 
ports of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 

Industry. Rich deposits of bituminous coal, salt, 
iron, oil, and timber in the vicinity have greatly 
furthered the industrial prosperity of the city, and 
the fine shipping facilities by rail and water have 
made it a distributing point for all these products. 
In addition to being open to shipping the year round, 
the Great Kanawha has an excellent system of locks 
and dams. Charleston is the center of a populous 
industrial district which includes the territory on 
both sides of the Great Kanawha from Gauley Bridge, 
on the east, to and including Scary and Nitro, on the 
west. More than 40,000,000 tons of coal are mined 
in one year within a radius of seventy-five miles, 
which gives employment to 12,000 miners. 

Within the city or district are more than 275 in- 
dustrial plants, including the largest ax factory, the 
largest sheet-glass factory, and the largest mine-car 
factory in the world. The Charleston area is a leading 
center for the production of anhydrous ammonia, 
amyl alcohol, and chlorine products, and has large 
railroad repair shops, boat-building yards, veneer 
works, and lumber mills. It is the location of the 
only government-owned armorplate factory in the 
United States. s P p. 



CHARLOTTE, N. C., a city and the county 
seat of Mecklenburg County, is situated on 
Sugar Creek, near the southern state line, 
about midway between the eastern and western 
borders. Raleigh, the capital, is 174 miles 
northeast. Population, 1928, 82,100 (Federal 

industry. Charlotte is the trade center for an agri- 
cultural and cotton-growing section, and the kindred 
cotton industries claim its chief interest; these are 
cotton-weaving and the manufacture of cotton-mill 
machinery, cottonseed oil, and other by-products. In 
this locality there are several hundred textile mills, 
operating nearly one-third of the active spindles in 
America. Fertilizers, belting, saddlery, harness, 
drugs, cement, and various kinds of machinery are 
also made here. Gold deposits formerly occurred in 
this section of the state, and a branch mint was estab- 


lished here in 1838; at the beginning of the War of 
Secession it was closed, but was reopened as an assay 
office in i86q. 

This city is one of the largest hydroelectric centers 
in the United States, and the home of the Southern 
Power Company. 

Education. Educational requirements are met by 
Davidson College, outside the city limits, Queens 
College for Women, Presbyterian College, Saint 
Mary's Seminary, North Carolina Medical College, 
Elizabeth College, and Biddle University (Presby- 
terian). Johnston C. Smith University is for colored 

Railroads. The city has the service of the South- 
ern, the Piedmont & Northern, the Norfolk Southern, 
and the Seaboard Air Line railways. 

History. The place was settled in 1750, was 
incorporated in 1768, and in 1774 became the 
county seat. It was named for Princess 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, wife of 
George III. 

Here, on May 20, 1775, the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence (which see) was 
adopted, and a monument has been erected 
to its signers. In September, 1780, Lord Corn- 
wallis occupied the city, and during his stay 
pronounced it a "hornet's nest," a name since 
then adopted by the city as its emblem. 
Charlotte was also the headquarters of Gen- 


Old Charon by the Stygian coast, 
Takes toll of all the shades who land. 


[Illustration is from a detail from a painting by 
Neide. See article, page 1319.] 

eral Gates in 1780, and here in the War of 
Secession the full Confederate Cabinet met for 
the last time. 




CHARLOTTE AMALIE, ah mah' le. See 

CHARLOTTETOWN, the capital of Prince 
Edward Island (which see). 

STITION, subhead. 

CHARNOCK, JOB, founder of Calcutta 
(which see). 

CHARON, ka' ran. In Greek mythology, 
Charon is the ragged old ferryman of the 
Lower World. He 
is represented as 
the son of Erebus 
and Night, bent 
and old, with 
matted beard and 
tattered garments. 
Gloomily, with 
one oar, he ferried 
the shades of the 
dead across the 
rivers Styx and 
Acheron to the 
realm of Hades. 
But the mytho- 
logical story tells 
us that only those 
would he take 
who had had a 
proper burial, and in whose 
mouths was placed an obolus, 
the coin Charon exacted as his 
fee. All others were compelled 
to wander wearily on the shores 
of the river for a century; after 
that time, Charon would take 
them without charge to their 
final resting places. 

Charon appears frequently in 
literature and art. Homer does 
not mention him, but he is pic- 
tured in Vergil's Aeneid. The 
hero Aeneas is ferried across to 
Hades in the boat which had 
previously carried only shades. 
Though Charon for a long time 
refused to perform this service, 
he was finally persuaded to do 
it. The great painting by Pol- 
ygnotus, Odysseus in the Lower 
World, shows this ancient ferry- 
man. On some early Etruscan 
monuments he appears as an ugly, animal-faced 
demon of death, with tusks and pointed ears, 
carrying snakes or a large hammer. One of the 
best of the paintings [frustrating the myth of 
Charon is by Neide. See STYX; ACHERON. 


CHART, a map or drawing made for a par- 
ticular purpose, in which accuracy of detail is 
the chief requirement. The one possibly in 
most common use is the mariner's, or hydro- 
graphic, chart. This shows a seacoast with 


Tradition points to the tree in the 
upper illustration as the Charter 
Oak. Below is the Charter Oak 
Monument, in Charter Oak Place, 
Hartford, on the spot where the 
tree stood. 

every detail of rock, shoal, depth, sounding, 
bank, channel, bay, and harbor so exactly 
located that a ship may be guided safely by 
it through the most dangerous seas. The 
topographic chart, also common, shows with 
similar accuracy the details of any land sur- 
face and is mainly for the guidance of mili- 
tary men and surveyors. Climatic charts 
present by outline and diagram the rainfall, 
temperature, and direction of the winds of cer- 

tain localities. 
These are pre- 
pared daily by the 
United States 
Weather Bureau 
and are designed 
to be of aid to 
navigation, by 
giving warning of 
storms, and also 
for the informa- 
tion of all people 
whose activities 
may depend upon 
weather condi- 
tions. There are 
celestial charts 
also, on which 
stars and constel- 
lations are correctly shown, and 
heliographic charts, which locate 
the spots on the sun's surface. 
A great variety of educational 
charts are used in teaching. R.H.W. 

Related Subjects. In these volumes 
almost every kind of chart is shown. 
See the article ASTRONOMY, for astro- 
nomical charts; UNITED STATES, for 
agricultural charts; WEATHER BUREAU, 
for those explaining storms and tem- 
perature; the various state articles, for 
production charts, etc. 

CHARTER, a written instru- 
ment or contract given by a 
government authorizing the 
holder, whether a person, cor- 
poration, or local government, 
to organize and conduct its 
business. Charters are granted 
by states to banks, corporations, 
and associations, authorizing 
them to conduct their business 
within specified limits. A state 
or province by charter authorizes the organiza- 
tion of a village or city government; the charter 
sets forth the powers and obligations of such 
a government. See CORPORATION. 

Most Famous Charter. The Magna Charta, or 
Great Charter, granted by King John of England in 
1215, is the world's most historic charter. It con- 
ferred on the English-speaking world the privileges 
which became the foundation of the liberty of Britain, 
Canada, Australia, South Africa, and the United 
States. See MAGNA CHARTA. 






CHARTER OAK. This historic tree is said 
to have concealed the charter of Connecticut 
for two years. Its age was computed at nearly 
a thousand years when it was blown down in 
August, 1856. A white marble monument 
now marks the spot in Charter Oak Place, in 
the city of Hartford. See page 1319. 

James II, having found Connecticut's 
charter a barrier to his plan to make that 
community a part of his New England, had, in 
1687, sent Sir Edmund Andros, the governor- 
general of New England, to Hartford to de- 
mand the delivery of the charter. Appearing 
to submit, the colonists went to the council 
chamber to carry out the ceremony, but while 
they were there the lights were snuffed out, and 
the document was carried to a hiding place in 
the hollow of a tree. There it remained until 
the deposition of Andros. Early reports of this 
incident referred to the tree as an elm. Some 
people declared that the paper was hidden in 
the home of a prominent colonist, but about 
1789 the belief became settled that this oak had 
concealed the famous charter. See ANDROS, 

CHARTISM, char' tiz'm, which may be 
denned as the principles and practices of a 
group of political reformers in England, grew 
out of the oppressive conditions under which 
workingmen once lived, and was a movement 
which attempted to improve their condition. 
The Reform Bill of 1832 had bettered matters 
somewhat, but had not silenced the discontent, 
which by 1838 had become acute. From that 
date until 1848, the Chartist movement was at 
its height. A formal demand, known as the 
National People's Charter, called for six re- 
forms: (i) universal suffrage; (2) equal elec- 
toral districts; (3) vote by ballots; (4) annual 
Parliaments; (5) no property qualifications 
for members of Parliament; (6) salaries for 
members of Parliament. 

Monster meetings were held, and huge peti- 
tions were presented to Parliament. Directly, 
the movement accomplished nothing, though 
it left an influence on the people's trend of 
thought. The repeal of the odious Corn Laws 
brought improved conditions, and after 1848 
the movement languished. See CORN LAWS. 

CHARTREUSE, shahr truz'. See CAR- 

CHARYBDIS, ka rib' dis. See SCYLLA. 

CHASE, SALMON PORTLAND (1808-1873), an 
eminent American statesman and jurist, who 
as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court presided over the impeachment trial of 
President Johnson. His greatest fame, how- 
ever, was achieved in the Cabinet of President 
Lincoln. He was born in Cornish, N. H., and 
was educated at Dartmouth College. After 

Photo Brown Brew 


studying law in Washington, D. C., he began to 
practice in Ohio, where he took part in the de- 
fense of so many runaway slaves that the slave- 
holders of Kentucky nicknamed him "the 
attorney-general of 
fugitive slaves." He 
became the recognized 
leader of the anti- 
slavery movement in 
Ohio, and throughout 
a term of office as 
United States Sena- 
tor, from 1849 to 1855, 
he vigorously opposed 
the extension of slav- 
ery into the new terri- 
tories and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebras- 
ka Bill (which see). 
The Liberty party in 
1843, and the Free-Soil party in 1848, had called 
upon him to prepare their national platforms. 

Chase was elected governor of Ohio in 1855 
and again in 1857. He had by that time joined 
the new Republican party, and in 1860 was one 
of the candidates for the Presidential nomina- 
tion. Failing to secure this honor, he accepted 
the office of Secretary of the Treasury under 
Lincoln. His career as a Cabinet officer marks 
him as one of the great secretaries, for during 
the perilous years of the War of Secession the 
national credit was maintained, funds were 
secured to carry on the struggle, and a new 
national banking system was created. Differ- 
ences with Lincoln regarding war policies 
caused him to resign in 1864, and in the same 
year Lincoln appointed him to succeed Chief 
Justice Taney as head of the Supreme Court. 


CHAT. The chats are small, lively birds of 
the wood-warbler family. During the mating 
season, the males perform many extraordinary 
twists and turns in the air, suggesting their 
common nickname of "clown among birds." 
Their song, which gave them the name chat, 
is a mixture of whistles, , wails, clucks, and 
chuckles. In the Eastern United States and 
Canada, the yellow-breasted, or polyglot, chat 
is a larger species, olive-green above and white 
below, with a yellow breast. It builds its 
nest in briary thickets, and eats insects chiefly. 
A subspecies, the long-tailed chat, is found in 
the West. D.L. 

Scientific Names. The chats belong to the family 
Mniottttidac. The yellow-breasted is Icteria virens. 
The long-tailed has, in addition, the distinguishing 
name longicauda 

CHATEAU, shah toh'. See FRANCE, illus- 

CHATEAU THIERRY, shah toh' tyehre'. 
See WORLD WAR (1918). 




CHATTAHOOCHEE, chat a hoo' che, RIVER, 
a large muddy stream which forms about half 
of the boundary between Georgia and Alabama. 
It rises in Northern Georgia, in the Blue Ridge, 
flows southwest and then south, and after its 
junction with the Flint River, receives the 
name of Apalachicola. For two-fifths of its 
entire course of 500 miles, it is navigable. It 
furnishes water power to Columbus, Ga., by 
reason of its descent of 120 feet in three miles. 
See GEORGIA (Rivers); ALABAMA (Rivers). 

Derivation. The Creek Indians named the river 
Chattahoochec, which means pictured rock*, because of 
the vari-colored rocky banks. 

CHATTANOOGA, chat a noo' gah, BATTLE 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN., an historic city, 
the county seat of Hamilton County, is an im- 
portant railroad center and a rapidly develop- 
ing industrial city in the southeastern part of 
the state, near the Georgia line. The city is 150 
miles southeast of Nashville and 140 miles 
northwest of Atlanta. 

It is beautifully situated on the south bank 
of the winding Tennessee River, in a great 
natural amphitheater, surrounded by historic 
and picturesque hills. Southeast of the city 
is Lookout Mountain, from whose summit, 
2,126 feet above sea level, seven states are 
visible. East and south is Missionary Ridge; 
a short distance southeast in Georgia is the 
battlefield of Chickamauga, now a national 
military park comprising nine square miles. 
Throughout the grounds, monuments and 
historical tablets have been erected by the 
various states in honor of their soldier dead. 
Fort Oglethorpe, a brigade post of several 
thousand acres, adjoins the park. During 
the Spanish- American War, in 1898, Fort 
Oglethorpe was a mobilization camp; 60,000 
soldiers were encamped at one time on the 
Chickamauga battlefield. Immediately south- 
east of the city is one of the largest national 
cemeteries, containing 13,322 graves. Signal 
Mountain, north of the city, and Lookout 
Mountain are popular pleasure resorts. 

Industries. The city carries on a considerable 
trade in cotton, grain, coal, iron ore, and manufac- 
tured products, but is chiefly important as a manufac- 
turing center. Hydroelectric power is ample for more 
than 380 industries, which manufacture over 1,300 
articles. Among many large industrial plants are 
manufactories of iron and steel, textiles, boilers, ma- 
chinery, furniture, refrigerators, paper, and stoves. 

Transportation. The geographical location of 
Chattanooga, a natural gateway between the hills, 
has made the city an important railway center. It 
is on the Alabama Great Southern; the Central of 
Georgia, the Southern Railway system, the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & Saint Louis; the Cincinnati, New 
Orleans & Texas Pacific; the Tennessee, Alabama & 
Georgia; and the Western & Atlantic railroads. The 
Tennessee River is navigable to this point for eight 
months of the year. 


Education. Chattanooga is the seat of the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga (Methodist Episcopal), the 
Chattanooga College of Law, Baylor School, Me Gallic 
School, the Girls' Preparatory School, and the Signal 
Mountain School for Girls. 

History. In the early days, river voyagers 
landed here to avoid the rapids of the Tennes- 
see River, and the locality, settled about 1835, 
was known as Ross's Landing. Ross was the 
name of a Cherokee chief whose people were 
moved west by the government in 1838. In 
1851, the town was incorporated as Chatta- 
nooga, and it became a city in 1866. During the 
War of Secession, it was one of the most im- 
portant strategic points in the Confederacy, and 
the struggle for its possession led to some of 
the severest battles of the war. In the course of 
the fighting, the city was almost destroyed. 
Immediately succeeding the war, the manufac- 
turing of iron was begun, to restore the ruined 
railroads; a long period of development and 
prosperity followed, and the city has become 
one of the important industrial centers of the 
South. In 19 1 1 the commission form of gov- 
ernment was adopted. The population in 1928 
was 73 '5 (Federal estimate). Close about 
the city are a dozen populous suburbs, increas- 
ing the number of people in the community 
to more than 148,000. C.J.K. 

CHATTEL, chat' V, a term closely akin to 
the word capital, used in law to mean almost 
the same thing as the phrase personal prop- 
erty (which see). There is, however, a slight 
difference technically, chattels being only such 
personal property as can be physically deliv- 
ered. Thus, money in hand is a chattel, but 
a claim for money due is not. 

Chattels may be personal or real, the former 
being all such movable articles as furniture, 
money, or clothes. A chattel real, on the other 
hand, is any interest in land less than actual 
ownership, as a lease or a mortgage. Grow- 
ing crops also come under this title. The term 
goods is narrower than chattel, meaning practi- 
cally the same as chattels personal, and the 
commonly used expression goods and chattels 
is thus a mere repetition for emphasis, as the 
first word adds nothing to the meaning. See 
MORTGAGE (Chattel Mortgage). 

CHAUCER, chaw' sur, GEOFFREY (about 
1340-1400). While we lack many details about 
the life of this first great poet of England, we are 
indebted to him for a remarkable picture of 
the life of his times. In the Prologue to his 
Canterbury Tales, known to every high-school 
student, Chaucer describes, with a vividness 
that makes them real persons after five cen- 
turies, the knight and the squire, the yeoman 
and the monk, the housewife and the nun, and 
many other types of English character. The 
bright humor and sprightliness of this great 
work, which the poet left uncompleted at his 
death, reveal his charm and keen interest in 




humanity, but never suggest the worries and 
troubles he had to bear. 

Chaucer was born in London, where his 
father was in the wine business. Of his boyhood 
or his education, little that is authentic is 
known. It is certain, 
however, that during 
the English invasion 
of France, 1350-1360. 
he was imprisoned, 
ransomed by the king, 
and taken into royal 
service as a squire. 
That he was an effi- 
cient servant is shown 
by the fact that he 
was sent on several 
important missions to 
the Continent, and to 
these journeys may be 
traced the French 
and Italian influences 
evident in his works. 
In 1374 he was made comptroller of cus- 
toms for London, and in 1386 he was 
elected to Parliament. At times during 
the latter part of his life, when the political 
party to which he belonged was not in power, 
he was very poor, and not until a year before 
his death was he given permanent financial 
relief by the king. 

Chaucer's Place in Literature. Chaucer has been 
called the "Father of English Poetry," and the passing 
years only strengthen our belief in the justice of this 
title There were writers of verse before him, some 
of more than average ability, but he was the first to 
show that poetry, masterly in technique as well as in 


I'hoto VI.UH! Kduc.tion San 

content, could be written in the shifting, developing 
English language of his age. Because he chose the Mid- 
land dialect for his popular work, the other dialects then 
in common use Northumbrian and Mercian were 
destined to lapse into obscurity. Thus, he may be said 
to have fixed, in a large degree, the form of our present 

His first works were translations, or at least adap- 
tations, from the French, but later the Italian writers 
became his models, and under their domination he 
produced such poems as his beautiful Troylus and 
Cryscydc, Legende of Good Women, Palamon and 

Arctic, and The Parlcmcnt of Foults, In his third 
and greatest period, he was thoroughly English in 
theme and style, though the plan of his greatest work, 
the Canterbury Tales, was one which had been used 
before in Italy by Boccaccio. The dramatic ability 
shown in his descriptions of characters in this remark- 
able work has led many to speculate as to what 
Chaucer might have become in an age when the 
drama was the chief form of literature; but he lived 
in a story-telling age, and the ability to tell a story 
was perhaps the greatest of all his gifts. See CANTER- 

CHAUDlfeRE, sho dyair', RIVER, a scenic 
stream of the province of Quebec, Canada, 
famed for its beautiful falls, which attract 
many visitors. Its steep, rocky banks and the 
many little wooded islands which obstruct its 
channel are most picturesque. The Chaudiere 
has its source in a number of small streams 
which flow into Lake Megantic near the border 
of Maine, and only a few miles from the source 
of the Kennebec. Issuing from Lake Megantic, 
the Chaudiere flows northward and then north- 
westward in a wide curve, and after a course 
of 1 20 miles empties into the Saint Lawrence 
about seven miles above the city of Quebec. 
The falls, which are two and one-half miles 
from its mouth, make it of little value for navi- 
gation. See QUEBEC (Rivers and Lakes); 

CHAULMOOGRA, chawl mo' grah, OIL. See 

CHAUTAUQUA, sha lawk' wah, a name given 
to a remarkable system of popular education, 
which is the evolution of a Sunday-school 
assembly held at Chautauqua Lake, New York, 
in the summer of 1874, for the instruction of 
Sunday-school teachers. The movement was 
popular from the first, and has increased from 
year to year in scope until it has grown to 
large proportions. It now has more than fifteen 
departments in its summer schools, and an as- 
sembly attended by 40,000 to 50,00x5 persons 
annually; there is also a home reading circle 
with thousands of members, and it has property 
on Chautauqua Lake worth much more than a 
million dollars, with over 600 cottages and 
public buildings for its summer population. 

Chautauqua Institution. The plan of the 
founders of the movement Lewis Miller of 
Akron, O., and Rev. (afterward Bishop) John 
H. Vincent was for religious instruction only, 
but the scope of the work soon broadened until 
it aimed at an education that should be at 
once intellectual, ethical, and spiritual. In 1870 
a group of schools was established with graded 
courses of study covering four years, in which 
literature, art, history, and pedagogy were 
taught. This system now embraces courses 
in English, European, and ancient literature, 
history, pedagogy, and nearly all the arts and 
sciences. George Vincent, then president of 
the University of Minnesota, son of Bishop 




Vincent, became president in IQO;. His suc- 
cessor as president was Arthur E. Bestor See 

The sessions of the schools are held dur- 
ing the months of July and August. An im- 
portant feature of the Chautauqua movement 
has always been the popular exercises of the 

JLake Ontario 


summer assembly. They consist of talks on 
interesting topics, lectures by noted speakers 
from all over the world, concerts, and various 
recreations. These are free to visitors. 

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, 
the name given to the home reading course, is 
the best-known branch of the Chautauqua 
work. Each course consists of four years of 
reading, known as American, English, Euro- 
pean, and Classical years, and includes history, 
art, travel, literature, and science The work 
of each year is complete in itself, and each 
member of the Circle reads the same books 
In addition, there are eighty-eight courses 
for those who wish to specialize. The books 
used are specially prepared for the courses. 
Diplomas are awarded. 

The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Cir- 
cle was organized in 1878 with the idea that it 
would meet a recognized want with persons 
who had been denied a liberal education, and 
would appeal to old and young alike. It proved 
amazingly popular, 7,000 enrolling the first 
year; 70,000 readers have completed at least 
one course. The idea pleased the English 
so well that they patterned their British Home 
Reading Union after it. Branches of the 
Chautauqua system have been established in 
Japan and South Africa. 

Local "Chautauquas." The idea of the 
Chautauqua Assembly spread through America, 
and local "Chautauquas" sprang up every- 
where, but they do not have any connection 
with the original Chautauqua. These assem- 
blies employ popular lecturers and other en- 
tertainers and hold sessions of several days, 
which are largely attended. There are 4,000 
of these "Chautauquas." 


CHEBOYGAN, she hot' gan, RIVER. See 
MICHIGAN (Its Rivers). 

CHECK, OR CHEQUE, an order written 
by anyone who has money deposited in a 
bank, instructing the bank to pay a specified 
sum to a person named or to the bearer. Once 
a California lumberman was buying a section 
of timber land, in order not to lose his option, 
he was obliged to make a hurried payment, 
and, picking up a shingle, he wrote on it, 
Blank National Bank, San Francisco, pa\J. II . 
Sullivan ten thousand dollars, then added his 
name and the date. This order was just as 
much a check as though it had l>een written 
on the printed forms of his bank, and as such 
the bank treated it 

Very nearly all the business of the United 
States and Canada is carried on by means of 
checks, though in other countries they are 
less popular. The checking system, with 
its assistant, the clearing house, makes it 
possible for a community to transact many 
times as much business with a given amount 
of currency as it otherwise could carry on. 
Thus, in great cities, checks to the value of 
millions of dollars are drawn daily, yet only a 
small amount of cash changes hands. 

A Checking Account. When you deposit 
money in a checking account, you are required 
to sign your name on a card, which the bank 
preserves so that if any other person attempts 
to get money by writing your name, the forgery 
may be detected. The teller gives you a bank 
book and a check book The first shows the 
amount of your deposit, and every time you 
add money to your account, you take the book 
with you, so that the teller may record the 
deposit in it. Formerly, once a month the de- 
posit book was returned to the bank so that 
the bookkeeper could record the money which 
the bank paid out for you, but this system has 
been almost entirely superseded by a monthly 
"statement" from the bank. The check book 
contains blank checks; when you wish to pay 
out money, you fill out one of them; an ap- 
proved form is shown in the illustration. 

For each check there is a stub on which is 
space for a memorandum of the particulars of 
the check and for addition and subtraction of 
amounts deposited and withdrawn. It is a wise 
plan to number your checks and their stubs, 
so that at the end of the month, when the bank 




+trrPF^rt i rf^i ttS \ 






ORDKR or. 




returns to you your paid checks, you can 
quickly discover which ones are still unpaid. 
The balance shown in your bank book should 
be greater than that shown in your check book 
by the sum of the checks outstanding; if it is 
not, either you or the bookkeeper has made 
an error. If you wish to give a check when 
you do not have your check book with you, it 
is permissible to take another bank's blank 
check, cross out the name and substitute that 
of your own bank, but this is not advisable, 
because you may forget to record the amount 
later in your check book. 

Your signature on a check must always be 
like the copy given the bank; for instance, if 
the latter is John A. Low, you must not sign 
/. A. Low. 

Checks in the United States generally carry 

the words Pay to the, order of ; 

sometimes the form is Pav to 

or Bearer, but the latter is not recommended, 
for if a check payable to bearer is lost, anyone 
who finds it may cash it. The word order means 
that by endorsing (see below) the check the 
owner may order the money paid to another. 
If you yourself wish to draw cash from your 
account, you may write a check payable to 
AW/ or to 'Cash. 

An advisable step is to write the purpose of 
each check on its face. Thus, if you are pay- 
ing a bill you may write In full of account to 
date, and when vour creditor endorses and 
cashes the check, it becomes a receipt. A check 
does not, however, constitute a payment until 
the bank honors it, that is, pays out the money 
for which it calls, so it is never wise to give 
a receipt for an account paid by check unless 
the manner of its payment is stated on the 

Endorsing a Check. If you receive a check, 
you may get cash for it, transfer it to another 
person, or deposit it to the credit of your 
account in the bank. If you are cashing it, you 

merely sign your name on the back, across the 
left end. This form is called endorsement in 
blank, and you should not execute it until you 
reach the bank, for if you lose the endorsed 
check, anyone can present it for payment. If 
you are making the check over to another per- 
son, the correct form of endorsement is Pay to 
the order of (name), followed immediately by 
your signature. This is called endorsement in 
full\ it obliges the man to whom you trans- 
fer it to add his endorsement, thus admitting 
that he has received the value named; whereas 
a check endorsed in blank might be permitted 
carelessly to go through a dozen hands and re- 
ceive no signatures except that of the last 

Your signature to an endorsement should 
read exactly like your name as written on the 
face of the check by the drawer, even if he 
has misspelled it, but in the latter event you 
must write your correct bank signature imme- 
diately beneath the other. When you endorse 
a check you become responsible for its pay- 
ment if it proves to be worthless, so too much 
care cannot be exercised. 

Worthless Checks. Many people are care- 
less about keeping account of the checks they 
issue, and occasionally write one for more 
money than they have in the bank. If you re- 
ceive and dispose of a check for ten dollars 
and the drawer has only nine dollars and ninety 
cents in the bank, the check will be returned 
to you marked Insufficient Funds, or N. S. F., 
which stands for Not Sufficient Funds. Since 
a bank honors checks in the order in which 
they are presented, not the order in which 
they are made out, it is always wise to dispose 
of a check the same day it is received. 

If a check is returned to you for insufficient 
or no funds and there are endorsements on it 
above yours, you must protest the check at 
once, if you wish to hold the endorsers respon- 
sible. Protesting consists in giving a formal, 




legal, sworn notice of non-payment. A post- 
dated check, one issued before the date it 
bears, is not due until that date. 

Certified Checks. If someone has given you 
a check and you doubt its worth, it is a good 
plan to take it to his bank and have it marked 
Certified by the bookkeeper before depositing 
it in your own bank. The certification makes 
the bank responsible for payment. Sometimes 
you may wish to have a check of your oun 
certified, especially if you are sending it some 
distance. A certified check should not be con- 
fused with a cashier's check, which is a bank's 
own order to pay. 

Exchange. It is customary for a bank to 
charge a fee for accepting a check payable 
in another town, even if it is drawn on a branch 
of the same bank. This fee varies according 
to the amount of the check. When sending 
a check to a person in another place, you 
should add the presumable amount of the ex- 
change to the amount you are paying. Never 
write Forty Dollars am] exchange, for a check 
must indicate a definite amount. 

Stopping Payment. If after you have given 
out a check, you wish for any reason to pre- 
vent its payment, you may do so by giving 
written notice to the bank and releasing the 
bank from responsibility for error. This is the 
proper course to follow with a lost check; if 
a second one is then issued, it should be plainly 
marked Duplicate, in red ink. 

Protecting a Check. If a forged check is 
cashed, the bank is the loser, but the loss on 
a raised check (one on which the amount has 
been fraudulently increased), even though the 
signature be genuine, must be met by its maker. 
Tt is therefore wise to use extreme care, in 
making out a check, to leave no blank spaces 
in or after the statement of amount. A good 
form to follow is shown in the illustration 
There are a number of patent ''protectors" 
on the market, with which the amount for 
which a check is drawn may be indelibly in- 
dicated. ' F.H.E. 

game, for both young and old, is a battle of 
wooden "men" on a cardboard field, the players 
being the generals. The board has sixty-four 
alternating black and white, or black and red, 
squares, either black or white squares being 
used as the "line of march," or the spots upon 
which the "men" move. Each of the two 
players is given a set of twelve men, small 
round pieces of wood or bone. The two 
sets are of different colors, or "uniforms," 
usually black and white. These men are 
placed on the first three rows of black or 
white squares on each side of the board, leav- 
ing two open rows in the center. Each player 
in turn moves forward one man at a time and 
always diagonally, following the squares of the 
chosen color. 

The object of the game is to capture all the 
enemy's men or to move the men so skilfully 
that the progress of the opponent's men is 
blocked. If a man is moved next to an enemy's 
man and an open space is left behind him, 
the opposing man may jump over to the next 

D D D G 

D D D Q 
D a D 


open square and so capture a man and get 
farther into the enemy's lines. More than one 
may be captured at a time if there are alternate 


In the illustration, a game has nearly reached its 
dose. The white plays next and should win the game. 

men and open spaces in a forward line. As 
each man is captured, it is removed from the 
board. If a man of one side gets across the 
board to the rear line of squares of the other 
side, he is crowned, or made a king. That is, 
the enemy gives up one of the men he has 




captured and puts him on top of the man to 
be kinged. A king may move either backward 
or forward one square at a time, except when 
making a capture, so he has the advantage 
over all other men. The game is won when one 

be forced out. Sometimes all the butter fat 
of the milk is left in it; in this case the cheese 
is known as full-cream; sometimes but a 
part is left, and half-skim cheese results. Full- 
skim cheese, which contains no butter fat, is 

Protein, 2 5.9 
Ash 3.8 

oh yd rates, 24 


At left, full-cream cheese, at right, cottage cheese. 

side has captured all the men of the other side; 
or if a blockade is caused on the board where 
all the men of one side are hemmed in by the 
other and any move means capture. 

There are other rules in the game of check- 
ers, which some players observe and some do 
not. For instance, if one side fails to capture 
a man of the enemy, either through over- 
sight or because it would place his man in a 
dangerous position, the opponent may compel 
him to capture the man, or may remove the 
deliquent soldier from the board, and then has 
the privilege of the next move. 

Checkers is a very ancient game, known by 
the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It is 
said that the Egyptians played a similar game 
as early as 1600 B.C. It was played in Europe 
in the sixteenth century. An old form of 
checkers is known in China as "the game of 


CHEESE, an important food, made chiefly 
from the "curds' 1 of milk, the product of a 
flourishing industry in every grazing and ag- 
ricultural section. 

Process. The simplest variety is the cot- 
tage cheese, or Dutch cheese, made by many 
housewives. To make this, the milk is allowed 
to curdle and then subjected to a very gentle 
heat, as great heat toughens the curd. The 
whey is then drained off, the curd is salted, and 
if desired, cream is mixed with it. By far the 
larger part of the commercial cheese is made 
in factories, and the process, though differing 
in details, is practically the same in its essen- 
tials for the various kinds. This process in- 
cludes curdling the milk with acid or rennet, 
separating the whey from the curd, grinding 
and salting the curd, and packing it in molds 
of various sizes and shapes. These are then 
subjected to pressure, that all the whey may 

in general hard, tasteless, and horny, and in 
some places its manufacture is forbidden. All 
except the cottage variety are the better for 
being ripened for several months in a cool place. 
Kinds. Some kinds of cheese are hard, some 
are soft, according to the method of ripening or 
the amount of water which is allowed to remain 
in them. Certain kinds, chiefly made in 
Europe, are famous and in great demand. 
These include Roquefort, a soft cheese which 
has been allowed to ripen until a harmless 
blue mold has formed through it; Edam, a 
hard, yellow cheese sold in red-painted balls; 

"" -.Wisconsin 


Michigan California Minnesota 
13 12 10 

* 9 


I llinois 
at 4.9 

Figures Represent 
Millions of Po-unds 


The figures given represent average production over 
a period of four years. 

Parmesan and Gorgonzola> hard cheese; Swiss, 
a hard cheese which is somewhat porous and 
filled with Swiss "eyes"; and Neufchdtel, Ca- 
membert, and Limburger, all soft cheese. The 




United States makes mostly Cheddar cheese, 
commonly known as American cream cheese, 
nine-tenths of its huge product being of that 

Amount Produced. Canada and the United 
States are among the greatest cheese-producing 
countries in the world. In Canada the stand- 
ard has been kept high by the passage of laws 
forbidding the sale of skim-milk cheese, and 
the result has been great popularity for Ca- 
nadian varieties in other countries. Almost 
200,000,000 pounds are exported every year, 
Ontario alone exporting more than the en- 
tire United States sends abroad. 

In the United States, the production of 
cheese, including that made on the farms, 
amounts to over 465,000,000 pounds a year. 
Seventy-two per cent of America's cheese is 
produced in Wisconsin. The exports, approxi- 
mately 17,000,000 pounds, are greatly over- 
balanced by the 30,000,000 or 40,000,000 
pounds imported from Europe in normal years. 
Many foreign brands of cheese are now made 
with considerable success in the United States. 

Food Value. Cheese long had the name of 
being a very indigestible substance, and later a 
saying gained currency to the effect that 
"cheese digests everything but itself." But ex- 
periments have proved conclusively that by 
most people cheese is easily digested. Occasion- 
ally, there is a person who cannot eat it, but 
there is scarcely a food, however wholesome, of 
which the same may not be said. There are 
also highly nutritive qualities in cheese, which 
contains a large percentage of tissue-building 
and of energy-forming substances. As a heat- 
producer, cream cheese ranks high, and should 
therefore be used more in winter than in sum- 
mer. Its fuel value averages 2,000 calories per 
pound, or almost three times that of an equal 
weight of eggs. The older the cheese the more 
digestible it is, as aging and curing pepto- 
nizes the curd and helps to make it soluble. 
See CALORIE; FOOD (Chemistry of Food). E.H F. 

ING LEOPARD, lep' ard, a large cat of the 
African jungles, three or four feet high, and 
about the length of a leopard. Its limbs are 
so slender and its body so long that it is 
the quickest animal known for running short 
distances. Because of this fact, it chases its 
prey, and does not crouch and steal upon it, 
like most of the cats. It differs from other 
cats, too, in having blunt daws that can be 
only partly drawn into the foot (see CAT). 
Tawny-colored, black-spotted, excepting on the 
throat, the skin of the cheeta is valued for 
wearing apparel by the chiefs of African tribes. 

The cheeta is also well known in India, 
where it is tamed and trained for hunting. 
Like a falcon, it is held in leash and kept 
blindfolded until the game is seen. Then, 
on being loosed, it makes a quick dash for 

the animal, which it holds down until the 
hunters come. The cheeta becomes very docile 
in captivity. MJ.H. 

Scientific Name. The cheeta belongs to the family 
Fclidae. It is classed as Cynadurus jubatus. 


CHEKHOV, ckeh' kawf, ANTON. See RUS- 


CHELSEA, cheV se, MASS., in Suffolk 
County, is a residential suburb of Boston, three 
miles northeast of the city and connected with 
it by the Boston & Maine Railroad, electric 
and motorbus lines and steam ferries. The 
Mystic River, which separates Chelsea and 
Charlestown, a part of Boston, is crossed by a 
long bridge. Chelsea is the home of United 
States Naval and Marine hospitals and of the 
Massachusetts Soldier's Home. Ye Old Pratt 
House, a Revolutionary tavern, is of interest. 

The city was settled in 1626 as Winnisimmet. 
A part of Boston from 1634 to 1638, it was 
then incorporated as the town of Chelsea, and 
became a city in 1857. The city suffered a $17,- 
000,000 property loss by fire in 1908. Popula- 
tion, 1928, 49,800 (Federal estimate). 

Industry. Although principally a residential city, 
it has about 200 industries, large and small, including 
important manufactories of rubber and elastic goods, 
foundry and machine-shop products, stoves and 
furnaces, tiles, pottery, mucilage and paste, shoes, 
woolens, brass goods, wireless apparatus, lithographs, 

Education. Chelsea maintains a Hebrew Free 
School, and recognizes its responsibility for aliens by 
providing Americanization classes and evening 
schools. H.K. 




TRY, subtitle. 



r HEMISTRY, kern 1 is trie. One of the 
most wonderful of the sciences, chemistry 
deals not with the appearance or the value of 
matter, but with its composition. In seeking 
to discover just what every substance is made 
of, it investigates both the seen and the unseen. 
One can define chemistry in seven words by 
describing it as "the science of the composi- 
tion of substances," but this definition does 
not reveal the romance and the glamour that 
invest it. It is chemistry that has made clear 
the fact that the flashing diamond, gritty, 
black charcoal, and soft, leadlike graphite are 
all composed of one substance carbon; it is 
chemistry that has proved that the rusting of 
iron is essentially the same kind of process as 
the burning of wood. These and thousands of 
other wonderful facts are revealed by chemistry, 
which enters, too, into our problems of every- 
day living (see below, Contributions to Human 

Growth of the Science. It might seem as 
though, in the development of sciences, chem- 
istry would have been the very last one to 
appear, for much of that with which it deals can- 
not be handled and is invisible, and could never 
force itself upon the attention of anyone. For 
instance, water has always been one of the 
central substances about which man's life has 
grown up, and man has therefore needed to 
have considerable knowledge of water. But if 
he knew where it was to be found; that it 
would quench thirst, put out fires, and help all 
living things to grow; that it would not run 
uphill unless forced, and had a tendency to 
"seek its own level"; he had enough practical 
facts to live by. What mattered it to him 
whether water was an individual substance or a 
compound of other substances? 

Alchemy. But there was one substance in 
which, by reason of their greed, men early 
became especially interested. That was gold. 
If they could just find out how gold was made, 
they could have plenty of the precious metal 
without all the labor and expense of mining it. 
And thus, many centuries ago, men began to 
study into the composition of substances that 
they might find something which would turn 

less valuable metals into gold. This study be- 
came known as alchemy, probably from 
Chemia y an old name of Egypt, the country 
where the study first grew up. See ALCHEMY. 

Beginnings of a True Science. Needless to 
say, these alchemists, or philosophers, as they 
called themselves, never succeeded in making 
gold, but they did something quite as valuable, 
in leading the way to the science of chemistry: 
In their experiments they inevitably dis- 
covered many things for which they were not 
looking properties of matter, new substances 
and new ways of making old ones, and above 
all, the healing properties of drugs. Medi- 
cine in its modern sense grew up side by side 
with chemistry. 

Strange theories were formed from the half- 
known facts as they emerged, and one of these 
theories, common in the early years of the six- 
teenth century, concerned itself with the re- 
lation between medicine and chemistry. The 
body, said these early chemists, is made up of 
various chemicals and then each proceeded 
to make for himself a list of these body sub- 
stances. If one of the chemicals was present 
in excess, they argued, disease was certain 
to result, and many illnesses were labeled as 
growing out of too much or too little of some 
one substance. Paracelsus, the greatest of these 
doctor-chemists, really effected many cures and 
made discoveries that are of the utmost value 
to modern pharmacy. But men knew too little 
of anatomy and physiology, as well as of 
chemistry itself, to carry this really helpful 
phase of the science very far. 

Later Development. Finally, there arose men 
who realized that if this study of substances 
and their composition was to become a real 
science, it must be carried on for its own sake 
and not by reason of its relation to gold- 
making or to healing. Then real progress be- 
gan, though chemistry as an exact science can 
be said to date only from the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. Remarkable advance was 
made in the nineteenth century, which wit- 
nessed three momentous discoveries the elec- 
trical basis of matter, the X-ray, and 
radioactivity; with these clues, twentieth- 




century scientists have gone far from the old 
ideas of substances and their transformations, 
and have developed a new philosophy of the 
structure of matter and the nature of chemical 
change. The world is now on the verge of 
even greater dis- 
coveries, and " 
chemists, phys- r 
icists, astrono- 
mers, and other 
scientific leaders, 
with many of the 
old barriers down, 
are working to- 
gether to solve the 
riddle of the uni- 

Modern re- 
search continually 
emphasizes the 
dependence of 
other sciences on 
chemistry, for the 
special problems 
of each, in the last 
analysis, are con- 
cerned with the 
nature of matter. 
The physicist 
strives to explain 
the natural phe- 
nomena he sees 
everywhere about 
him, but these are 
manifestations of 
matter. The as- 
tronomer finds the 
answers to many 
of his questions 
about the stars 
when he learns their chemical composition. 
The processes that interest the geologist are 
chemical changes of matter. Every discovery 
that leads men nearer to an understanding of 
matter brings to light the dose interlocking 
of all these sciences. 

Divisions of Matter. Looking about us, we 
see hundreds of different substances, materials, 
and objects, existing as forms of matter, and 
can think of countless others. From the stand- 
point of the chemist, however, there are two 
kinds of matter, the elements and the com- 
pounds. These are discussed in considerable 
detail in subsequent paragraphs. It is sufficient 
to say here that the elementary substances are 
those that man is unable to resolve into simpler 
substances by ordinary methods. Compounds 
are combinations of two or more elements. 
Water, a combination of hydrogen and oxygen, 
is an example of a compound; so, too, is sugar; 
which is composed of three elements carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen. Sulphur is an element; 
sulphuric acid is a compound. 


Chemically speaking, these two kinds of 
matter, the elements and compounds, make up 
all of our material universe all minerals, all 
plant and animal life. Even our sun and the 
stars in space contain most of the elements 

found in the earth. 
Matter Made 
up of Atoms. In 
their study of ele- 
ments and com- 
pounds, chemists 
long ago discov- 
ered that elements 
always combine in 
a pure compound 
in a definite ratio. 
From repeated ex- 
periments they 
derived the theory 
that the elements 
are made up of 
minute, indi- 
visible particles 
that cling to- 
gether in groups 
whenever ele- 
ments combine in 
These minute par- 
ticles were called 
atoms (from the 
Greek for not di- 
vided) by John 
Dalton, an Eng- 
lish chemist, who 
formulated the 
atomic theory as 
a scientific law 
early in the nine- 
teenth century. It 
is true that the ancients also conceived of 
matter as being discontinuous made up 
of invisible, indivisible grains but with them 
the hypothesis was purely speculative, and 
they made no attempt to prove or disprove 
it by experiment. The idea of the discon- 
tinuity of matter was forgotten or abandoned 
during the Middle Ages, was revived by 
Descartes and Boyle in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and as formulated by Dalton became 
the foundation stone of modern chemistry. 
See ATOMIC THEORY, for a complete statement 
of this theory. 

Structure of the Atom. While the progress 
of chemistry is greatly indebted to Dalton's 
theory, our conception of the atom and its 
properties has undergone striking modification 
by reason of the newer knowledge concerning 
electricity and the study of radioactivity. 
Atoms are no longer regarded as the ultimate, 
indivisible particles of matter, but are known 
to be composed of still smaller particles, and, 
under certain conditions, to be capable of 




being split up. The minute constituents of 
the atom are units *of electricity, originally 
called electrons. In more recent nomenclature, 
particles representing negative electricity are 
known as electrons, while those representing 
positive electricity are 
called protons. (Some 
writers, however, pre- 
fer the names negative 
and positive electrons.) 
The theory of atom- 
ic structure most gen- 
erally accepted is that 
the atom is a minature 
solar system consisting 
of a central nucleus 
analogous to our sun, 
with several electrons 
revolving about it in 
planetary orbits, at 
high velocities. The 
nucleus of the hydro- 
gen atom, the simplest 
and lightest of all 
atoms, consists of a 
single proton; about it 
revolves one planetary 
electron. It is now 
accepted as a scien- 
tific fact that the pro- 
ton, in whatever ele- 
ment it is found, is 
identical with the hy- 
drogen nucleus. In 
the nuclei of more complex atoms, there are 
four or more protons associated with a smaller 
number of electrons. In the heaviest atom, 
that of uranium, there are 238 protons. Pro- 
tons are only found in the nuclei; electrons 
are also found there (except in the hydrogen 
atom), as well as in the space outside. 

In a neutral atom, one not electrically 
charged, the number of protons is exactly 
equal to the sum of the nuclear electrons and 
the revolving electrons. A neutral helium 
atom, for instance, has four protons in the 
nucleus, two nuclear electrons, and two re- 
volving electrons. Unlike kinds of electricity 
attract each other. Since every proton has an 
electric charge equal to the charge of any 
electron (though unlike in kind), die helium 
nucleus has a net positive charge of two, 
the difference between the number of pro- 
tons and nuclear electrons. But this nuclear 
charge of two is neutralized by the negative 
charge of two units derived from the two re- 
volving electrons. An atom becomes negatively 
charged by receiving additional electrons, and 
positively charged by losing electrons. Such 
charged atoms are known as ions. Chemical 
activity depends upon these facts. 

We are indebted to the English physicist 
Sir Ernest Rutherford for the generally ac- 


An atom of matter is composed of electrons which 
form a miniature solar system. There is a center 
nucleus of positive electricity, around which whirling 
electrons rotate at incredible speed. It would be 
impossible to hazard a guess as to the number of 
times the above representation has been magnified 
above the size of an atom in order to present the 
electron theory. 

cepted theory of nuclear structure. The proton 
is believed to be about 1,845 times as massive 
as the electron, and to have a radius ap- 
proximately that much less than the radius of 
the electron. That is, the proton is incon- 
ceivably minute, but 
relatively is very dense 
and heavy; in the nu- 
cleus of any atom prac- 
tically all of the mass 
or weight of the atom 
is centered. The sup- 
posed relative sizes of 
these units can be 
made clearer by the 
following comparison: 
If the hydrogen atom 
were enlarged until the 
electronic orbit were 
equal in size to that 
of the earth, the elec- 
tron would have a di- 
ameter of 6,900 miles, 
while that of the pro- 
ton would be less than 
four miles. In respect 
to size, then, the atom- 
ic nucleus is not anal- 
ogous to our sun, but 
it is in density. 

These statements 
are all the more star- 
tling when we remem- 
ber the infinitesimal 
size of the atom itself. On the surface of an 
ordinary pinhead there are over two quadrillion 
atoms. Furthermore, the external electrons 
revolve in orbits that relatively are as far 
from the nucleus as the planetary orbits are 
from the sun. The space in the atom, in other 
words, is as empty as astronomical space. 
Of course, these minute sizes and distances 
are beyond human comprehension. In at- 
tempting to visualize them, the imagination 
is as baffled as when the mind strives to 
picture the vast sizes and enormous distances 
with which the astronomer has to deal. 

Atoms and Molecules. The next step in the 
structure of matter is the combining of atoms 
to form molecules. Molecules may be defined 
as the smallest particles of any substance ex- 
isting in a free state. A molecule of an element 
consists of one, two, or more atoms of the same 
substance. A molecule of hydrogen, for 
example, consists of two atoms of hydrogen in 
chemical combination. A compound, on the 
other hapd, is an association of molecules each 
one of which is made up of atoms of different 
substances. Water is a compound of hydrogen 
and oxygen. Each of its molecules consists of 
two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. 
A molecule of water resolved into its constit- 
uents ceases to be water. Therefore, there is no 


such entity as an atom of water. In ordinary 
chemical reactions, atoms are not further de- 
composed, but this does not mean that they 
cannot be. The study of radioactive elements 
has taught us that the atoms of these elements 
are breaking up spontaneously by natural proc- 


The Elements 

The theory that atoms are indivisible is 
closely connected with the idea that elementary 
substances cannot be decomposed into simpler 
substances nor resolved one into another. 
This latter theory was derived, naturally 
enough, from the failure of chemists to de- 
compose such substances by any methods at 
their command. It is still agreed that there 
are a few dozen substances ninety- two, to be 
exact that resist all ordinary chemical re- 
actions. Of these elements, all but two have 
been discovered (see table on page 1332). It is 
the radioactive elements that have disproved 
the theory that elements are universally stable. 
Radium, discovered by the Curies in i8q8, is 
one step in a long process of disintegration 
through which uranium, after billions of 
years, changes into a substance resembling 
lead. The chemical process here involved is a 
breaking-up of the nuclei of atoms, once con- 
sidered indivisible. But man cannot alter, 
hasten, or diminish the rate of disintegration, 
and so our statement that elements are sub- 
stances that cannot be decomposed by or- 
dinary chemical reactions holds good. (The 
subject of RADIOACTIVITY is explained more 
fully elsewhere in these volumes. See, also, 
in this article, the section on Transmutation of 

Isotopes. Dalton's atomic theory states that 
all the atoms of a given element have the same 
weight. As commonly used, atomic weight does 
not mean the actual weight of an atom (such 
as fraction of a gram), but the relative weight 
of one atom compared with the atom of an- 
other element taken as a standard. Chemists 
have selected oxygen (atomic weight 16) as 
the standard upon which to base all atomic 
weights (see ATOMIC WEIGHTS, for detailed 
explanation of how atomic weight is calculated). 
The unit of the system of atomic weights is 
thus the sixteenth part of the atomic weight 
of oxygen. When we say, for instance, that 
the atomic weight of helium is 4, we mean that 
the helium atom is A, or i, as heavy as the 
oxygen atom. One of the many important 
discoveries resulting from the study of radio- 
active elements is that several elementary sub- 
stances can have identical chemical properties 
but different atomic weights, an apparent 
contradiction of Dalton's theory. Such sub- 
stances are known as isotopes. 

While radioactive isotopes were the ones first 
identified, subsequent research proved that 


many ordinary elements are mixtures of iso- 
topes. Chlorine, with atomic weight 35.46, is 
known to be a mixture of two other chlorines 
having atomic weights 35 and 37. The weight 
35.46 represents the average weight of the iso- 
topic atoms in the proportion in which they 
occur in nature. Bismuth has four radioactive 
isotopes; thorium has more. Carbon and 
oxygen also have iso topic forms. 

A question may occur to the reader at this 
point. If there are so many different isotopic 
elements, is it correct to say that there are only 
ninety- two elements? We can answer this 
question by saying that there are really ninety- 
two kinds of elementary substances, divided 
into two classes. The simple elements are those 
that consist of but one kind of atom, and the 
mixed elements are those formed by a mixture 
of several simple elements. With this distinc- 
tion in mind, the reader should have no difficulty 
in interpreting the meaning of the term element 
as used in subsequent paragraphs. 

The Periodic Law. The nineteenth-century 
chemists discovered certain important relation- 
ships among the elements, and in 1871 the 
Russian chemist Mendelyeev published an ex- 
position of the law underlying these relation- 
ships. This law he stated as follows: 

All the properties of the elements vary as a periodic 
function of their atomic weights. 

This means that when the elements are ar- 
ranged in the order of their atomic weights, 
they show a periodic recurrence of properties, 
like properties being repeated at regular inter- 
vals. Mendelyeev's table became the model 
for all subsequent tabulations. He included 
in it the sixty- three elements known in his day. 
and left gaps for the elements still to be dis- 
covered. It is further to his credit that he 
correctly foretold the discovery of three of 
these elements and forecast their properties. 

Atomic Number vs. Atomic Weight. It was 
long a puzzle to chemists that when the ele- 
ments were grouped according to recurring 
properties, the order of atomic weights was 
reversed at certain places in the periodic table. 
Some other determining factor was surmised 
to exist. When the nuclear theory of atomic 
structure was announced, it was suggested that 
there was a definite relation between the net 
positive charge on the nucleus and the position 
of the element in the periodic table, that is, 
the number representing its order in the series 
when all the elements were arranged according 
to properties. Henry Moseley, a brilliant 
young English physicist whose career was 
ended by the World War, investigated the 
X-ray spectra of a number of elements, each of 
which he bombarded with streams of electrons. 
Any element so excited emits a characteristic 
radiation consisting of two series of X-rays of 
very great intensity. Each of these series has 
definite wave-lengths, and, as Moseley discov- 




ered, they are such that certain numbers are 
inversely proportional to the square roots of 
the wave-lengths. These numbers vary by 
unity as we pass from one element to the next, 
and they have been found to be identical with 
the ordinal positions of the elements in the 
periodic system. In other words, it is the 
atomic number and not the atomic weight that 
is the real basis of the periodic law. 

The atomic number of any element is the 
number representing the excess of protons over 
electrons in the nucleus of the atom. Protons 
and electrons do not vary in character from 
atom to atom, but their arrangement varies in 
atoms of different substances. The hydrogen 
atom, with one proton and one electron, is 
probably the "common stuff" of matter. The 
elements are merely hydrogen atoms in different 
combinations, according to the modern theory. 
With the exception of properties depending on 
mass and radioactivity (or stability), the ordi- 
nary physical and chemical characters that dis- 
tinguish any element are determined by the 
number and arrangement of its planetary elec- 
trons. But the number, relative positions, and 
velocities of these electrons are controlled by 
the nuclear charge, the net positive charge on 
the atomic nucleus. The atomic number, there- 
fore, is the true index of the properties of an 

The atomic weight, on the other hand, indi- 
cates the number of protons in the nucleus, 
and is called the mass number of the atom. The 
reader will recall that the weight or mass of 
any atom is centered in the protons, which are 
always found in the nucleus. Theoretically, 
the oxygen atom with weight 16 should be 16 
times as heavy as the hydrogen atom, with its 
one proton. Actually, hydrogen has atomic 
weight 1.008; that is, the uncombined hydrogen 
proton is heavier than a proton in combination. 
In other words, the combined weight of the 16 
protons in the oxygen atom is slightly less than 
j 6 times the weight of the free hydrogen proton. 
(If a hydrogen standard of i should be used, 
the atomic weight of oxygen would be 15.88.) 
Chemists explain this loss of weight by assum- 
ing that when protons combine with electrons 
to form nuclei of more complex elements, the 
close packing of positive and negative units of 
electricity causes a small though actual loss of 
mass, indicated by loss of weight, which in- 
creases proportionately as the atoms grow 
heavier. The rule still holds, however, that the 
atomic weight (expressed in whole numbers) 
gives the number of positive units in the 

The foregoing paragraphs should make it 
clear why the different isotopes of an element 
have the same chemical properties but different 
atomic weights. Take, for example, the forms 
of chlorine. There are two isotopes chlorine 
weight 35, and chlorine weight 37. The first 

has an atomic nucleus with 35 protons and 18 
electrons. The nuclear charge is thus +17, 
and there are 17 planetary electrons. The 
second has an atomic nucleus with 37 protons 
and 20 electrons. Its nuclear charge is also 
+ 17, and again there are 17 external electrons. 
Ordinary chlorine also has a nuclear charge of 
+ 17, but its atomic weight of 35.46 represents, 
of course, the average weight of its isotopic 
atoms. All three chlorines have the same 
chemical properties, the same nuclear charge, 
the same system of external electrons, and the 
same atomic number, 17. The varying atomic 
weights of the isotopes indicate that their 
nuclei are of different construction, the heavier 
having the greater number of protons. In the 
determining of properties, the atomic weight is 
thus a secondary factor. 

Table of Elements. The following table con- 
tains the names, symbols (see subhead Chemi- 
cal Symbols, below), atomic weights (where 
known), and atomic numbers of the ninety 
elements so far discovered. Numbers 85 and 
87 are still missing. 





































10 82 
























140 25 
















93 I 












167 7 
















69 72 




























i. 008 















193 i 


















* Also known 

as Beryllium, Be 





Chemical knowledge has 
multiplied the strength of 
steel I: 

It has 
developed a 
great building 
material ~ 

It has 
the world 
with paints, 

* and 

ikk enamels 

It has 
alluring and 
harmless colors 
and candies 

It has given us numerous 
commodities from crude 
oil alone 

It has made a thousand 

ii nas maoe a uiousana 
useful articles from imitation ivory 











































2O 2 



















106 7 
















39 096 




140 92 




230 (?) 




225 95 











102 91 








ioi 7 












7Q 2 




28 06 




107 880 




22 997 








32 064 




181 5 








159 2 




204 39 




232 15 




169 4 




n8 70 








184 o 




238 17 








I3O 2 




173 6 














t Also called niton, Nt 

Transmutation of Elements. In the disinte- 
gration of radioactive elements, we have na- 
ture's method of transmuting elements. The 
alchemists who sought to change the baser 
metals into gold were seeking the key to some 
such process, and now, after many centuries, 
chemists are again at work on this fascinating 
problem. The radiations sent out in radio- 
active processes are of three kinds, called alpha, 
beta, and gamma rays. The alpha rays are 
streams of positively charged helium atoms; 
the beta rays are streams of electrons moving 
with almost the velocity of light; and the 
gamma rays are identical with light rays of 
very short wave-length. Some radioactive ele- 

ments radiate all three rays; others give off one 
or two. 

Once the nature of these radiations was 
ascertained, transmutation by artificial means 
was theoretically possible. It could be brought 
about by causing a proton, an alpha particle, 
or an electron to enter or leave the nucleus of 
an atom, for such modification of the nucleus 
would change the nuclear charge, and so the 
identity of the atom. For example, if a proton 
could be ejected from the mercury nucleus 
(atomic number 80), the nuclear charge would 
be decreased by one unit, and the atom would 
be transmuted into gold (atomic number 79); 
or the same result would follow if an electron 
were caused to enter the mercury nucleus. 

There is considerable evidence that actual 
transmutation of elements has finally been ac- 
complished. Lead is reported to have been 
transmuted into mercury by means of a strong 
electric current. Professor Miethe of Germany 
is convinced that he has produced gold from 
mercury. Sir Ernest Rutherford has had defi- 
nite results in experiments with nitrogen and 
some of the other lighter elements. By bom- 
barding the atoms of these elements with alpha 
particles emitted from radium C, he caused 
the ejection of protons (hydrogen nuclei) that 
eventually became neutral hydrogen atoms 
through the capture of planetary electrons. All 
such transmutations are on so minute a scale 
that as yet only theoretical interest attaches 
to them. It is known that tremendous amounts 
of energy lie locked in the atoms, and if men 
could effect transmutation on a large scale and 
release this energy, they would have power to 
work miracles undreamed of now. But should 
this energy be released and should it be found 
uncontrollable, it would undoubtedly blow our 
planet into fragments. 

Quantum Theory. The planetary electrons 
are believed to revolve about the nucleus in 
elliptical orbits arranged in different planes. 
In 1913 the Danish physicist Niels Bohr an- 
nounced a new conception of the relation be- 
tween these revolving electrons and the energy 
which they emit. This theory may be de- 
scribed as an application of the older quantum 
theory (which see) to the structure of the atom. 
By quantum (plural, quanta) is meant the 
amount of energy liberated when a planetary 
electron jumps from one orbit to another. Bohr 
suggests that the atom of any element has a 
fixed number of orbital paths in which the 
planetary electrons may move, and that there 
is a particular and invariable speed for each 
orbit. The electron does not emit energy while 
moving around the nucleus, but only when it 
jumps from one orbit to another, or when 
knocked out of the orbital paths altogether. 
The quantity of energy emitted in a given 
position has a definite value, which can neither 
be diminished nor increased. This theory as- 




sumes that the orbit of an electron is a series 
of different positions, not a continuous line, 
and that the radiation of energy is a discontinu- 
ous process. Professor R. A. MiUikan has 
stated that the spectroscope is furnishing "as 
exacting proof of the orbital theory of electronic 
motions as the telescope furnished a century 
earlier for the orbital theory of the motions of 
heavenly bodies." 

Chemical Compounds 

If a small quantity of very fine iron filings 
be mixed thoroughly with a small quantity of 
powdered sulphur, the iron remains iron and 
the sulphur remains sulphur. They may be 
distinguished from each other when looked at 
through a microscope, and a magnet held over 
the mixture will quickly draw out the iron, 
leaving the sulphur. But if the mixture is 
placed in an iron spoon (or a glass test tube) 
and held over a hot flame, something is formed 
which is neither iron nor sulphur which is not 
like either iron or sulphur. The new substance 
may be pounded to a powder, but no magnet, 
however strong, can now draw out the iron, for 
the simple reason that, as iron, it is not there. 
The new substance is just as real and has just 
as distinct properties of its own as had the two 
elements which combined to make it, but there 
is one difference. Any person who knows the 
proper chemical means for decomposing the 
new substance could reduce it again to iron 
and sulphur, while no ordinary chemical process 
could have divided either of the original 

The iron and sulphur before they were heated 
formed what is known as a mechanical mixture, 
each keeping its own properties; after they were 
heated they formed a chemical compound. 
Many of the very commonest things, which 
seem as simple as anything could well be, are 
really chemical compounds. Water and salt, 
for example, are of this nature. Air, on the 
other hand, is a mere mechanical mixture of 

There are definite ways in which chemical 
compounds are made up. When a certain num- 
ber of atoms of one element are brought close 
to atoms of another element, various things 
may happen. They may remain exactly as 
they have been, neither substance showing the 
slightest interest in the other; one atom of one 
kind may seize upon one or more atoms of the 
other kind and unite with them to form a tiny 
particle of a new substance a chemical com- 
pound', or both kinds of atoms may wait until 
some force, as heat or electricity, puts them in 
such a condition that they can unite. 

Atoms which will thus unite with each other, 
either with or without aid, are said to have a 
chemical affinity for each other, and unless two 
substances have such affinity they cannot be 
forced to unite. No amount of mixing or melt- 

ing or heating will make of them anything but 
a mechanical mixture. In the experiment de- 
scribed above, the sulphur and iron filings 
united to form a new substance with properties 
of its own, not just because they were melted 
together, but because they also have a chemical 
affinity for each other. 

In the very simplest form of a chemical com- 
pound, one atom of one substance unites with 
one atom of another. But often one atom of 
one element will seize upon two or three or 
even four of another, or two atoms of one may 
combine with three of another. It is easier for 
some elements to enter into combination than 
for others, because some elements are gases 
and some are solids, and the latter are much 
more dependent on outside forces to make it 
possible for them to unite with substances for 
which they have even the strongest chemical 

From the standpoint of the new chemistry, 
chemical combination is explained in terms of 
electronic activity. Briefly, such power of com- 
bination is believed to be the ability of the 
atom to attract one or more electrons from 
another atom, or to yield electrons to such an 
atom. The movements of electrons outside 
the nucleus are supposed to effect chemical 
changes; more particularly, those in the outer 
orbits, which chemists call valence electrons. 
The theory is that the external electrons are 
arranged in so-called spheres, or shells, and that 
the valence electrons are in the outermost shell. 
The inert elements, those that do not enter 
into chemical combination, have no valence 
electrons. As the atomic numbers of the ele- 
ments in the periodic table increase by unity, 
the number of valence electrons held in the 
outside shell increases from o to 7. For ex- 
ample, starting with helium (no valence elec- 
tron) we have the following series: helium (o), 
lithium (i), glucinum (2), boron (3), carbon 
(4), nitrogen (5), oxygen (6), fluorine (7). Fol- 
lowing fluorine in the table is neon, another 
inert element (with no valence electron). It 
begins another series with valence electrons 
increasing by i until chlorine is reached, with 
7 valence electrons. The recurrence of prop- 
erties at regular intervals is thus explained. 

Chemical activity depends upon the valence 
electrons. The nucleus and remaining external 
electrons are said to form the kernel of the 
atom, and are thought to be beyond the reach 
of reagents. Chemical combination differs 
from transmutation in that transmutation in- 
volves a breaking up of nuclei. So long as the 
nucleus remains intact, an atom which has 
undergone chemical combination may be 

Chemical Symbols. It is customary to as- 
sign to each element a symbol representing an 
abbreviation of its common or Latin name. 
Examples are for oxygen, N for nitrogen, Li 




for lithium. The chemical compounds also are 
known by symbolic names. These indicate 
the elements of which the compounds are com- 
posed, and the number of atoms of each ele- 
ment entering into the combination. By this 
simple system, the symbols of the elements 
which make up a substance are written together 
as a, formula, thus NaCl. Na stands for so- 
dium, the Latin name for which is natrium, and 
Cl for chlorine, and the substance declares 
itself at once as a compound of sodium and 
chlorine a compound for which the common 
name is salt. 

In this instance, one atom of sodium com- 
bines with one atom of chlorine, but in cases 
where the number of atoms is not thus equal, 
figures must be used. These figures are made 
small and are written to the right of and below 
the letters, thusOb, which means three atoms 
of oxygen, combined into one molecule of ozone. 
Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, two 
atoms of hydrogen uniting with one of oxygen, 
and the formula is therefore H 2 O. 

Branches of Chemistry 

The two great branches into which chemistry 
is divided are commonly known as organic and 
inorganic chemistry. The names may not be 
the best that could be devised, but they have 
been used so long that there is no thought of 

Organic chemistry is that division which treats 
of the carbon compounds. Hundreds of com- 
pounds of this element are found in living 
organisms plants and animals and indeed no 
living thing is known which does not contain 
carbon compounds. In the early days of chemi- 
cal study, it was believed that all the so-called 
organic substances existed in living plants and 
animals only in other words, that they could 
be produced only in living organisms. But in 
1828 a chemist produced in his laboratory an 
organic compound, called urea, from its ele- 
ments, and later, others were produced artifi- 
cially until the theory of a vital principle was 
given up. This branch is thus better described 
as the chemistry of the carbon compounds. 

Inorganic chemistry treats of those compounds 
which do not have carbon in their make-up. 
The dividing line is not, however, quite sharp, 
because carbon itself and some carbon com- 
pounds, especially those which are found as 
minerals, are commonly discussed in books on 
inorganic chemistry. 

Other special classifications exist, according 
to the differing purposes of chemical study, as 

Biochemistry, or physiological chemistry, 
treats of the chemical changes which take place 
in living plants and animals. See BIOCHEMIS- 

Agricultural chemistry deals with the prob- 
lems of the farm and farm products. Although 

of comparatively recent development, it has 
already assumed great importance. See AGRI- 

Industrial chemistry treats of the application 
of chemical knowledge to the manufacturing 
of products. These two last-named branches 
are divisions of applied chemistry. T.B.J. 

Contributions of Chemistry 
to Human Welfare 

Concerned with the ninety-two elements 
and their thousands of combinations that make 
up the universe and the world, the chemist has 
the possibility of remaking the conditions of 
life. Dozens of new substances drugs, dyes, 
textiles, foods, fuels, and chemicals have been 
created by the skill and thought of the chemist 
and his associated scientists. Nature, master 
chemist herself, has been surpassed and outdone 
time and time again, although it is true that 
human knowledge has not penetrated or dupli- 
cated some of the syntheses and other chemical 
processes that make possible the cycle of life. 
The complete mechanism of photosynthesis 
the changing of the carbon dioxide of the air 
and the water of the soil into the starches and 
cellulose of growing plants has not yet been 
discovered, though much has been learned. 

Chemistry is more than the mere use of ma- 
terials. A barbarian can perform a chemical 
reaction, the making of carbon dioxide and 
water out of wood and oxygen, by the simple 
process of kindling a fire; but only a chemist 
can make artificial silklike material out of wood. 
Lightning can set fire to oil wells and obtain 
heat from the liquid fuel created by the chemi- 
cal conversion of ancient organic matter during 
long geologic ages; but chemistry is necessary 
to make gasoline out of crude oil, or, as is now 
possible, oil out of coal. 

In a single generation, chemists have begun 
to change the complexion of industry. Hardly 
a factory has remained unaffected by the new 
chemistry; every life has felt its influence; com- 
forts and necessities that no king could have 
had in olden days are now within the reach 
of all. 

Fuels, foods, raw and finished materials, 
drugs, metals, and many other commodities 
have passed through revolutions or are about 
to change under the influence of the discoveries 
of chemistry. 

Coal and oil are synonymous with fuel in 
the minds of most people. The time is coming 
when the burning of raw coal and crude oU 
will be looked upon as practically criminal. 
From coal it is possible to obtain thousands of 
products as far removed from the dirty black 
smudge of bituminous carbon as the rainbow 
is from night. Mere burning of coal in the 
furnace gives the three essentials of the great 
coking industry that, though young and quite 





Foods have been made 
more nourishing and palatable 

depends 4 
on the 

science is the 
of drugs and 

are solved by chemical science 

Many police and crime problems 




modernistic compared with burning coal for 
power, promises to be superseded by the new 
coal processes that are now growing up in 
Europe. From the coal fire there arises gas, 
quickly burned, that is given off when the coal 
is heated. With it is also burned black, sticky 
tar, ill-smelling and despised until the chemist 
discovered a thousand dyes, drugs, flavors, and 
other chemicals hidden within its molecules. 
The spongy mass left behind is coke, the skele- 
ton of coal, so useful in making iron and steel 
and acceptable as a household fuel. Destruc- 
tive distillation of coal within air-free retorts 
prevents the gases from burning, allows them 
to be washed to remove .the valuable ammo- 
nium sulphate they contain, and then permits 
them to be piped to engines for power, or to 
cookstoves for heat. The oily and tarry matter 
condenses out of the gas, to be used in making 
carbolic acid, moth balls, benzene, toluene, 
anthracene, and other products, some of them 
halfway to the dyes that make this a brighter 
world to live in. 

Oil has revolutionized the transportation of 
the country; it drives merchant vessels and 
warships, warms houses, and provides power 
for factories. A world without liquid fuel 
would be unthinkable and unlivable to-day. 
The earth has provided lavishly a ready-made 
liquid fuel in the crude oil that flows out of 
wells at the rate of some 900,000,000 barrels a 
year. The chemist steps in to aid the oil in- 
dustry to supply light motor fuel out of the 
heavy petroleum that nature provides. Crack- 
ing, a process in which thick oils are broken 
into thin, supplies a third of the gasoline that 
runs our automobiles (see PETROLEUM). 

The day is coming when the earth will pro- 
vide no more oil. Germany and the rest of 
Europe are already afflicted with high-priced 
liquid fuel. It is natural that European chem- 
ists should have faced the problem of making 
liquid fuel from something besides petroleum. 
The German Bergius has liquefied coal by pul- 
verizing it and heating it with hydrogen at 
high temperature and high pressure. From the 
resulting oil and tar he has produced motor 
fuel, Diesel oils, lubricants, and heavy fuel oil 
at the rate of over a hundred gallons per ton 
of coal. Another German, Fischer, produces 
gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbons from 
water gas, the gas made from coal and water. 
Patart, a French chemist, has also perfected a 
process for converting water gas into acids, 
alcohols, and numerous other complex and 
useful chemicals. 

Wood alcohol has received its greatest pub- 
licity in connection with those bibulous unfor- 
tunates who mistook it for its sister chemical, 
ethyl alcohol. But methanol, as the chemists 
prefer to call wood alcohol, is an important 
chemical in the manufacture of many products, 
notably the new synthetic resins that enter 

into our radio sets, automobiles, and houses. 
Most of these new man-made resins, the most 
famed of which is bakelite, are the combination 
of two chemicals. Bakelite is made of two 
disinfectants, formaldehyde and phenol, better 
known as carbolic acid (see BAKELITE) . Meth- 
anol enters into the picture because formalde- 
hyde is made from it. Until a few years ago, 
every drop of methanol used meant the destruc- 
tion of hardwood, but now synthetic wood 
alcohol is made not from wood but from carbon 
monoxide and hydrogen, both derived from 
coal. Urea is now used to replace the phenol 
in making a synthetic resin that may rival glass 
itself. Even urea is now made from the hydro- 
genation of coal and air, and it is being used 
as a fertilizer as well as a raw chemical material. 
Since urea was the organic chemical whose 
synthesis inaugurated the chemist's imitation 
of compounds hitherto believed nature's exclu- 
sive property, it is not surprising that it is 
being built up out of cheap atomic units. 

There was a day when wood was simply 
wood, just as coal was coal. In those days 
wood was used for houses, furniture, and even 
for newspapers, but to-day wood makes not 
alone the things into which it enters in its 
natural state; it paints automobiles, makes silk- 
like stockings and underwear, coats sausages, 
substitutes for the hides of animals, and even 
rivals window glass. The constituent of wood 
that is valuable for these uses is cellulose 
(which see), one of the world's fundamental 
complex materials. Cellulose grows in cotton 
fiber, cornstalks, and in ah 1 other woody plants, 
as well as in trees. So the supply is practically 

The silkworm's rivals, rayon and the other 
so-called artificial silks, have created a large 
new textile industry. Some 390,000,000 pounds 
of this cellulose product are now being made 
yearly to clothe those who cannot afford real 
silk and who want something prettier than 
calico. Rayon labors under a stigma from hav- 
ing been offered as a substitute for silk. In 
reality, it is a new textile, worthy of a place 
and name all its own. Cellulose, in the form of 
wood fiber or the short, cheap shreds from 
cottonseed, called linters, is dissolved in various 
ways, then precipitated after being passed 
through minute holes like so much solid spa- 
ghetti. The trick is to take one form of cellu- 
lose and so change it by dissolving and handling 
that it takes the shape of yarn suitable for 
spinning into cloth. The original process ni- 
trates the cellulose, and the resulting product 
would be guncotton if the process were carried 
a bit further. In another method, the cupram- 
monium silk process, the cellulose is dissolved 
in ammoniacal copper solution, while viscose 
uses soda lye and carbon disulphide. Celanese 
is first cousin to the non-inflammable motion- 
picture film, as it is made by the acetate process. 




Rayon and the other synthetic cellulose tex- 
tiles do not clothe human beings alone. Sau- 
sages wear a skin of viscose during manufacture 
in a new process that allows the consumer to 
eat skinless frankfurters instead of those en- 
closed in natural casing. Fabrikoid, the cellu- 
lose film famous as an artificial leather, also 
makes manufacturers independent of animal 
products. To use real leather for all the pur- 
poses to which this material is put, twice as 
many cattle as ever existed in America at any 
one time would have to be slaughtered. Candy 
and other tempting dainties now wear a show- 
case dress of transparent cellulose film, called 
cellophane. Thicker sheets of a similar material 
compete with glass in some uses. 

A revolution of the pain t-and- varnish in- 
dustry has begun through the use of cellulose 
lacquers. Born of the necessity of finishing 
automobiles in twenty-four hours instead of 
twenty-eight days, as was the practice in the 
pain t-and- varnish days of automobile finishing, 
cellulose lacquers are invading the fields of oil 
paints and varnishes, indoors and out. 

Wood pulp in its own right is finding many 
uses. And the waste cellulose of sugar cane 
(bagasse) now is made into artificial lumber. 
Wall board is being made from cornstalks and 
sawdust, and, after being hydrolyzed to change 
its starches to sugar, has been fed to cattle. 

Freedom from the food monopoly exercised 
by the long-accepted farm-and-ranch sources of 
foodstuffs is promised by the chemist. The 
sugar cane and sugar beet have rivals in corn 
and the Jerusalem artichoke. From the starch 
of common corn there are now being made 
thousands of pounds of corn sugar, or, to use 
other names, glucose and dextrose. From the 
despised artichoke there can be obtained a 
sugar, called levulose, that is fifty per cent 
sweeter than the sucrose of cane and beet 
sugar. Levulose is not yet available commer- 
cially, but it will soon be on our dinner tables. 

Fats from oils, a chemical achievement that 
involves the hydrogenation of the oil in the 
presence of a catalyst, promise to give edible 
fats to the larder without the aid of the pig or 
cow. Cottonseed oil by this method can be 
turned into solid fat, thus converting a low-cost 
material into a more expensive one. 

The chemist even manufactures vitamins. 
When ultra-violet light is allowed to shine on 
ergosterol, the effect of Vitamin D, which 
prevents rickets, seems to be produced. 

Meat as a source of protein food is still the 
standard, but chemists are anticipating a day 
when increasing population will make it more 
difficult for all of us to live in comparative 
plenty. It is estimated that a hundred pounds 
of foodstuffs are required to produce three 
pounds of beef, and that a given area can sup- 
port five times the population if the protein 
foods are obtained from sources other than 

meat. Yeast, popularized in the public mind 
as a source of one of the vitamins, may be the 
new meat of the future. Yeast can grow quickly 
on waste products; large quantities can be 
produced in limited space. Properly seasoned, 
yeast might be made as palatable as beefsteak. 

To make agriculture more efficient, fertilizers 
must be used on a larger scale than ever before. 
The three soil foods are phosphate, nitrogen, 
and potash. Phosphate is to be had in abun- 
dance in the phosphate rocks of Florida and 
elsewhere. Potash has largely been a monopoly 
of the German beds of that mineral, but test 
drillings in Texas show that similar minerals 
underlie parts of that state. Chile, until the 
World War, had a monopoly on the production 
and sale of nitrates which nature had deposited 
on her deserts and nowhere else in quantity. 
The air is three-fourths full of nitrogen, and 
the chemist has succeeded in fixing this free 
and uncombined nitrogen of the air so that it 
can be used by plants, for explosives, and for 
other productive commodities. The first suc- 
cessful method of extracting nitrogen from the 
air was the flashing of powerful electric arcs 
to cause small quantities of the nitrogen and 
oxygen of the air to unite. This arc process is 
now in use extensively only in Norway, where 
power is cheap. The most modern method, 
the one used by the Germans during the World 
War to supply their armies wjth explosives, is 
the synthetic-ammonia process, in which nitro- 
gen and hydrogen gas are made to combine to 
form ammonia. 

Another gas of the air, carbon dioxide, which 
is a product of combustion, has come into a 
new industrial application. Solidified in the 
form of carbon-dioxide snow, it is called car bice, 
or dry ice (see CARBICE). It produces cold 
without moisture, and there is no pan under 
the refrigerator to empty. 

Synthetic rubber has been achieved, but 
there seems to be little danger that the rubber 
plantations of the East Indies will lose their 
monopoly in the near future. Artificial rubber 
has not been produced cheaply enough, and its 
quality is not equal to natural latex, the sap 
of the rubber tree. Rubber, thanks to the 
chemist's work on vulcanizing agents, has 
been made tougher, better, and longer-lived. 
Methods of electroplating with rubber have 
been devised. 

Quartz, silicon dioxide, one of the earth's 
most plentiful materials, has been conquered 
and made into a superglass. Fused quartz 
allows the ultra-violet end of the spectrum to 
shine through where ordinary glass would be a 
barrier. Its cost has retarded its extensive use, 
but it has a future. Automatic machinery for 
glass bottle-blowing and sheet-glass rolling has 
revolutionized the glass industry. High- 
alumina portland cement, which gains in a day 
the usual cement's strength of a week, has 




added a new building material to the tools of 
the engineer and architect. 

Metals have contributed to modern industry 
largely in the last half-century, but new metal 
combinations and processes promise more ad- 
vance in the future. Rust, red and destructive, 
has been the relentless enemy of iron and steel. 
The metal chromium, when added to the extent 
of twelve to fourteen per cent to iron or steel, 
will make it rustless and stainless. As junior 
partners of iron and steel, many other metals 
form partnerships that for many purposes are 
superior to existing irons and steels. Chro- 
mium as a coating on metals, electro-deposited, 
rivals and surpasses nickel. Where light weight 
and strength are required, aluminum alloys 
are available. 

To pierce the dark and solid interiors of 
metals and other materials, the chemist has 
adopted the X-ray, a tool of the physicist. 
Flaws and blowholes can be detected in cast- 
ings, just as holes can be seen in Swiss cheese. 
But the X-ray looks even deeper. It can see 
the very atoms of which the metal is composed. 
Atomic and crystal arrangement as revealed by 
the X-ray allows the actual designing of new 
metallic alloys. 

Following in the paths of the great pioneers 
of synthetic chemistry who first showed that 
man's mind and skill could create element com- 
binations unknown to nature, chemists have 
added to the world's synthetic drugs, medici- 
nals, perfumes, and organic chemicals. Insulin, 
the hormone of the pancreas that prevents and 
cures diabetes, was analyzed after isolation by 
a chemist, and its composition determined. 
Dread African sleeping sickness is being fought 
with a new chemical descendant of Ehrlich's 

Even the poison gases used in the World 
War have found peace-time uses. Phosgene is 
necessary in the manufacture of violet perfume, 
and tear gas is used as a warning addition to 
deadly hydrocyanic-acid gas used in fumi- 

The chemist is not yet independent of nature, 
and he will always be limited by the materials 
the earth furnishes him. But he is becoming 
expert in picking things apart and putting 
them together again in different ways. A single 
plentiful raw material, like corn, wood, coal, 
or air, can make a multitude of useful materials. 
The chemist is increasing the factor of safety 
of living; he may enable future generations to 
be fed, clothed, and sheltered from a grain 
field, a coal mine, or the air and sunlight above 
them. W.D. 

Related Subjects. The articles in these volumes which 
have to do with chemistry are numerous. To make refer- 
ence to them easy, the following index is given, which lists 
all of those closely related to the subject, except the ele- 
ments. A list of those is given in the article above, and 
all of the important elements are treated in separate articles. 

The reader who takes time to study the text matter of this 
list will have a good foundation knowledge of this very im- 
portant and complicated subject: 

Acetic Acid 





















Aqua Regia 



Atomic Theory 

Atomic Weights 




Benzoate of Soda 


Blue Vitriol 





Calcium Carbide 

Car bice 



Carbolic Acid 


Carbon Bisulphide 

Carbonic-acid Gas 

Carbon Monoxide 



Citric Acid 

Coal Tar 



Corrosive Sublimate 

Cosmic Rays 

Cream of Tartar 


Crookes Tubes 







Dust Explosions 

Dyeing and Dyestuffs 


Electricity (with list) 





Fire Damp 

Curie, Pierre and Marie S. 
Davy, Sir Humphry 
Faraday, Michael 






Greek Fire 



Glauber's Salt 





Hydrofluoric Acid 

Hydrogen Chloride 

Hydrogen Peroxide 




Lactic Acid 



Liquid Air 


Lunar Caustic 



Metals (with list) 


Natural Gas 


Nitric Acid 


Nitrous Oxide 

Oxalic Acid 



Pans Green 



Phosphoric Acid 

Picric Acid 


Poison Gas 


Prussic Acid 



Quantum Theory 



Roentgen Rays 


Sal Ammoniac 


Salicylic Acid 




Stearic Acid 



Sulphureted Hydrogen 

Sulphuric Acid 



Tartaric Acid 



White Lead 

Wood Alcohol 

Gay-Lussac, Joseph I , 
Liebig, Baron von 
Pasteur, Louis 





I. What It Is 

(1) "The science of the composition of sub- 


(2) Its wonderful achievements 

II. Its Development 

(1) Reasons for its beginning 

(2) Alchemy 

(a) Its purpose 

(b) Its methods 

(3) The real science 

(a) Its connection with medicine 

(b) Discovery of fundamental principles 

IU. Subject Matter 

(1) Divisions of matter 

(2) Made up of atoms 

(3) Structure of the atom 

(4) Atoms and molecules 

(5) The elements 

(a) Definition 

(b) Isotopes 

(c) The periodic law 

(d) Atomic number and weight 

(e) Table of elements 

(f) Transmutation of elements 

(g) Quantum theory 
(6) Chemical compounds 

(a) Distinguished from mechanical mix- 


(b) Chemical affinity 

(c) Combination affected by outside 


1. Heat 

2. Electricity 
3- Light 

4. Mechanical force 

(d) Combination explained in terms of 


(e) Chemical symbols 

1. Method of naming elements 

2. Method of naming compounds 

IV. Branches of Chemistry 

(1) Organic chemistry 

(a) The carbon compounds 

(b) Not necessarily a study of living or- 


(2) Inorganic chemistry 

(a) Lack of sharp distinctions 

(3) Special classifications 

(a) Physiological chemistry 

(b) Agricultural chemistry 

(c) Industrial chemistry 


Name ten of the contributions of chemistry to human welfare. 

Why is the study of chemistry of increasing importance to-day? 

From the point of view of chemistry, what is the difference between air and water? 

Mention two substances which are really compounds but seem like simple sub- 

In the formula H 2 S0 4 , what do the small figures indicate? What can you tell 
about the composition of the substance for which the formula stands? 

What curious theory did old-time chemists hold as to the origin of disease? 

What is meant by a "chemical compound"? 

Give the chemical symbols for two inorganic substances commonly present on 
the dinner table. 

What extraordinary relationships has chemistry discovered between substances 
that are apparently widely separated? 

Why can brass be decomposed, while copper, which seems not unlike it, cannot be? 

If you heat iron filings and sulphur hi a test tube, can you then draw out the iron 
with a magnet? 

What element, in some compound or other, is present in every living thing, so 
far as is known? 

Under what conditions can elements be decomposed? What is an isotope? 

How does the modern theory of the atom differ from Dalton's? 

What is meant by atomic weight? Atomic number? 





istry of Foods) ; NUTRITION. 

CHEMNITZ, kem' nits. See GERMANY 
(Principal Cities). 

CHEMULPO, che mid' po, CHOSEN, a port on 
the Yellow Sea, population 28,000. See CHOSEN. 

CHENOPODIUM, ke nopo' dih urn. See 


CHEOPS, ke' ops, an r 
Egyptian king of the fourth 
dynasty, builder of the fa- 
mous Great Pyramid at 
Gizeh, near Cairo. He lived 
about 2900 B.C. According 
to Herodotus, the "Father of 
History," he was an oppres- 
sive ruler who stopped at 
nothing to secure funds to 
complete his pyramid, even 
sacrificing his daughter's 
honor. But other historians 
record their belief that he 
was considered a wise and 
powerful king. The Egyp- 
tians called him Khufu, and 
the pyramid "the glory of 
Khufu. " 1 1 took twenty years 
and i oo ,000 men at labor con- 
stantly to complete this work 
of wonder. See PYRAMIDS 

CHEQUE, chek. See 


shehr boor'. See 
FRANCE (Interest- 
ing Cities). 



small stone fruit, 
one of the most 
popular tree fruits 


lightest snow." And who has not heard of, and 
in his mind's eye seen, the graceful branches 
of dainty pink cherry blossoms of Japan at 
Cherry Festival time trees so covered with 
soft bloom it would seem some fleecy pink 
clouds must have dropped down at sunset time! 
Cherries are now cultivated in nearly all 
countries of the temperate zones. The domesti- 
cated forms are derived from two basic species, 
the sweet cherry and the sour 
cherry, and there is also a 
third type intermediate be- 
tween the sweet and sour, 
known as the Duke. In cul- 
tivation hundreds of vari- 
eties have been developed 
Although practically every 
state in the Union produces 
some cherries, there are few 
large commercial orchards, 
and several other tree fruits 
show a much higher yield. 
The most favored sections 
are those of equable climate. 
Well-established cherry or- 
chards do not require the 
degree of skill in manage- 
ment that most other fruits 
demand, but the trees are 
difficult to transplant, and 
serious losses are frequently 
incurred by growers of young 
trees. The fruit must be 
harvested when 
mature, since it 
does not ripen after 
picking. Ripe 
cherries are easily 
injured, but with 
modern methods of 
packing it is pos- 
sible to ship con- 
signments from the 
Pacific coast to the 

The delicious 
flavor of cherries is 
known to every- 
one. The fruit is 
equally popular 
whether fresh or 

Photo*. O B C 

grown in home gar- It was originally 482 feet high, and its sides were 765 feet long 
dens. Because the at the base. Th corner shown is known as "The Pilgrim Way, 
birds are very fond f r here is the easiest ascent to the top. In the lower illustration canned, and is used 
nf rViArnV nnH can be n ted the great size and weight of the stones which m numerous wavs 
Ot C&erries ana wcre laid one another in this vast ancient monument. m numerous wa . vs 

drop the seeds far 

and wide, cherry trees grow wild in all countries 
where they are planted. Either wild or culti- 
vated, the trees are ornamental, with their 
satiny brown bark against the oval, dark-green 
leaves, dotted here and there with bunches of 
light, bright-red, or purplish-black fruit, feasts 

for birds as well as food for man. 

Before the leaves come, the wealth of white 
blossoms make the trees seem "covered with 

notably for pies, 

tarts and sauce, confectionery, frozen desserts, 
and soda-fountain concoctions. Cherry brandies 
and cordials are made from the fruit of the 
wild black cherry. See page 1344. B.M.D. 

Classification. Cherries belong to the rose family, 
Rosaccat, and to the genus that includes the peach 
and plum, Prunus. The cultivated sweet cherries and 
Dukes are derived from P. avium; the sour cherries 
are from P. cerasus. The wild black cherry (P. scro- 




Una) is a handsome, spreading tree valued for shade, 
lumber, and fruit. The little wild chokecherry tree 
(P. virginiana) is sometimes mistaken for a young 
specimen of P. serotina, but one bite of a bitter, 
puckery chokecherry should teach the unwary to 
recognize the tree by its much broader leaves and the 
disagreeable odor of leaves and bark. Yet the birds 
strip the fruit from the chokecherry trees, and so 
their seed has been widely distributed. 

CHERSONESUS, kur so ne' sus, a name 
which the ancient Greeks applied to several 
peninsulas. Three of the most important of 
these were the Thracian Chersonesus, north- 
west of the Hellespont, corresponding to the 
peninsula of the Dardanelles; the Tauric Cher- 
sonesus, the peninsula formed by the Black 

Sweet is the air with the budding haws, and the 

valley stretching for miles below 
Is white with blossoming cherry-trees, as if just 

covered with lightest snow. 

The illustration shows form of tree, appearance 
of flowers, detail of leaves, and the ripened fruit. 


CHERRY LAUREL, law' rel. The cherry 
laurels are ornamental shrubs or small trees 
belonging to the same genus as the cherry of 
horticulture. They bear evergreen leaves and 
clusters of small white flowers. Their rounded 
stone fruits have a very disagreeable taste, and 
the fruit kernels, as well as the leaves of the 
plants, are poisonous. From the leaves is ob- 
tained poison laurel-water, which is much like 
oil of almonds, and was formerly used in medi- 
cine. The common, or English, cherry laurel is 
a favorite ornamental in Europe, and is also 
planted to a considerable extent in California 
and the states south of Virginia. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The cherry laurels belong to the 
family Rosaceae. They are not true laurels. The 
botanical name of the English cherry laurel is Prunus 

Photo*. VUual EducAUoo ttorvic* 


Wild cherry (above) and the chokecherry. 

Sea and the Sea of Azov, now called the 
Crimea; and the Cimbrian Chersonesus, the 
modern Jutland. 

Derivation. The word Chersonesus comes from 
the Greek chersos, meaning dry land, and nesos, 
meaning island. 

CHERUB, OR CHERUBIM, chehr' u bim. A 
cherub is one of an order of angelic beings 
ranking next to the order of seraphim. The 
cherubim (plural of cherub) are believed to 
excel in knowledge, the word cherub being de- 
rived from the Hebrew word to know. In art 





Suggested designs for cover page of a school booklet 
devoted to the cherry 

they are usually represented by heads, with 
one, two, or three pairs of wings, and in the 
earliest religious paintings their faces are 
thoughtful and intelligent. The early painters 
also held strictly to a prescribed color scheme 
when representing cherubim in a Glory of 
Angels, a Glory being a portrayal of the several 
orders of angels in circles. The inner circle, 
that of the seraphim, is red, the symbol of love; 
the second, that of cherubim, is blue, emblem 
of light and knowledge. This law of color was 
observed in the oldest pictures, in illuminated 
manuscripts, and in stained glass. Later artists 
gave themselves more freedom in representing 
angelic beings, a change noticeable in such 
celebrated paintings as Raphael's remarkable 
Sistine Madonna and Perugino's Coronation of 
the Virgin. 

In the Raphael picture, the Madonna is de- 
scending from clouds composed of heads of 
thousands of cherubim, which are shown in a 
golden-tinted background. In the Perugino 
picture, the floating cherubim have wings of 
various colors, blending in an exquisite har- 
mony of tones. The aspect of serious medita- 
tion noticeable in the cherubic faces painted 
by the more reverent artists is beautifully ex- 
emplified in the two famous cherubim at the 
base of the Sistine Madonna, and in the cheru- 
bim in Perugino's Assumption of the Virgin. 
See MADONNA: reproduction of the ASSUMP- 
TION (page 450;. 

Figures Represent 
Thousands of.5u?heb 


Michigan 1 





The figures are compiled from latest available govern- 
ment reports. 

CHERUBINI, ka roo be' ne, MARIA LUIGI 
Italian musical composer, excelling especially 
in sacred music. He 
was born at Florence, 
and commenced his 
musical studies at the 
age of six, under his 
father's instruction. 
At nine he began to 
study under eminent 
masters and soon 
showed a genius for 
composition. Before 
he was sixteen he had 
produced his credit- 
able Mass and Credo 
in D y and a Te Deum 
for male voices, which 
is still often sung. 
His fame first became 
general in 1805, when 
he went to Vienna to compose an opera for the 
New Imperial Opera House. That production, 
Faniska, won him many friends, notably Haydn 
and Beethoven, who pronounced him the 
greatest composer of sacred music of the age. 
After 1809 he wrote sacred music almost ex- 
clusively. He made several visits to London, 
being appointed at one time composer to the 
king, and later superintendent of the king's 
chapel. In 1821 he became director of the 





Paris Conservatory, and during his adminis- 
tration of more than twenty years, he brought 
it to a high standard of excellence. His 
masterpiece is the opera Les Deux Journtes 
("The Water Carrier"). 
CHESAPEAKE, THE. See WAR or 1812. 
CHESAPEAKE, ches' a peek, AND OHIO 
CANAL, a waterway along the north side of 
the Potomac River from the former George- 
town, now a part of the city of Washington, to 
Cumberland, Md. This canal has an interest- 
ing history, for as far back as 1774 it was an 
idea of Washington's to make the Potomac 
navigable from tidewater to the Alleghenies. 
The scheme was interrupted by the Revolu- 
tionary War, but in 1784 a company was 
formed to revive it; Washington was the 
organization's head until he became President 
of the United States. The project was aban- 
doned in 1820, but was later taken up and 
completed in 1850 at a cost of over $1 1,000,000. 
The canal is 184 miles long, sixty feet wide, 
and six feet deep, with seventy -four locks 
having a total lift of 609 feet. Comparatively 
little traffic passes through it. See CANAL. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY, a large inlet on the 
Atlantic coast extending northward through 
the states of Virginia and Maryland, dividing 
the latter into two 
parts, called respec- 
tively, near the bay, 
the Eastern and the 
Western Shore. The 
channel at the en- 
trance is twelve miles 
wide, with Cape 
Henry and Cape 
Charles on either side. 
The bay, which the 
Indians called the 
Great Salt Water, is 
200 miles long, from 
four to forty miles 
wide, and has a depth 
of from thirty to sixty 
feet in the channel. 
The coast is very irregular, having many 
bays and inlets and large estuaries at the 
mouths of the numerous rivers which empty 
into it. The most important of the latter are 
the James, the York, the Rappahannock, and 
the Potomac, on the west; the Susquehanna, 
on the north; and the Elk, the Chester, and 
the Choptank, on the east. 

The shores are low and marshy and abound 
in wild waterfowl, while the shallow, brackish 
waters contain vast natural beds of the famous 
Chesapeake oysters. Oyster beds are also 
planted scientifically, and the oyster trade of 
the Maryland and Virginia beds is the largest 
in the world. (The details of the oyster in- 
dustry are given in these volumes under the 


title OYSTER.) As the bay is navigable for 
deep-sea vessels nearly its entire length, it 
has a large foreign as well as coastwise trade. 
The most important port is Baltimore, which 
is situated on the west shore, in Maryland, 
on the Patapsco River. Other large, busy ports 
are Norfolk and Portsmouth, in the eastern 
part of Virginia, at the southern end of the bay. 
These twin cities contain large naval and coal- 
ing stations. The United States Naval Acad- 
emy is at Annapolis, on the west shore of the 
bay, in Maryland, not far from Washington, 


CHESS. This interesting and fascinating 
game is in no sense a game of chance, but is 
the most intellectual of all games of skill, for 
it not only trains the power of observation but 
is a mental contest which brings forth such 
qualities as foresight, resource, imagination, 
and ingenuity on the part of the players. Chess 
has often been compared to a game of strategy 
as played by two opposing generals on the 
battlefield, and it resembles war in the sense 
that it consists of attack and defense and has a 
definite object in view; that is, the surrender 
of the king, toward which all the moves of the 
game lead. 

The Board and the Pieces. The game of 
chess is played by two persons on a board 
which is divided into sixty-four squares, ar- 
ranged in eight rows of eight squares each, 
and colored alternately white and black. The 
same board is used in the game of checkers. 
Each player has a set of sixteen men; one set 
is colored white and the other black. Eight 
of each set are of the lowest grade and are 
named pawns; the other eight are of various 
grades and are named pieces. The pieces on 
each side consist of a king, queen, two bish- 
ops, two knights, and two rooks, or castles. 
The board must be placed so that each player 
shall have a white square at his. right hand. 

The Position of the Pieces. At the begin- 
ning of the game all the men are arranged 
upon the two rows of squares next to the play- 
ers, the pieces on the first, or nearest, row, and 
the pawns on the row immediately in front 
of the pieces. The king and queen occupy 
the two central squares facing the correspond- 
ing pieces on the opposite side. The rule to 
be remembered is that the queen always oc- 
cupies her own color, which means that the 
white queen is set on the light square and the 
black queen on the black square. The two 
bishops occupy the squares next to the king 
and queen; the two knights, the squares next 
the bishops; the castles occupy the last, or 
corner, squares. The illustration shows how 
the men are arranged when the game starts. 
The men standing on the king's or queen's 
side of the board are named, respectively, king's 




and queen's men. Thus, king's bishop or 
knight is the bishop or knight on the side of 
the king. The pawns are named from the 

Q K B Kt R 


The position of the pieces at the beginning of the 

pieces in front of which they stand, such as 
king's pawn, queen's castle's pawn, and so on. 
The names of the men are abbreviated, as 
Mows: King, K\ King's Bishop, KB\ King's 
Knight, KKt\ King's Castle or Rook, KC or 
KR\ Queen, Q\ Queen's Bishop, QB\ Queen's 
Knight, QKt\ Queen's Castle, QC or QR; 
Pawns, P. 

The Moves of the Pieces. In chess, a man 
captures by occupying the position held by 
the captured man, who is then removed from 
the board. In this, the game differs from 
checkers, where the piece played is set one 
square beyond the man "jumped." The pawn 
moves straight forward one square at a time, 
with two exceptions: when it is moved first, 
in which case it may be advanced either one 
or two squares, at the discretion of the player; 
and when it captures a man, at which time it 
always moves diagonally one square, to the 
position of the captured man. A pawn never 
moves backward. A piece or another pawn 
directly in front of it stops its progress. When 
a pawn reaches the eighth row, or the extreme 
limit of the board, it may be exchanged for 
any piece previously lost which the player 
chooses. As a rule, the queen, the most val- 
uable piece, is chosen, if during the game that 
piece has been lost. This is called queening 
a pawn. 

The rook, or castle, moves for any distance 
in a straight line either forward, backward, or 
sidewise, but not diagonally. 

The bishop moves any distance either back- 
ward or forward, but only diagonally. It must 
be noted that a bishop always moves on 
squares of the same color. 

The queen is the most powerful piece on the 
board; she can move any distance in any 
straight line, either forward, backward, side- 
wise, or diagonally, as far as her path is clear. 
It is of course understood that one of her own 
men stops her progress, but she may capture 
an opponent exposed to direct approach. 

The king is at once the weakest and most 
valuable piece on the board. As regards di- 
rection, he is as free as the queen, but for 
distance he is limited to one square at a 
time. Standing on any central square, he com- 
mands the eight squares around him, and no 

Castling. Besides his ordinary move, the 
king has another, by special privilege, in which 
the castle participates. Once in the game, if 
the squares between king and castle are clear, 
if neither king nor castle has been moved, 
if the king has not been attacked by any hostile 
man, and if no hostile man has commanded 
the square over which the king has to pass, 
the king's or queen's castle can be placed next 
to the king and the king can be moved over 
the castle to the adjoining square. This move 
is called castling. 

The knight, unlike the other pieces, has a 
peculiar move. He moves over two squares 
at a time, one of which is diagonal and the 
other is straight. He may move in any direc- 
tion, and he can leap around any man occu- 
pying a square intermediate to that to which 
he intends to go. The knight always moves 
to a square of a different color. The knight, 
like the king, when on a central square on the 
board, commands eight squares, which are at 
two squares' distance, as shown in the third 

The Value of the Pieces. If the pawn is 
taken as the standard of unity, the relative 
value of the pieces is as follows: pawn, i; 
bishop or knight, 3; rook, 5; queen, 9. The 
knight or the bishop is usually known as a 
"minor piece." The value of the pieces also 
depends upon the state of the game. Thus, at 
the end of the game a pawn is much more 
valuable than at the beginning, and a knight 
is generally stronger than a bishop; on the 
other hand, two bishops at the end are more 
valuable than two knights. 

Check and Checkmate. The definite aim in 
chess is to force the surrender of the opposing 
king. The king in chess cannot be taken; he 
can only be in such a position that if it were 
any other piece he would be taken. When a 
piece or pawn attacks him, he is said to be 




in check', that is, he is in such a position that 
the next opposing move would capture him, 
and the opponent is bound to give notice by 


saying "check." When the king is in check, 
all other plans must be abandoned and all 
other men sacrificed, if necessary, to save him 
from that situation. This is done either by 
removing him to an adjacent square not com- 
manded by any man of the adversary, or by 
interposing one of his own men, and so screen- 
ing him from check, or by capturing the at- 
tacking man. When the king can no longer be 
defended on being checked by the adversary, 
he is checkmated, and the game is ended. 

When neither of the players is able to check- 
mate the other, the result is a drawn game. 
When the player having the superior force, by 
oversight or want of skill, blocks his oppo- 
nent's king so that he cannot move without 
going into check and none of his other men 
can be moved, such a situation is known as 
stalemate, and the game is considered a draw. 

Opening, Middle, and End. A game of chess 
can be divided into three parts: the opening, 
the middle, and the end. In the opening, each 
player seeks to move his pieces in such a 
way as to secure the best strategic position for 
the actual battle which develops in the middle 
game. The various openings of a game are 
explained in all books of chess, and any player 
who wishes to gain proficiency must master 
the openings. A few broad principles govern- 
ing the opening are to play forth the minor 
pieces early, to castle the king in good time 
and not expect to establish a strong attack 
with half of one's forces at home. 

The actual battle takes place in the middle 
game and results in the capture of such a 
number of pawns and pieces as usually decides 

which side will eventually win the game. It 
is during the middle game, where such an 
endless variety of situations is to be found, 
that the players have the opportunity to dis- 
play all their ingenuity and power of combi- 
nation. A few simple hints which ought to 
guide a player during any part of the game 
are to try always to perceive the motive of 
the adversary before making the next move; 
to look over the board to see whether he can- 
not make a better move than the one he in- 
tended to make; to be careful not to play 
into his opponent's hand by being tempted to 
capture a piece which is only intended as a 

Notation. The rows of squares running 
straight up and down the board are called 
files', those running from side to side are called 
lines. Each of the sixty-four squares of the 
chess board has a name and two numbers, as 
is shown in the second illustration. Each 
square is named after the piece which occupies 
it at the beginning of the game, and is called 
the king's square or the queen's square, and so 
on; the whole file has the same name. But 
each player counts from his own side, and it 
is easily seen that row number i for him is 
row number 8 of his adversary, and row num- 
ber 2 for him is row number 7 for his adver- 


The dotted lines show possible direction and distance 

in any one move; the dot shows where any of these 

moves will place him. 

sary, and so on. Other signs used in chess 
books or in the explanation of chess problems 
are: ( ), to\ (x), takes. 

The Scholar's Mate. We give below, as an 
example, a short game which has been prac- 
ticed upon young and inexperienced players 
and which never fails to cause such a player 
the greatest astonishment. It is called the 




scholar's mate, and in this game checkmate is 
given in the first few opening moves. The 
movements can be followed on the diagram 
in the second illustration: 


1. P-K4 i- p - R 4 

2. KB-QB 4 2. KB-QB 4 
3 Q-KR 4 3- KKt-KB 3 
4. Q-KB 7 and checkmate 

History. The game of chess, which is the 
most cosmopolitan game and is played now 
in every part of the world, originated in Asia. 
It seems probable that it was invented in India, 
and from there it was introduced into Persia. 
The Arabs conquered Persia in the seventh 
century, learned the game, and introduced it 
into all the countries they conquered after- 
ward. In this way chess reached Spain, 
whence it spread all over Europe. Benjamin 
Franklin popularized the game in the United 

Derivation. The name in all the European lan- 
guages is derived from the Persian word shah, which 
means king, and indicates the aim of the game. 

CHEST, OR THORAX, tho' raks, the boxlike 
portion of the human body that lies between 
the neck and the abdomen. It is shaped some- 
what like a cone, with the narrower end up- 
ward. The ribs, which are attached to the 
breastbone in front and to the spinal column 
behind, form its sides. 

Within the thorax are the heart, the lungs, 
the great arterial and venous trunks, the wind- 
pipe, the bronchi, the oesophagus, the thoracic 
duct. There are several small openings at the 
top of the thorax through which pass the large 
arteries and veins, the important nerves sup- 
plying heart and lungs, the windpipe, and the 
oesophagus. The bottom of the thorax is 
formed by a large layer of muscle, known as 
the diaphragm, (which see) ; it completely sepa- 
rates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity. 
This layer of muscle is perforated by the aorta, 
vena cava, oesophagus, and thoracic duct 
those structures which pass from one cavity 
to the other. 

In the act of breathing, the muscles which 
connect and cover the ribs cause them to be 
drawn upward and outward, while the dia- 
phragm flattens downward. Thus, the chest 
can be increased in size in every direction; 
when one takes a deep breath, the volume 
of the chest cavity becomes greater, and the 
lungs, due to a slight vacuum which exists be- 
tween them and the chest wall, are stretched 
out to fill this greater space. In so doing, air is 
drawn into the lungs. In expiration, as the 
chest becomes smaller, the thoracic wall and 
diaphragm press lightly against the lungs, and 
the air is expelled. It is evident, therefore, 
that the lungs have no power to expand and 
contract, but that their movement within the 

thorax is entirely passive. In normal, quiet 
breathing, only one-seventh of the total capac- 
ity of the lungs is used. See BREATH AND 


a popular American author of fiction dealing 
with everyday life. A breezy, entertaining 
style, brisk narrative, and unfailing humor won 
a steady market for his stories. Chester was 
born in Ohio, left home at an early age to make 
his own way in the world, and after holding 
a number of positions of a varied sort, he be- 
came a reporter on the Detroit News. From 
this position he advanced to that of Sunday 
editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer, and he soon 
became a regular contributor to leading mag- 
azines. He established his reputation with the 
Get- Rich-Quick Wallingford stories, from which 
a successful play was adapted, and followed the 
series with A Cash Intrigue, The Making of 
Bobby Burnit, Cordelia Blossom, The Jingo: 
A Tale of Red Roses, and others. At his death 
he was engaged in writing a series of tales 
about Hollywood, the chief center for the 
production of American moving pictures. 

CHESTER, PA., is the oldest city in the 
state, situated in Delaware County, in the 
extreme southeastern corner of the state, and 
on the Delaware River. Philadelphia is fifteen 
miles northeast, and Wilmington, Del., is 
fourteen miles southwest. The city has fine 
transportation service through the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Baltimore & Ohio, and the Phila- 
delphia & Reading railroads. Population, 
1928, 74,200 (Federal estimate). 

Chester was settled by Swedes in 1643, and 
was known as Upland until 1682, when the 
name was changed to its present one by Wil- 
liam Perm. It was laid out in 1700, and became 
a city in 1866. Here, in 1777, Washington 
reassembled his troops after the Battle of the 
Brandy wine. 

The home of William Penn, founder of 
Pennsylvania colony, is a feature of historical 
interest. The locality is the seat of Pennsyl- 
vania Military College, Crozier Theological 
Seminary (Baptist), and Swarthmore College. 

Industry. Formerly, shipbuilding was the chief 
industry in Chester, several vessels of the United 
States navy were built in its immense shipyards, 
which were classed with the largest in the United 
States. But its good harbor and exceptional trans- 
portation facilities by water and rail have given va- 
riety to industry, and have made the city the trade 
center for a very prosperous section. Manufacturing 
interests are largely centered in silk, cotton, and 
woolen goods, shipbuilding materials; over 8,000 
people are employed in the 300 factories. 

HOPE, Earl of (1694-1773), an English writer 
and statesman whose political career means 





less to the world than does the influence of 
the remarkable grace and polish of his manners. 
His name has become a synonym for elegance 
of demeanor, and to 
say that a man has the 
manners of a Chester- 
field is to pay the high- 
est possible compli- 
ment to his good 
breeding. Chester- 
field's letters to his 
son, in which he gave 
him advice in matters 
of etiquette, are fa- 
mous, and are justly 
admired for their 
literary excellence. 

Lord Chesterfield 
succeeded his father, 
the third earl, in 1726. 
Two events stand out 
prominently in his political career his ap- 
pointment as ambassador to The Hague, in 
1728, and as lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in 
1745. Both positions he filled with ability. As 
a member of the House of Lords, he was an 
active and bitter opponent of Walpole (see 
WALPOLE, HORACE). Chesterfield was made 
Secretary of State in 1746; two years later 
he retired to private life. 

an English poet, essayist, and novelist, one of 
the most original and forceful of the modern 
group of British 
writers. The out- 
standing feature of his 
work is an extreme 
fondness for paradox. 
He was educated at 
Saint Paul's School 
and later attended the 
classes of the Slade 
Art School. His first 
important publica- 
tion, a volume of 
poems collected under 
the title of The White 
Knight, appeared in 
1900, just after the 
outbreak of the South 
African War. During 
the next three years, 
Chesterton became widely known through his 
brilliant anti-imperialistic articles in the 
Speaker and the London Daily News, and at 
the close of the war he was asked by John 
Morley to write a sketch op Browning for the 
English Men of Letters series. His discussion 
of Browning and one of Dickens, which ap- 
peared later, are illuminating and sympathetic 
literary criticisms. 

Chesterton's philosophy, that of a man 
violently opposed to the attitude of the modern 

Photo. U 4 U 

age, is strikingly set forth in such volumes of 
essays as Heretics, Orthodoxy, and Outline of 

His Stories. His fiction includes several collections 
of ingenious detective stories centered about the 
exploits of "Father Brown", and the novels Man alive, 
The Flying Inn, The New Jerusalem, Incredulity of 
Father Brown, The Everlasting Man, and The Return 
of Don Quixote. 

CHESTNUT, ches' nut. The chestnuts are 
a genus of valuable trees belonging to the 
beech family. But two species are native to 
North America the "spreading chestnut tree" 
of Longfellow's well-loved poem, and the 
smaller chinquapin, which is merely a shrub 
east of the Appalachian Mountains. The 
common chestnut is a beautiful tree that some- 
times grows to be 100 feet high. It is a joy to 
the eye the year round. In the spring appear 
the well-shaped, glossy, dark-green leaves; 
then come yellow, fragrant catkins, and in 

The chestnuts, lavish of their long-hid gold, 

To the faint Summer, beggared now and old, 

Pour back the sunshine hoarded 'neath her favor- 

ing eye. 


A n Indian- Summer Reverie. 

autumn, leaves of pure gold with borrowed 
summer sunshine. At last, we find it standing 
4 'knee-deep" in its own yellow leaves, and 
scattered all about are the velvet-lined burs, 
turned brown with frost, yielding their store 
of smooth, brown nuts. American chestnuts 
have the finest flavor, but those of Spain and 
Italy are the largest, and in those countries 
they are a staple food among the peasants. 

Ordinary chestnut trees bear nuts only 
after the tenth or twelfth year, but Luther 
Burbank produced a chestnut seedling which 
bears nuts in eighteen months. Chestnuts 
are eaten raw or boiled, baked or roasted, and 


sometimes are dried and ground into flour 
for bread or cakes. They are often used with 
candy, desserts, and poultry dressing. Chestnut 


Water, 5.9 

Fat, 70 
Ash, 2.2 


bark is valued for tanning, and the timber is 
used for woodwork, furniture, railroad ties, 
fence posts, and fuel. 

It is a great misfortune that the American 
chestnut seems doomed to extinction because 
of the attacks of the chestnut-tree blight, a 
fungus disease imported from China. Since 
1 004, when the trouble was first noticed in New 
York Zoological Park, the disease has been 
spreading rapidly throughout the chestnut 
regions, from the Eastern states southward and 
westward. A nut-bearing, blight-resistant tree 
that may some day take the place of the 
original chestnut has been produced by 
the United States Department of Agriculture. 
This is a cross between the Japanese chestnut 
and the chinquapin. B.M.D. 

Scientific Names. Chestnuts belong to the family 
Fagaceae. The common American chestnut is Cas- 
tanea deniala. The chinquapin is C. pumila. 

CHBSUNCOOK, cAew' *<><>, LAKE. See 
MAINE (Lakes and Rivers). 

CHEVALIER BAYARD, shev a leer' ba yahr'. 

CHEVIOT, chev' i ut, HILLS, a low moun- 
tain range lying partly in Northumberland, 
England, and partly in Roxburghshire, Scot- 
land, forming about thirty-five miles of the 
boundary line between the two countries. 
The hills extend from the River Tweed on the 
northeast to the sources of the Liddel on 
the southwest. They are smooth in contour and 
covered with grass, providing excellent grazing 
ground for the famous Cheviot shoep. The 
region is also noted for its grouse. During 
the Border wars, the hills were the scene of 
much of the romance and history of those 
troublous times, and they will always be asso- 
ciated with the old ballad, Chevy Chase. 

CHEVY CHASE. See above. 



CHEYENNE, shi en', Wvo. See WYOMING 
(back of map). 

AMERICAN (Most Important Tribes). 

(Rivers and Lakes). 

CHIAROSCURO, ke ah ro skoo' ro. One of 
the most difficult things to master in painting 
is the handling of light and shade, or chiaro- 
scuro, as it is called, from Italian words mean- 
ing light and dark. Unless objects in the light 
stand out and those in the shadow are prop- 
erly subordinated, perspective seems to be 
lacking. Correggio and Rembrandt rank 
among the great masters of the art of chi- 



ILL. While the site of Chi- 
cago was still a wilderness of marsh and forest 
roamed by Indians, the three cities of the world 
that surpass it in population were great centers 
of trade and industry, and two of these had 
many centuries of growth back of them. For 
only London, New York, and Berlin are larger 
than this metropolis of Illinois and of inland 
America. Quite as remarkable as its size and 

rapidity of growth is the restless energy which 
has characterized every step of its advance. 
William Vaughn Moody, a poet who spent 
many years in Chicago, described its domi- 
nant spirit in the lines 

And yonder where, gigantic, wilful, young, 
Chicago sitteth at the northwest gates, 
With restless, violent hands and casual tongue, 
Molding her mighty fates. 





Briefly Stated. A few of the many facts Size and Location. It is the popular belief 

relating to Chicago may be summarized that Chicago's area is greater than that of any 

briefly. Some of the figures are subject to con- other American city except New York, but it 

stant slight changes. - . 

Area, 210.5 square miles. 

Banks, national and state, in city 
and suburbs, 250. 

Boulevard mileage, 130. 

Building permits yearly, exceeding 

Cemeteries, 61. 

Churches, 1,200. 

Dispensaries, 22. 

Elevation above sea level, 600 feet. 

Fire-engine companies, 128; hook 
and ladder companies, 38. 

Firemen, officers and men, 2,325. 

Golf courses within twenty-five 
miles of the business center, 180 

Homes, about 670,000. 

Hospitals, 84. 

Length of city, north to south, 
26 miles; width from east to west g 

Libraries, 26 (including the public 
library and its many branches as i). 

MaiJL carriers, over 3,000. 

Medical schools, 29. 

Newspapers and periodicals, about 

Parks, area, 6,500 acres 

Police, officers and men, average 

Postoffice clerks, about 6,200 

Public schools, 340 

Pupils in public schools, about 

Street, longest (Western Avenue) 
23^ miles 

Street railway mileage, 1,350 

Streets and alleys, 5,160 miles. 


This beautiful structure escaped 
destruction in the great fire of 

York is second; 
the area within Los Angeles' 
corporate limits is greatest. The 
area of Greater New York is 
191,760 acres; of Los Angeles, 
262,896 acres; of Chicago, 133,- 
800 acres, or 210.5 square miles. 

Chicago has more than 5,000 
miles of streets and alleys more 
than the entire road mileage in 
some of the small states of the 
Union. The city proper has a 
frontage on Lake Michigan of 
twenty-six, and with compactly 
built suburbs, which are con- 
tinuous extensions of the city, 
of about thirty-three miles. The 
greatest east and west extent is 
nine and one-half miles. Densely 
populated suburbs extend more 
than two miles farther west. 

Chicago is in Cook County, of 
which it is the county seat. It 
lies along the southwestern shore 
of Lake Michigan, on a plain but 
fifteen feet or thereabouts above 
the level of the lake, or 596 feet 
above sea level, and much of the 
land along the shore has been 
built up from a flat beach. 

Though it is called a Western 
city, and is Western in spirit, 
Chicago is in reality well to the 
east of the center of the country; 

Teachers in public schools, more l8 7i; built in 1869 it remains it is 2,274 miles from San Fran- 

a landmark of earlier days. dsco> and bu t OII f ro m New 

York. Its marvelous growth in population and 
commercial and industrial impoitance has 
been largely due to its position at the head 
of Lake Michigan, where it formed for many 
years the only outlet for the products of the 
Middle West. 

Plan of the City. The original plan of the 
city was influenced very decidedly by the 
Chicago River, a little stream, but a very 
important one. It is formed by two branches, 
one from the northwest and one from the 
southwest, which unite less than a mile from 
the lake, meeting the lake nearly midway 
between the northern and southern limits 
of the city. This stream was once sluggish, 
unpicturesque, and very dirty, because it 
carried pollution into the lake, but it is now 
clear water, and it no longer flows into the 
lake. When the great Drainage Canal was 
completed, the water course was reversed; 
its flow is now from Lake Michigan, inland from 
its mouth, into the Drainage Canal and eventu- 
ally into the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. 
It is the only river in the world whose flow is 

than 12,500 

Theaters, including playhouses and moving-pic- 
ture theaters, about 330. Some of the latter group 
have seating capacities of 4,500 and 5,000. 

Voters, registered, exceed 1,250,000. 

Water used per day, about 900,000,000 gallons. 

Wage-earners, over 1,250,000. 

The People. Chicago has a greatly varied 
population, about seventy-seven per cent of 
its inhabitants being foreign-born or of foreign 
parentage; twenty-eight nationalities are repre- 
sented. By far the most numerous of these 
adopted citizens are the Poles, of whom there 
are over 358,000. That is, Chicago is a larger 
Polish city than is Vilna, one of the most im- 
portant cities of Poland. Germans rank next 
in number, then Russians, Czechoslovaks, 
Swedes, and Italians, in that order. News- 
papers are published regularly in at least 
ten languages, and within the confines of 
the city the church service is given in at 
least a score. The total population of Chicago 
in 1910 was 2,185,283; in 1920 it was 2,701,212; 
in 1929 the Census Bureau estimated it to be 



Photo. U A U 

Freight trains are dashing past nearly every corner in the "Loop" at frequent intervals These trains are heavily 
loaded with merchandise which they discharge at the big department stores and at various other mercantile 
establishments. They handle so much freight that it is estimated that fully 5,000 trucks are taken off the streets 
that, otherwise, would be passing through the Loop. There are no collisions, for the trains use their tracks on 
a one-way system, guarded by block signals. The rolling stock now in use in the tunnels, 40 feet below Chicago's 
street surface, consists of 132 electric locomotives, of from 30 to 50 horse power each, and 3,000 freight cars of 
various types, each four feet wide and ten feet long, with a capacity of from one to six tons. 

away from its mouth. Most of the city's 
shipping centers now at the Navy Pier, at the 
mouth of the river, and thus the two-mile 
extent of the river within the industrial center 
is less congested than formerly. 

By the Chicago River and its branches, the 
city is divided into three well-recognized 
districts, or "sides": the South Side, including 
all the territory south and east of the river; 
the North Side, including all that to the north; 
and the West Side, much the greatest in area, 
to the west of the river's branches. Three 
great tunnels and no fewer than forty-nine 
bridges with movable spans connect the various 
parts of the city with each other. In the main 
the streets are regularly laid out, crossing each 
other at right angles. 

The Business Section. One feature very 
characteristic of Chicago is its "Loop," or 
business district, which is crowded into an 
area little more than one and one-half square 
miles in extent. Not all of its great business 

houses are within that space, but the larger 
proportion, and by far the more important, 
of them are there. In other cities a man may 
have to travel miles to consult his dentist, his 
oculist, and his physician, buy his clothing, and 
lunch at his favorite restaurant; in Chicago 
he can do it all within a very few blocks. 
This has its advantages, but it also has its 
disadvantages. The crush in the streets and 
the din from street cars, trucks, elevated trains, 
and automobiles are by no means soothing 
to the hardened resident, while to the stranger 
they are nerve-racking. During comparatively 
late years, the noise and the crowding have 
been greatly lessened by the construction of 
sixty miles of tunnels, forty feet below the 
surface, through which most of the heavy 
freight is carried; the tunnel company uses 
132 electric motors and 3,000 cars for freight, 
which run on tracks of 2-feet gauge. 

Within the business district, State Street 
stands as the center of the retail trade. Depart- 





From an intricate switchboard in a large room below the surface of the ground, multicolored lights illumine 
every spray of water. This is the largest fountain of the kind in the world. 

ment stores have been brought to a high state 
of efficiency in Chicago, and the group on State 
Street is the largest in the world. The great 
retail establishment of Marshall Field & Com- 
pany, covering more than an entire block, is 
unmatched elsewhere in the world in size and 
equipment. Wells Street is the center of the 
wholesale dry-goods trade; La Salle Street 
is the financial district, or "Wall Street of 

The most notable street of the downtown 
district, and for a mile one of the finest vistas 
in the world, is Michigan Avenue, the first 
street west of the lake. With the grassy stretch 
of Grant Park to the east and many of the 
most substantial and striking buildings of the 
city on the west, and with its beautiful lighting 
system, it is probably unexcelled. In accord- 
ance with its "city beautiful" idea, Chicago has 
been devoting much attention to beautify- 
ing its lake front. Colonnades, the largest 
illuminated fountain in the world (the Bucking- 
ham Fountain), pillared terraces, Lincoln and 
Logan statues, and ornamental bridges have 
been added. At the south end of Grant Park, 
east of the Illinois Central Railroad tracks 
and close to the shore of the lake, are Field 

Museum of Natural History, the largest marble 
building in the world; Soldier Field, a great 
athletic concourse; the Shedd Aquarium; and a 
planetarium designed to show the relative 
positions of over 4,500 planets, planetoids, 
and stars. Facing Michigan Avenue, in Grant 
Park, is the Chicago Art Institute; it is the 
only building in the park along Michigan 
Avenue; the Goodman Memorial Theater, 
whose auditorium is nearly all underground, 
is east of the avenue. 

The Skyline. For many years, in order that 
the congested business district should not be 
deprived of light and air in its stores and 
offices, ordinances decreed that no building 
should exceed 200 feet in height; the limit was 
later raised to 260 feet. During those years 
the city's greatest buildings were four-square, 
boxlike structures, sixteen to eighteen stories 
in height. To-day ordinances permit buildings 
reaching skyward an indefinite number of 
stories, if placed where they will not deprive 
neighboring buildings of light and air, or 
where the set-back style of architecture is 
employed. The skyline no longer shows build- 
ings of practically uniform height; throughout 
the business district towering shafts rise above 


More than forty stories in height. 

Photo.: P ft A 

A modern Cleopatra's Needle. 




their neighbors, and Chicago is becoming 
known as "Tower Town." 

A City of Great Hotels. On Michigan 
Avenue, the world's largest hotel, the Stevens, 
rises twenty-five stories above the street level, 
and contains 3,000 rooms. The Palmer House, 
with 2,200 rooms, and the Morrison Hotel, 
with a tower reaching forty-two stories above 
the street, are within the Loop, as are also 
the lofty Sherman and the La Salle, both 
among the city's greatest hotels. On Michigan 
Avenue, also, are the Auditorium and the 
Congress hotels, older than any of the others 
named above. Newer and among the city's 
most famous hotels is the Drake, over a mile 
north of the Loop, facing the lake and the 
Lake Shore Drive. One of the greatest proper- 
ties of this class in America is the Edgewater 
Beach Hotel on the North Side. Scores of 
other hotels, for residential and transient 
guests, dot the city. 

Other Buildings. The newer business struc- 
tures reflect the most modern architectural 
designs. Possibly the most beautiful news- 
paper building in the world is the 35-story 
Gothic Tribune Tower, near the Michigan 
Avenue bridge. South of it, facing the river, 
is the 33-story "333 North Michigan Avenue." 
Also grouped near Michigan Avenue Bridge are 
the London Guarantee and the double Wrigley 
buildings. North of the Tribune Tower is the 
Medinah Athletic Club, a 42-story Shriners' 
club building. Within the Loop or near its 
borders are the needle-like Mather Tower, 
the Pittsfield, the Roanoke Tower, the Wil- 
loughby Tower, the Pure Oil, the Straus, the 
Bankers, the Steuben Club, largest in the world 
all thirty or more stories in height. The new 
Civic Opera building is one of the city's largest 
and most beautiful structures. Among bank 
buildings, the Continental- Commercial, Il- 
linois Merchants, the Federal Reserve Bank, 
and the new Foreman Banks building are 
notable. A Board of Trade building, reaching 
more than forty stories in height, was completed 
in 1930. (See, also, section below, Utilization 
of Air Rights.) A mile north of the Loop is the 
37-story Palmolive Building, completed in 1920. 

River-Front Improvement. Formerly the 
commission merchants of the city centered 
their activities for about four blocks on South 
Water Street, along the south bank of the 
river and west of Michigan Avenue. They 
agreed to abandon their desirable location 
and move to a new center on the West Side. 
This made possible one of the greatest civic 
enterprises ever undertaken by any city. 
South Water Street has become Wacker Drive, 
with a wide, double-decked roadway facing 
the river, both east and west of Michigan 
Avenue. Already some of the most stately of 
Chicago's business buildings are on the Drive; 
eventually its entire length will be lined with 

structures of striking architecture. The north 
bank of the river is to be developed some day 
in the same manner. 

Straightening the River. Southwest of the 
Loop the course of the Chicago River interfered 
with city planning. Railroads with terminals 


This illustration dates from 1906 the "horse and 
buggy" period. Not one of these buildings now 
stands; they have been replaced by towering sky- 
scrapers from twenty to forty stories in height. 

south of the Loop spread their yards in a net- 
work east of the river and prevented develop- 
ment toward the south. By digging a new 
river bed for a distance of several blocks and 
thus changing the course of the stream, at a cost 
of many millions of dollars, there was provided 
room for rearrangement of railroad tracks 
and for expansion of the city's business inter- 
ests. New street outlets to the South Side 
were made possible. Work was begun on this 
project in the fall of 1028. 

Utilization of Air Rights. Railroads entering 
the city have networks of tracks penetrating 
to the business district. Though necessary, 
they are unsightly. Legal objections having 
been removed, the railroad companies may 
now sell air rights over their tracks for the 
construction of buildings. The first of such 
structures was completed over the tracks of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, Saint Paul & Pacific 
in IQ2Q by the Chicago Daily News Company, 
involving an investment of $14,000,000. It 
faces the Chicago River, on its west bank. 
The same year the Marshall Field Estate 
finished a great Merchandise Mart on the north 
bank of the river, utilizing air rights secured 
from the Chicago & North Western Railway. 
This structure has 4,000,000 square feet of 
floor space. The Illinois Central Railroad, 
whose depressed yards skirt the lake front, 
offers exceptional opportunities for utilization 
of air rights, and great structures more than 
fifty stories in height are projected on sites 
owned by the railroad and facing Chicago 
River. One proposal, providing for a building 






If a person were to register as a permanent guest and ask the privilege of sleeping in a different room each night, 
he would be a resident for eight years and nearly three months before he could occupy all of the 3,000 guest 
rooms. Moreover, at the end of the period he could boast that he had slept on sixty carloads of mattresses 
Equipment of the several dining rooms required the purchase of 134,000 plates and fifty carloads of other 
chinaware, 138,000 tablecloths, 300,000 napkins, 48,000 drinking glasses, three carloads of silverware, and 
60,000 bath towels. The guest rooms contain 6,000 pictures paintings and etchings which required nearly 

seven lineal miles of picture frame. 

One of several dining rooms is so large that it comfortably seated 4,700 people on the occasion of a banquet 
given in honor of Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh. There are six halls in which dancing is provided; in the grand 
ballroom 3,000 people may dance comfortably at one time. To care for cases of sudden illness, there is on the 
roof a two-ward hospital, completely equipped. On lower floors there are a number of recreation rooms, where 
guests may check their children and leave them under competent supervision; a library of 10,000 volumes; a 
"menagerie" room, where a guest who travels with a pet animal from a cat or dog to a monkey or a bear may 

have it cared for, and the hotel supplies a chef, delegated to cook for it. 

The plant for generating electricity is large enough to meet the needs of 1 2,000 city homes, and the seven huge 
boilers in a sub-basement are sufficient to run, at full pressure, as many generators as would be required to 
supply street lighting for a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The refrigerating system can supply 300 tons of ice 
each day; if it is a question of heat, the 5,000 radiators have sufficient heating surface to make comfortable 

500 five-room bungalows. 

seventy-five stories in height and more floor 
space than that possessed by any other struc- 
ture in the world, indicates the possibilities 
offered by air rights. 

[In these volumes, see the article Aut RIGHTS, where will be 
found illustrations of two buildings mentioned above.] 

Construction Difficulties. Perhaps the most 
Impressive fact to builders in connection with 
the city's mammoth structures is the effort 
and expense necessary to make them firm and 

safe. The soil that underlies the city is an 
unstable mixture of sand, gravel, and blue 
clay, and it is necessary to sink great shafts 
of steel and concrete down to bed rock as 
far as no feet below the surface, in order 
to make the foundations secure. 

The Park System. Chicago is far from 
being the first city of the country in its pro- 
portion of park area to population, but it has 
an unusually well-planned system of beautiful 





The Buckingham Memorial Fountain is seen in the distance in the great central plaza; the Shedd Aquarium 
is shown in the upper right of the illustration. 

parks, in total area over 5, goo acres. Because 
of its large and small parks and general land- 
scape beautification, it is known as the "Garden 

Of the two score, or thereabouts^ of parks, 
seven are of considerable extent. Lincoln 
Park, on the North Side, has an area of 88 1 
acres, but is being largely added to by the 
creation of new land on the lake shore at its 
northern limit. This is the favorite park of 
the children, who are attracted not so much 
by the beautiful shaded drives, the conserva- 
tory, or the lagoon as by the zoological garden. 
About 1,700 animals, one of the finest col- 
lections in the country, are housed here, some 
of them in buildings which are models in 
their way. Most noteworthy of the statues 
with which Lincoln Park is liberally adorned 
are the equestrian statue of Grant and the 
famous Lincoln by Saint Gaudens. 

On the South Side the most important parks 
are Jackson, with 554 acres, and Washington, 
with 371 acres. The former, stretching for one 
and one-third miles along the lake, was the site 
of the World's Columbian Exposition. Beau- 
tiful drives, lagoons for boating, a rose garden, 
and excellent golf and tennis facilities have 
made this one of the city's most popular parks. 
A mile west of Jackson Park, and connected 
with it by the boulevard remembered as the 
Midway Plaisance of the World's Fair, is 
Washington Park, especially noted for its 
effective landscape gardening. The third large 
park on the South Side is Marquette, one of 
the newer playgrounds, with an area of 322 
acres, much frequented by reason of its long 
golf course. Downtown, between Michigan 
Avenue and the lake, is Grant Park, already 
mentioned, whose area is 303 acres. It was 
once known as Lake Front Park. The great 
central plaza is pictured on this page. 

The largest west side parks are Humboldt, 
1,057 acres; Garfield, 187 acres, noted for its 
conservatory, the largest in the country; and 
Douglas, 182 acres. Connecting the various 
parks is a splendid system of boulevards, aggre- 
gating over 130 miles and forming one of 
the finest drives in America. Most of these 
are lined with beautiful homes and some of 
them contain central grass plots decorated 
with trees and flowers. The people of Chicago 
also have the benefit of the natural parks or 
woodland regions which have been purchased 
and opened up by the Cook County forest 
preserve board. These lie in a semicircle about 
the city, and are all easy of access. 

The "Outer Drive." For many years the city 
ignored the possibilities of driveways along the 
lake front. In iq2o the Michigan Avenue 
bridge was opened and the avenue itself was 
widened, to connect the north park system 
with the Loop district. For about two miles 
along the lake on the North Side a driveway 
existed, and extensions have been added for 
several miles farther north. There now exists 
a fine, wide boulevard system from the Loop 
northward through the North Side and the 
lake-bordered suburbs to Waukegan, a distance 
of forty miles, and beyond that city, with roads 
nearly as wide, to the city of Milwaukee. Lake 
Michigan is visible for nearly the entire dis- 
tance. The greater part of this highway is 
known as Sheridan Road. 

In 1925 improvements were undertaken to 
construct as notable an outer drive on the 
South Side. This was named the Leif Ericsson 
Drive. It was completed along the east side 
of Grant Park, close to the shore of the lake, 
in 1926, extended to 23rd Street during the 
next year, and to Jackson Park in 1929. When 
fully completed, by the year 1932, the outer 
drive system in Chicago proper will extend 




from Evanston on the north to the Indiana 
state line on the south. Near the mouth of the 
river, a bridge costing $8,000,000 is the con- 
necting link between the outer drives. 

Playgrounds and Beaches. One of the things 
of which Chicago has most reason to be proud 
is its system of small parks. These are so 
located as to be accessible to the people who 
need them most those in the thickly settled 
districts; and they contain practically all that 
visitors of any age can demand for pleasure or 
relaxation. There are gymnasiums with trained 
instructors, swimming pools, fully equipped 
playgrounds for children of various ages, sand 
piles, wading pools, skating ponds, reading 
rooms, and club rooms, all free. In the sum- 
mer season, thousands seek the bathing beaches 
which may be found at intervals along the lake 
front, from the northern section of the city to 
the south end. 

Libraries. Of more than a score of libraries 
in Chicago, the largest and most popular is the 
Public Library, which dates from the years 
immediately following the great fire of 1871. 
It has over 1,500,000 volumes, and the annual 
circulation is over 12,000,000 volumes. One of 
the most beautiful and complete library build- 
ings in the country houses this collection, and 
there are more than forty branches in different 
parts of the city. The other two large libraries 
are the Newberry and the John Crerar, the 
former occupying an imposing granite building 
on the North Side, the latter housed in its own 
building on Michigan Avenue. These are both 
reference libraries, and their books are not for 
circulation. The Newberry collections are 
especially valuable on such subjects as litera- 
ture, history, music, and genealogy, while the 
John Crerar specializes in the natural, physical, 
and social sciences. 

Schools and Other Institutions. Chicago has 
a complete system of public schools, ranging 
from the kindergarten through the grammar 
grades and high schools to the Chicago Normal 
College, with its three practice schools for 
teachers. In the twenty-four high schools, 
fourteen junior high schools, and more than 
300 grammar schools there are enrolled almost 
525,000 pupils, and the teaching force numbers 
over 12,500. The regular school term is ten 
months, and during half of that time night 
schools are also conducted, their enrollment 
averaging about 40,000, for which there is an 
annual appropriation of nearly $500,000. 
There are schools for the blind, the deaf, and 
the crippled, and in certain schools special 
classes are held for sub-normal children. Many 
of the high schools and more than half of the 
grammar schools include manual training in 
their courses, and domestic science teaching is 
becoming increasingly important. 

Of institutions of higher learning, the Univer- 
sity of Chicago is the most prominent. This 

is one of the most heavily endowed universi- 
ties in the world. Northwestern University, 
one of America's greatest Methodist institu- 
tions, located at Evanston, has its professional 
departments of law, medicine, dentistry, and 
the college of commerce in the city, on the 
McKinlock Campus, at Chicago Avenue and 
the Lake Shore Drive; and there are, in addi- 
tion, Saint Ignatius College, Loyola University, 
Lewis Institute, twenty-nine medical schools, 
McCormick Seminary, and other excellent the- 
ological schools. Crane College, formerly the 
Crane Technical High School, is one of the 
few schools of college rank in the United 
States that are municipally supported. The 
Art Institute, which has in attendance upon 
its classes about 2,500 students each year, has 
been mentioned above. Few other art schools 
in the country offer as complete courses. 

There are about 1,200 churches of all de- 
nominations, and nearly ninety hospitals, the 
most noted being the Cook County, the 
Presbyterian, and Saint Luke's. In Hull 
House (which see) the city has one of the best- 
known social settlements in the world, with 
Miss Jane Addams at its head; others which 
have won a wide reputation are Chicago Com- 
mons, Northwestern University Settlement, 
and the University of Chicago Settlement. 
The United Charities and the Jewish Aid So- 
ciety maintain corps of trained investigators 
whose duty it is to discover the needs of the 
poor and unfortunate, and to see that aid is 
furnished them. There are also smaller char- 
itable organizations, many of which have spe- 
cialized in some particular field. 

Administration. A mayor, elected for a 
term of four years and paid $18,000, the sec- 
ond highest salary of any municipal officer in 
America, is the chief executive, and he is 
assisted by a council of one chamber, com- 
posed of fifty aldermen, one from each of 
as many wards. Certain department heads, 
as the chief of police and the fire chief, are 
appointed by the mayor and go out of office 
with him, but throughout the departments 
themselves, civil-service methods prevail. The 
total revenue and expenditures of the city 
amount to about $210,000,000 annually. 

How the City Gets Its Water. Lake 
Michigan furnishes an inexhaustible store of 
water. To bring into the city and distribute 
almost 000,000,000 gallons used daily, an in- 
tricate system of cribs, lake and land tunnels, 
and pumping stations has been constructed. 
From two to four miles out in the lake there 
are five cribs, with which connect nine tunnels 
well below the bottom of the lake, and these in 
their turn convey the water to ten main land 
tunnels. Some of the lake tunnels are fourteen 
feet in diameter. 

The most important thing about drinking 
water is that it shall be pure, and of course it 

Photo.: U * O 

Educational Monuments. Billings Memorial Hospital, on the campus of the University of Chicago, is shown 
above. Below, on McKinlock Campus, at Chicago Avenue and Lake Michigan, is this great group of pro- 
fessional buildings of Northwestern University. 1361 




the above, three high-speed electric systems 
run trains to Milwaukee on the north, Joliet 
and Aurora on the west, and to Gary and South 
Bend, in Indiana, from stations in Chicago. 

cannot be if impure matter in great quantity 
is dumped into the lake. Despite this fact, all 
the sewage of the city for a long time found 
its way into the lake, but by 1875 it became 
clear that some 
other method of 
sewage disposal 
must be found if 
the health of the 
city were not to 
suffer. Attempts 
were made to use 
the old Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, 
but this proved in- 
adequate, and be- 
tween 1892 and 
1000 the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, 
one of the finest 
sanitary works in 
the world, was 

built. By means THE UNION STATION 

of this the vast Botn buildings shown are units in the great station, which is 
^i,i mA ~t oottrofro one of the finest in the world. All trains are beneath the level 
volume or sewage of the stree t s . 

of the city finds 

The World's 


its way through the Chicago River and the 
Illinois River to the Mississippi, and so to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Local Transportation. In so widely scattered 
a city, with its centralized business, transporta- 
tion is a big problem, and one which has been 
met in three ways. First, there are the elec- 
tric street railways, which have over 1,350 
miles of track, and connect all parts of the city. 
No city in the United States possesses a better 
street-railway system. In the management of 
the surface lines the city is a partner, receiving 
fifty-five per cent of the net profits; this sum 
now amounts to over $50,000,000, the accumu- 
lation of years, and it is being held to finance at 
no distant day a system of subway transporta- 
tion. A fine system of motorbus lines serves 
many parts of the city, and a dozen lines 
radiate from the city in interstate transporta- 

There are four elevated roads, two to the 
West Side, one to the South, and one to the 
North; those which run west and north also 
serve suburban communities. In the downtown 
district these form a "loop" about the main 
business section, enclosing the streets from 
Lake to Van Buren and from Wabash to Wells 
Street, and it is this which gives the popular 
name "Loop" district to this section. The 
Loop encircles the great retail and wholesale 

In addition to these purely local lines, most 
of the great railways entering the city have 
suburban divisions; in 1926 the Illinois Central 
suburban system was electrified. In all, it is 
estimated that the local lines collect daily an 
average of more than 1,500,000 fares. Besides 

Greatest Railway 
Center. Chicago 
stands supreme as 
a railroad center. 
No railroad passes 
through Chicago, 
for every train 
that runs into the 
city enters a ter- 
minal; and the 
twenty-seven main 
lines terminating 
there have a com- 
bined mileage 
which is half that 
of all the railroad 
systems of the 
United States. It 
is believed that 
the number of rail- 
ways centering in 

the city will never be increased, unless new 
roads lease right of way over lines already 
existing, as there is no room for another road- 
bed, except at such enormous cost as to be 
prohibitive. Most of those already entering 
the city are unpleasantly crowded in the hours 
when local traffic is heavy. Six large stations 
accommodate the passenger service; one of 
these, a great new Union Station, was opened 
for service in 1926, equaling any found else- 
where in the world. A belt line extends almost 
around three sides of the city, connecting the 
different roads and forming a complete freight- 
transfer system. 

The entrance into the city of so many great 
railways made necessary very dangerous grade 
crossings, but beginning in 1892 these were in 
large measure done away with by the elevation 
of tracks, at a cost of a million dollars a mile. 
To-day Chicago has within its limits more 
than twice as many miles of elevated track as 
have all the other cities of the United States 

America's Airport Center. Chicago is re- 
garded as the nation's gateway connecting 
the East and the West, although it is hundreds 
of miles east of the center of the continent. 
It is only about fifteen miles west and north of 
the country's center of industry. Naturally, 
then, the rapidly growing demand for airplane 
transportation of passengers, freight, and ex- 
press has brought the city rapidly to the 
front as an airport center, and it is destined 
to hold supremacy in airports and air trans- 

Chicago has already seventeen permanent 
airports, of which the Municipal Airport, near 




the southwestern extremity of the city, is the 
largest. Its land value is $10,000,000, and 
nearly $250,000 has been added in buildings 
and improvements. 
The Maywood Flying 
Field is the center of 
air-mail activities. The 
Ford Airport, about 
twenty-five miles south 
of the Loop, is becom- 
ing more important ev- 
ery year. These are 
the largest and most 
important of the air 

The city has nearly 
twenty schools of avia- 
tion; it has more than 
fifteen air-taxi and 
sight-seeing services, 
and within the city 
limits are nine air- 
plane manufactories. 

Commerce and In- 
dustries. Naturally, a 
city that is the greatest 
railroad center in the 
world might be sup- 
posed to have a large 
rail commerce. It has 
that, and more; it is 
one of the greatest of 
inland ports, lines of 
steamers, both freight 
and passenger, connect- 
ing with all the other 
important lake ports. 
Over 6,000 ships a year 
enter and leave local 
harbors; these deposit 
14,500,000 tons of 
freight and bear away 
an equal amount. The 
city is a sort of clear- 
ing house; it does not 
keep all that is brought 
into it, but reships 
much of it. The iron, 
which constitutes over 
fifty per cent of the 
weight of its lake imports, it makes use of 
in its great suburban steel mills, but much 
of the lumber and grain that arrives is shipped 
again, Chicago ranking as one of the greatest 
grain markets in the world. It is also first in 
its export of packing-house products. Among 
the cities of the United States, only New York 
surpasses Chicago in the volume and value 
of its trade. 

Docking facilities for years were inadequate, 
and partly to remedy this condition, a great 
Municipal Pier, near the mouth of the river, 
was completed in 1916. In 1928 its name was 


In the heart of the "Loop," surmounting the 37- 
story Roanoke Tower The two beacons are of 8,000,- 
ooo candle-power each, and can be seen by aviators 
at a distance of 100 miles Below the beacons, in the 
pyramidal tower, are clusters of red neon lamps. 

changed to Navy Pier, to do honor to the Amer- 
ican boys who served in the navy during the 
World War. It is built of concrete and steel 
and extends over half a mile into Lake 
Michigan. At its farther end, there 
is space for a recreation center 660 
feet long and 300 feet wide, which has 
easily accommodated 100,000 people 
in a single day. The pier cost $4,500,- 

With the coal fields of Illinois so 
near and the raw materials from the 
great Middle West so easily available, 
Chicago has become an important 
manufacturing center. The total 
value of manufactured products is 
over $3,500,000,000 annually. Largest 
of the industries is that of slaughter- 
ing and meat-packing, carried on at 
the Union Stockyards, by far the 
greatest establishment of its kind in 
the world. To quote the popular 
statement, "Every part of the animal 
is used but the squeal," and to-day 
the by-products, made from parts 
that were formerly thrown away, 
reach a value of scores 
of millions of dollars 
each year; the entire 
value of the annual out- 
put of the stockyards is 
about $580,000,000. 
Iron and steel products, 
machine-shop and 
foundry products, elec- 
trical equipment, men's 
clothing, railroad cars, 
and lumber products 
are manufactured in 
vast quantities. Print- 
ing and publishing is an 
important industry, 
though in this regard 
Chicago is second to 
New York and above 
Philadelphia. It totals 
$400,000,000 a year, 
including the printing 
of newspapers. 

History. Interest in 
the history of Chicago centers in its growth, re- 
markable even among American cities. Other 
cities have had "booms," but Chicago's ex- 
pansion has been continuous. Attempts have 
been made to prove that the name Chicago is 
from an Indian word meaning mighty, or that it 
has some poetic or high moral significance, but 
the general opinion is that it is a form of 
the Indian name for the everywhere-present 
wild onion. The first white visitors to the 
site were Marquette and Joliet, who stopped 
there in 1673. I n J 779 a negro from San 
(Continued on page 1366.) 






I. Position and Size 

(1) Latitude, 41 53' 6" north 

(2) Longitude, 87 38' i" west 

(3) Situation on Lake Michigan 

(4) Distance from other large cities 

(5) Area 

(6) Population 

(7) Rapid growth 

II. Description 

(1) Plan of city 

(a) Determined by Chicago River 

(b) The business section or "Loop" 

(c) Important streets 

(2) Notable buildings 

(a) Public 

(b) Office buildings 

(c) Hotels 

(d) Theaters 

(3) The park system 

(a) "The garden city" 

(b) North Side parks 

(c) South Side parks 

(d) West Side parks 

(e) Playgrounds and beaches 

(f) The Outer Park plan 

(g) The "City Beautiful" 

(4) Educational institutions 

(5) Churches 

(6) Charitable institutions 

III. Water Supply and Sewage 

(1) Cribs 

(2) Tunnels 

(3) Amount of water used daily 

(4) Drainage Canal 

IV. Transportation 

(1) Railway systems 

(a) Greatest railway center 

(b) Elevation within city 

(2) Local transportation 

(a) Street railways 

(b) Elevated roads 

(c) Motorbus transportation 

V. Commerce and Industry 

(1) Rail commerce 

(2) Lake commerce 

(3) Docks 

(4) Manufactures 

VI. The People 

(i) Nationalities represented 

VII. Government and History 

(1) Departments of government 

(2) Revenue 

(3) History 

(a) Settlement 

(b) Growth to 1870 

(c) The great fire 

(d) Later growth 


What great air beacon is located in the downtown district? 
What is the meaning of the name Chicago? 
How are "air rights" utilized? 

How many gallons of water are used in the city each day? 
What is the largest foreign-born element in the city? 
Show that Chicago is not geographically a Western city. 
How does it rank as to size among the world's cities? 
What was the greatest calamity that ever befell the city? 
What engineering project has changed the course of a river? 
How have architects overcome the former limitation in building heights? 
What is the "Loop"? Why is it so called? 

Why is it unlikely that any more railroads will ever terminate in Chicago? 
What building in the city is half a mile long? What double purpose does it 

Mention three pieces of statuary of which the city may feel justly proud. 
What provision does the city make for the recreation of its people? 
What is the greatest industry? Do any cities surpass it in this? 
For what purpose was the Chicago Drainage Canal constructed? 

Photos: Vifloal Ednemtlon Sorrto 

In Earlier Days, (i) Wolf's Point in 1832. (2) Stage coaches arriving and leaving their headquarters before 
1850; the route was to Galena, (3) Chicago in 1845, viewed from the prairies on the west. (4) The old Kinzie 
House, on Chicago River, a few rods from the lake, in 1832. (5) Mrs. O'Leary's house; in her barn, in October, 

1871, the great Chicago fire started. 





Domingo built a cabin on the north bank of 
the Chicago River, and in 1804 this came into 
the possession of John Kinzie, the first white 
man to make his home on the site of the city. 
The Federal government in 1804 built Fort 
Dearborn on the south bank of the river, 
and though this was abandoned when the 
Indian massacre of 1812 occurred, it was re- 
built four years later. In 1830 maps were 
made, definitely marking out the town of 
Chicago, which had a total area of three- 
eighths of a square mile and contained twenty- 
seven voters. When incorporated, three years 
later, the town had a slightly increased area 
and a population of 550, while its tax levy 
reached the total of $48.00. The first city 
water works, constructed in 1834, consisted of 
a well that cost $95. 

From this time on the growth was steady, if 
not particularly rapid. The Illinois and Mich- 
igan Canal, begun in 1836 and completed in 
1848, and the Chicago & Galena Union Rail- 
road, which later was the nucleus of the great 
Chicago & North Western system, brought 
the little city into touch with the territory to 
the west, the territory upon which its pros- 
perity was to depend; and the population in- 
creased from 4,480 in 1840 to almost 300,000 
in 1870. The city's first and greatest calamity 
occurred in 1871; a terrible fire broke out on 
October 8 on the 
West Side, ex- 
tended north and 
west, and raged 
for two days and 
nights, destroying 
property valued 
at $196,000,000 
and rendering 
100,000 persons 
homeless. With 
wonderful rapidity 
the city was re- 
built, the old wood- 
en structures being 
replaced in large 
measure by those 
of brick and stone. NAVY 

In its later history Chicago has suffered much 
from labor troubles. Out of these grew the 

Haymarket Riot of 1886, in which seven 
policemen were killed. Serious strikes have 
occurred at intervals in the stockyards, but 
most noteworthy of these movements were the 
railway strike in 1804, put down only with 
the aid of Federal troops, and the teamsters' 
strikes of iQ04-iqo5. An event of more pleasing 
character was the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition of 1893, the greatest world's fair held up 
to that time. On December 30, 1003, there 
occurred in the Iroquois Theater a fire in which 
572 lives were lost, and as a result of this 
disaster, theaters not only in Chicago but all 
over the world have been built and equipped 
with more thought of safety. 

In Chicago another world's fair will be held 
in 1933, to commemorate the hundredth anni- 
versary of its founding. The city has always 
been a favorite meeting place for conventions, 
and among others held there were the national 
conventions at which Lincoln, Grant, Garfield, 
Blaine, Cleveland, Harrison, Bryan, Roose- 
velt, Taft, Hughes, and Harding were nomi- 
nated for President of the United States. J.E.V 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Chicago Drainage Cunul Fort Dearborn 
Dearborn, Henry Meat and Meat Packing 

World's Columbian Exposition 

CHICAGO, UNIVERSITY OF, one of the leading 
, institutions of 
! higher education 
in the United 
States. It is lo- 
cated in Chicago 
on the Midway 
Plaisance, and has 
over thirty build- 
ings in the Gothic 
style which are 
unsurpassed on 
any campus in the 
country. The total 
number of build- 
ings is over forty, 
including the 
Yerkes Astronom- 
PIRR ical Observatory 

at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. This is the new- 
est of the great universities, though in its 




antecedents it dates from the middle of the 
nineteenth century. The old University of 
Chicago, a Baptist school of college rank, was 
opened in 1857, but was compelled through 
lack of funds to surrender its charter in 1886. 
Four years later, largely through the efforts 
of the American Baptist Educational Society, 
the new university was opened, and though it 
is in no sense a denominational institution 
and exacts no religious tests of students or 
teachers, its charter provides that two-thirds 
of the trustees must be Baptists. 

Organization. The university thus chartered 
in i8go is organized into four divisions: (i) 
schools and colleges, including the four-year 
undergraduate courses, as well as the graduate 
schools; (2) university libraries, laboratories, 
and museums; (3) the university press; (4) 
university extension, which directs the work 
of students unable to attend classes at the 

In arranging its courses, the university 
mapped out a plan differing from that of any 
other American school. The scholastic year 
is not the usual period of nine months, but is 
divided into four quarters, each of which is sub- 
divided into two terms. The summer quarter, 
at some universities a vacation period, is at 
the University of Chicago the busiest quarter 
of the year; students are attracted from all 
parts of the country, for in three summer 
quarters they can complete an ordinary year 
of college work. 

Growth. Though many benefactors have giv- 
en liberally to the university, its growth has 
been largely due to the bequests of John D. 
Rockefeller, who at various times contributed 
sums totaling about $35,000,000. William 
Rainey Harper, president from its foundation 
to iqo6, developed a policy which attracted 
students from every part of the Union. Un- 
der his successor, Harry Pratt Judson, who 
retired in 1923 (died in 1927), the student 
body largely increased in number, the material 
resources of the university more than doubled, 
several of the most beautiful buildings were 
erected, and its prestige and influence greatly 
enhanced. Judson's successor, Prof. Ernest 
DeWitt Burton, head of the Department of 
New Testament and Early Christian Literature, 
died in the month of May, 1(325. His succes- 
sor, Dr. Max Mason, formerly a professor at 
the University of Wisconsin, served but three 
years, when he joined the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion. Mason was succeeded by Robert May- 
nard llutchins in 1929. 

Some years ago plans were announced where- 
by the university would m the future possess 
one of the greatest medical departments in 
America. Rush Medical College, long affiliated 
with the university, and the Presbyterian 
Hospital, on Chicago's West Side, formed the 
nucleus of a great post-graduate department; 

a new graduate school of medicine was com- 
pleted on the Midway campus in 1927. In 1928 
the university received an endowment fund 
for the construction of dormitories. 

CANAL, a great sanitary project to provide 
pure water for the millions of that city. Ages 
ago the Great Lakes found an outlet to the 
ocean by way of the Illinois and Mississippi 
rivers, and the channel through which this 
great stream flowed forms the valley of the 
Illinois River. When Chicago discovered that 
it must protect Lake Michigan from the in- 
sanitary effect of its sewage, the city engineers 
turned their attention to the ancient water 
course. A brief examination showed that a 
canal connecting the lake with the Desplaines 
River could be constructed without engineer- 
ing difficulty. The necessary legislation was 
obtained, and the great channel, commonly 
known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, was 
begun September 3, 1892, and completed in 
January, IQOO, at a cost of about $50,000,000. 

The canal proper is twenty-eight miles long, 
and varies in width in different sections from 
1 10 feet at the bottom and 198 feet at the water 
line in the narrowest section to 202 feet and 
290 feet in the widest section. The sections cut 
through rock have a width of 160 feet at the 
bottom and 162 feet at the top. The depth 
of the cut varies from thirty to thirty-six feet; 
the depth of water is never less than twenty- 
two feet, and is usually about twenty-four feet 
six inches. By means of the controlling works 
at Lockport, twenty-nine miles inland, con- 
sisting of flood gates and a bear trap dam, the 
depth and flow of water are easily regulated. 
Ordinarily the flow is about 300,000 cubic feet 
per minute, but the full capacity of the canal 
is 600,000 cubic feet per minute. 

The Chicago Drainage Canal is one of the 
greatest engineering works in the world. It 
has changed the course of the Chicago River 
and made it an outlet of Lake Michigan, when 
formerly it flowed into the lake; it is the only 
river in the world whose flow is away from its 
mouth. In connection with the construction 
of the canal, the entire sewage system of Chi- 
cago had to be changed. Formerly, all sewers 
emptied into the lake; now they empty into 
the canal, and the water supply of the city 
has been saved from pollution. In the near 
future, the canal will doubtless form a link in 
a deep waterway between the Great Lakes and 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

In 1924 and 1925 states bordering on the 
Great Lakes joined the government of Canada 
in protesting that the Drainage Canal had 
lowered lake levels and seriously impaired 
navigation. When, in 1929, the level of the 
lakes rose more than two feet, it was shown 
that natural causes alone were responsible for 




various levels recorded. However, in 1929, 
the Supreme Court of the United States de- 
clared that within reasonable time the flow 
should be reduced to the requirements of 
navigation. This decision requires the city to 
provide vast sewage-disposal plants. 

(back of map). 


CHICAREE, chik' a re, the red squirrel. See 
SQUIRREL, subhead. 

CHICHAGOF, chik' ha gahf, an island off 
the coast of Alaska (which see). 

CHICKADEE, chik' a dc. See TITMOUSE. 

CHICKAMAUGA, chik a maw' gah, BATTLE 

(Most Important Tribes.) 

CHICKASHA, chik' a ska, OKLA. See OK- 
LAHOMA (back of map). 


CHICKEN POX, a contagious disease com- 
mon among children, characterized by an erup- 
tion somewhat like that of smallpox. The two 
diseases, however, are otherwise very different; 
chicken pox is rarely dangerous, and smallpox 
vaccination is not effective in preventing it. 
Fever is usually present twenty-four hours 
before the appearance of the eruption, and 
there may be vomiting, restlessness, and slight 
pains in the legs and back. 

Red pimples break out first upon the face, 
scalp, neck, and later upon the limbs and back. 
They come in "crops," new blotches appearing 
while the older ones are maturing. In from 
twelve to twenty-four hours these pimples arc 
filled with a thin fluid, which is not apt to 
become pus if kept from infection. By the 
fourth or fifth day crusts form, which fall off a 
few days later. The fever ranges from 100 F. 
to 1 02" F., falling to normal after the first two 
or three days. 

The body of the patient should be sponged 
each day, and the crusts should be kept oiled. 
A 1 140 solution of phenol is a good preparation 
for sponging. It may be obtained at a drug 
store. Scars will not form if rules of cleanliness 
are observed and scratching is prevented. The 
patient must be kept quarantined until all the 
crusts have disappeared, as the disease is very 

CHICLE, chik"l, the gumlike, milky juice 
of the sapota tree, or sapodilla (Achras sapota), 
an evergreen tree native to tropical America. 
Chicle is used extensively in the manufacture 
of chewing gums. It is secured by tapping 
the trunks of the trees, a process used also in 
obtaining sap from the sugar maple and a milky 
liquid from the rubber tree. The milky juice 
is coagulated by boiling, the coagulated mass 
then being kneaded to press out the water. The 
gum comes on the market in lumps weighing 
twenty to thirty pounds. 

Chicle is obtained only during the rainy 
season, when the sap is flowing. Trees, once 
tapped, require five years to recover from the 
injury, and a large percentage never recover. 
New areas are needed constantly to supply the 
demand. A large chicle-importing firm is 
supporting an investigation, hoping to find more 
effective methods of chicle production. 

The United States imports millions of pounds 
of chicle yearly. British Honduras and some 
parts of Mexico and of Guatemala are the chief 
sources of chicle. The finest quality comes from 
near Lake Hza, Guatemala. G.M.S. 

[The process of making chewing gum is described in 
these volumes under the title GUM, CHEWING ] 

CHICOPEE, chik' o pe, MASS. See MASSA- 
CHUSETTS (back of map). 

CHICORY, also called SUCCORY, is a weedy 
plant whose root is commonly used as a sub- 
stitute for coffee. Chicory is native to Europe 

Photo VlBUftl Education Service 

and Asia, but is now cultivated and found 
wild in the United States and Southern Canada. 
It has a fleshy root, spreading branches, coarse 
leaves, like those of the dandelion, and bright- 
blue, sometimes pink or white, flowers. The 
long, fleshy, milky root has for years been 
dried, roasted, and ground and used for adulter- 
ating coffee, but in the United States pure food 
laws forbid such use of chicory without proper 




notification on the label. Chicory may easily 
be detected in coffee by putting a spoonful of 
the mixture into a glass of clear, cold water; 
the coffee will float on the surface and the 
chicory will separate and discolor the water as 
it precipitates. In Europe chicory is valued 
as a salad plant, and is also grown for fodder. 
In some sections the young, tender roots are 
cooked for table use. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. Chicory belongs to the family 
Compositac. Its botanical name is Cichorium 

CHIEF JUSTICE, the title given to the head 
of a court consisting of a number of justices or 
judges, such as the Supreme Court of the 
United States or a state supreme court. In the 
former, the Chief Justice receives his appoint- 
ment as such. In most states, the member 
of the court whose term expires first serves 
as chief of the court; if there are five judges, 
and the term of service is ten years, each 
judge is chief during his ninth and tenth 


CHIFFON, shif on, a very soft, thin, gauzy 
material used for dresses, scarfs, veils, trim- 
mings, and various dainty garments for women. 
Made of fine, hard -twisted silk yarn, the 
better qualities of chiffon are beautiful for 
evening wear. Cotton chiffons are also made, 

and chiffon ribbons are popularly used by 
florists to decorate bouquets of flowers and 
plants. Chiffon lace is chiffon embroidered 
with silk, and chiffon velvet is a soft pile 
fabric with an extraordinary sheen. 

The name chiffon is French and means rag 
or flimsy cloth, and in that language is used 
to suggest anything decorative worn by women. 

CHIGGER, chig' ur, another name for jigger 
(which see). 

CHIGNECTO, shignck'toh, BAY, on the Bay 
of Fundy, the location of tides which sometimes 
rise more than fifty feet. See FUNDY. 

CHIGNON, shin 1 yahn (in English). See 

CHIGOE, chig' o, another name for jigger 
(which see). 

CHIHUAHUA, che wah' wah. See MEXICO 
(Principal Cities). 

CHILBLAIN, Ml' blane, a condition charac- 
terized by stinging, itching, and burning, and 
sometimes by redness. It affects particularly 
the skin of the feet. Induced primarily by 
exposure to cold, or cold and wet, the feet 
become sensitive to cold, and attacks recur 
on slight provocation. See FROSTBITE. 

Treatment. Avoid exposing the feet to cold 
and wet. Avoid light shoes. Heavy stockings 
should be worn in cold weather. Bathe 
the feet daily in cold salt water. Then apply 
kerosene. W.E.A. 

The STUDY of the CHILD 

' HILD, THE. Parents of the twentieth 
century take better care of their children than 
did the parents of preceding generations, 
simply because they know better how to do it. 
The rearing of children, together with every 
other field of human endeavor, has been in- 
vaded by the scientific spirit. By studying 
children individually and in groups, statistics 
and tables have been gathered which enable 
us to know with some accuracy what we have 
a right to expect of the normal child and how 
to go about to secure it. The facts so far 
assembled are not final, by any means; as more 
children are studied, modifications and changes 
are bound to be made. But the account of 
the development of the child which follows 
represents some of the knowledge which is now 
at hand. 

The Development of the Child. In the be- 
ginning the human body consists of a single 

cell. When this cell begins to grow, it divides 
into two cells; each of these divides in its 
turn into two more, and so on, until that ever- 
new marvel, a tiny human being, is formed. 
By weighing and measuring hundreds of thou- 
sands of babies, it has been found that the 
average baby boy, at birth, weighs about 7.3 
pounds; the average baby girl, 7.1 pounds. 
The boy baby should be about 19.68 inches 
tall; the girl baby, 19.48 inches. In six months 
the average baby doubles its weight; in a year 
he trebles it. So a year-old child should weigh 
about twenty-four pounds. By the sixth year 
the average boy weighs about forty-five 
pounds, the average girl about forty-three, and 
the boy should be just a trifle over, the girl 
just a trifle under, forty-four inches in height. 
The first table below shows a child's increase 
in weight and height from the age of six and 
one-half to sixteen and one-half years: 






















7j^. ... 












4 8 




5 i 




I0 )^ 







11 \4) 


5 3 

8. T 

69 5 


10 5 





78 7 

9 2 

I $.2 

I ^ 




88 7 


12 7 


95 2 

IO d 

1 2.3 

98 3 

9 6 


15 1 A - 

107 4 

12 2 

12 8 

1 06 7 




12T O 

U <> 

T2 7 

TI2 S 

5 ft 

5 2 

The second table, giving heights in inches, is 
made up from the measurements of America n- 
born children in three American cities; in com- 
mon with Canadian children, they are a little 
taller and heavier than the average English, 
Irish, German, or Scandinavian child: 

no way of measuring accurately how fast or 
how far a child progresses in these first years, 
but we do know that he is learning to use all 
of his senses, that he has a constant and in- 
sistent desire to touch, taste, and handle every- 
thing around him; that he is pleased with 

Years . . . 




1 1 

I 2 

i \ 





Boys . 
Girls.. . 

44 10 

46 21 
45 <J4 

48 1 6 

SO oq 

52 21 
ST 78 

53-7 l > 

5S 78 
S7 16 

58 17 

58 75 

61 08 
Oo 32 

62 96 
6r 30 

61 72 

Of) 20 
61 go 

The Development of the Senses. In a well- 
known book called The Biography of a Baby, 
Miss M. W. Shinn describes the state of a 
new-born baby thus: 

She took in with vague comfort the gentle light 
that fell on her eyes, seeing without any sort of atten- 
tion or comprehension the moving blur of darkness 
that varied it. She felt motions and changes; she 
felt the action of her own muscles, and after the first 
three or four days disagreeable shocks of sound now 
and then broke through the silence, or perhaps 
through an unnoticed jumble of faint noises. She felt 
touches on her body from time to time, but without 
the least sense of the place of the touch . . From 
time to time sensations of hunger and thirst, and 
once or twice of pain, made themselves felt through 
all the others, and mounted until they became dis- 
tressing; from time to time a feeling of heightened 
comfort flowed over her as hunger or thirst was satis- 
fied. . . . For the rest, she lay empty-minded, neither 
consciously comfortable nor uncomfortable, yet on 
the whole pervaded with a dull sense of well-being. 
Of the people about her, of her mother's face, of her 
own existence, of desire or fear, she knew nothing. 

The preceding paragraph from Miss Shinn's 
book is only an imaginative way of saying 
that a baby, although it is not born with its 
eyes closed, like a kitten, does not see; it does 
not hear, or smell; it does not think; it feels 
only vaguely and unconsciously. And yet, in 
this animal-like little being all the elements 
of the future man or woman are present, and 
its growth and development during the first 
years of its life are truly marvelous. We have 

bright and beautiful colors; that he is alert 
to pleasant sounds and sensitive to harsh ones; 
that he acquires very positive likes and dislikes 
about the food he eats; and that he develops 
a liking for pleasant odors and a distaste for 
those that are unpleasant. 

This is exactly as it should be, for a child 
lives by his senses. They are his only way 
at first of acquiring knowledge of any sort. 
They furnish all the material his mind has to 
work with. If his senses are not satisfied, his 
mind will starve; if they are not developed, 
his mind will not develop. It is important, 
therefore, that from the second month on, 
when the senses begin to be active, plenty of 
material be furnished for stimulating and de- 
veloping each sense. 

Smell and Taste. It is practically impossible 
to test a baby's sense of smell, but it is quite 
probable that this sense does not develop 
rapidly. Tests made of a new-born baby seem 
to prove, however, that the sense of taste is ac- 
tive from the first that there is a dislike for 
sour and bitter things and a liking for sweets. 
It is very desirable that this sense of taste 
should be wisely developed, because a child's 
enjoyment of simple and wholesome food de- 
pends largely on it. As soon as a child begins 
eating solid food, he should be encouraged to 
like the things which are good for him and to 
dislike those which are unwholesome. It may 
be mentioned, too, that children should be 
encouraged to be thirsty, for their bodies need 



a great deal of water. Every baby should be 
given plenty of water to drink, and older 
children should be encouraged to drink large 
quantities of it. 

Hearing. A new-born baby is deaf, usually 
because the inner ear is full of mucus, and 
it remains deaf for several days. But if loud 
noises are not heard by a baby by the end 
of the fourth week, he should be taken to a 
physician. Ordinarily, after three or four days 
the baby becomes 
very sensitive to 
sound, and starts 
and trembles if a 
door is slammed or 
someone speaks 
loudly. A sneeze 
or a whistle will 
also cause a violent 
reaction. Music 
and sound are such 
important factors 
in the growth of 
children that no 
child ought to be 
brought up with- 
out having the op- 
portunity to hear 
soft, sweet sounds. 
His interest in such 
sounds should be 
encouraged and 
stimulated, and 
training in music 
should be begun 
early. The kinder- 
garten admirably 
provides both the 
music and the 
rhythm in which 
children delight. 

Dermal Senses. 
By dermal senses 
we mean the sensa- 
tions in the skin. 

Babies quickly THI-. PRAYLR 

note the difference Sculpture by Jean Dampt , in 
between things 

warm and cold. A baby a week old will cry 
if he is put into a bath that is a few degrees 
colder than the one to which he is accustomed. 
This should be remembered by the person who 
prepares his bath. The hand of an adult is not 
sensitive enough for testing the temperature 
of the water. A thermometer should be used, 
or, failing that, the elbow. The mucous mem- 
brane of a baby's mouth and throat is much 
more tender than that of a grown person. 
Food which is merely warm to an adult will 
seem disagreeably hot to a baby or small child. 
Anyone who has observed children will realize 
how indifferent the average child is as to 
whether his food is more than warm, and a 

mother's admonition, "Now eat your soup while 
it is nice and hot," is usually enough to make 
the child push his plate away and wait until it 

Touch. Up to the third month, the average 
baby has done nothing but aimlessly grasp 
with his hands, which he holds habitually with 
the thumb inside the palm. But after the 
second month, he may be given every sort of 
object to handle which will not do him injury. 
As he grows older, 
the more objects 
he has hard and 
soft, rough and 
smooth to play 
with, the faster 
will his sense of 
touch develop. 
The ordinary toys 
babies are given 
may be supple- 
mented by the 
many objects the 
ordinary household 
provides - clothes- 
pins, empty spools, 
napkin rings, 
spoons, etc. If the 
baby cannot 
handle the objects 
he sees, his knowl- 
edge of them will 
be imperfect. 

Sight. The eyes 
of a new-born baby 
are closed most of 
the time. The 
reason that some 
babies are so wake- 
ful at night is un- 
doubtedly due to 
the fact" that the 
darkness is pleas- 
anter to their eyes 
than daylight. 
They prefer to 
sleep when it is 
light and to lie 

the Luxembourg Galleries, Paris. 

awake in the dark. The eyes of a tiny baby will 
close if a light is brought near them, but after 
a few days he will turn his head toward a 
window or a light, and after a few weeks, light 
will give him pleasure. By the end of two 
weeks the eyes, which do not at first cobrdinate, 
will begin to follow objects, and at the end 
of eight or nine weeks, a baby will stare at an 
object for minutes at a time. By the seventh 
month he will distinguish faces by staring at 
strangers and smiling at friends, will turn his 
head toward a person leaving the room, and 
follow with his eyes objects dropped from his 
hand. All of these developments are of interest 
to parents. 




Muscular Control. At birth a child ha*s no 
power to make voluntary movements of any 
sort. When he moves an arm or a leg, when 
his eyes close at a bright light, or when he 
starts at a loud sound, the movement is a 
total surprise to him something he can 
neither prevent nor repeat. But gradually all 
of his vague feelings become more distinct by 
being repeated, and as the connective fibers 
grow in his brain, the various feelings become 
associated with one another. The wonderful 
change in a baby usually occurs when he is 
about six months old, and is due to his dis- 
covery that he can move this way or that as 
he pleases, and can direct his movements with 
his eyes. Immediately he begins doing what 
he sees other people do. He begins to imitate 
sounds, facial expressions, and movements of 
all sorts. 

The age at which children begin walking 
varies so greatly that it is impossible to give 
any date for it. But since a baby learns by 
imitation, he is likely to begin walking at an 
earlier age if there are other children in the 
family. Some babies learn to walk before 
they are a year old; others do not walk until 
nearly the second year. Of course, the baby 
kicks and practices creeping before he begins 
to walk; otherwise he would not have sufficient 
muscular strength to master the art. Walking 
has a marked effect on most babies. They 
get a new view of things when they can see 
the world from a standing position, and as a 
rule they actually sleep better, eat more, and 
become better-natured and happier. 

In order that growth in muscular control may 
develop properly, children should be encour- 
aged to be active, to use all the large muscles 
of their bodies. All children should be free 
to run around, to romp, and to play as much 
as they wish. When they are a little older, 
they will be greatly assisted in learning con- 
trol of the smaller muscles by having plenty 
of tools to work with, and they should be 
encouraged to make their own toys, play- 
houses, doll clothes, and other things. 

Language. Tears, smiles, cries, and gestures 
are the baby's first means of expressing his 
emotions. A baby cries from the first; he 
will shed tears any time after the twenty-third 
day, and he sometimes smiles in the second 
week. By the fourth month, he will stretch out 
his hands toward the thing he wants, and still 
later he will put his hands together as if he 
wanted to grasp an object. Between the eighth 
and the twelfth month, he begins pointing at 
the thing he wants. He will begin in the 
sixth month to express affection through imi- 
tating the kisses, pats, and hugs of other people, 
and begin using a real gesture language. He 
will tug at his mother's dress if he is hungry, 
will stretch out his arms to be taken up, and 
learn to wave "bye-bye." A little later, all 

sorts of coaxing and begging gestures will 

Even after he begins to speak, he will sup- 
plement his words with gestures, just as many 
savages do. A baby's greatest difficulty at 
first is learning to articulate. Once this ability 
has been acquired, his progress in learning to 
talk will be very rapid. Another obstacle is 
learning to walk. While he is doing this, ababy 
acquires no more speech and may even go 
backward, but afterward, the learning and 
understanding of words is very rapid. His 
progress at this stage will be greatly influenced 
by the people around him. It is only by ob- 
serving the language used by a baby and noting 
his mistakes that an adult begins to realize 
what an immensely complicated thing is 
speech. Surely the fact that most children by 
the fifth year have obtained a good working 
knowledge of the mother tongue would alone 
justify the claim that these are the years of 
most importance, the years of greatest develop- 

The Pre-School Child. See, in these volumes, 

The Kindergarten Child. Froebel, the man 
who conceived the idea of the kindergarten, 
and Maria Montessori, one of the distinguished 
child educators of to-day, both set out with the 
idea of helping the child under six to develop 
to the height of his powers. The necessity for 
the normal development of the senses has 
already been shown. This development is 
bound to go on, whether it is encouraged or 
not, but if it is systematically fostered and 
stimulated, the child will be better equipped 
than if he has to acquire everything in a hap- 
hazard fashion. Such a system of child- training 
as is furnished by the kindergarten and the 
Montessori school goes still further. Tt not 
only helps a child to develop the senses, but 
it also trains him to associate his sensations 
with the spoken symbols, so that everything 
he learns is made more usable. It also helps 
him to acquire muscular control, teaches him 
to use the large muscles of his body, arms, 
and legs, and the smaller muscles of the hands 
and fingers. And hand in hand with this 
training goes the development of all the mental 
powers, imagination and reason, memory and 
perception (see PSYCHOLOGY). 

The School Child. Let us suppose that the 
child up to the age of six has lived in an en- 
vironment which has developed brain and 
body to its fullest capacity. Bubbling over 
with energy, alert, imaginative, eager, and 
curious, expressing himself spontaneously and 
exuberantly on every occasion, the six-year- 
old conies to the public school. Here every 
sense he has begun developing, every interest 
he has displayed, should be made use of; his 
curiosity must be stimulated and satisfied; his 
energy directed. He should go on acquiring 




more discrimination as to colors, more delicacy 
of touch, more sensitiveness of hearing, greater 
muscular control, and a larger appreciation of 
everything beautiful. And he must also go 
on learning to express himself more clearly and 
accurately, both in spoken and in written 

In this development, the school, the home, 
and the playground are almost equally im- 
portant. It is the duty of every parent and 
every teacher to 
see that all three 
are forces for prog- 
ress and not for 
Under the head- 
other related topics 
referred to at the 
close of this article, 
this phase of a 
normal child's edu- 
cation is treated in 
greater detail in 
these volumes. 
Space will be given 
here only to a brief 
treatment of some 
of the conditions 
which must be 
guarded against. 

Physically De- 
fective Children. It 
is rapidly becom- 
ing the practice 
to have physical 
inspection in all 
public schools. 
This is of prime im- 
portance, because 
it has been found 

In many rural sections, the "Old Oaken Bucket" is an irresistible 
attraction to children 

in many cases that 
children who are 
considered obsti- 
nate, stupid, or positively bad are partly blind 
or deaf, or are the victims of serious nervous 
trouble. The eyes and the ears are the prin- 
cipal channels through which knowledge conies; 
so the child who cannot hear and see perfectly 
is seriously handicapped. He may not know 
of his trouble, unless there is actual pain, and 
for this reason his parents and teachers should 
be alert for signs. Defective eyesight can be 
discovered by noting a child's position when 
he is reading or writing. If his eyes are either 
more or less than a foot from the book he 
is reading, he should be given special tests 
with a set of cards, which can be bought for 
ten cents, to determine what is the trouble. 
Nearsight, farsight, and astigmatism are the 
most common ailments (see EYE; BLINDNESS; 


By first determining, by means of a watch, 
how far a normal child can hear, the standard 
for testing the child suspected of deafness may 
be fixed (see EAR). If a child is dull or does 
not pay attention, or if he asks constantly to 
have things repeated, he should at once be 
tested for ear trouble. And it should be re- 
membered that the purpose of testing children 
in these ways is always to discover whether 
a doctor's care is needed. 

Many communi- 
ties now provide 
special classes or 
schools for physi- 
cally handicapped 
children, such as 
those suffering 
from defects of 
hearing, sight, and 

Fatigue. Com- 
plete fatigue, or 
nervous exhaus- 
tion, is almost as 
diflicult to recover 
from as a severe 
illness. For this 
reason, children 
must be watched 
carefully and 
guarded against 
overwork, too long 
hours of work, too 
great worry over 
their tasks, not 
enough work, or 
work that has not 
sufficient variety; 
for all these condi- 
tions bring about 
a state of fatigue 
which is likely to 
result in serious 
harm. The great 
trouble with many 

Photo. SI Glair 

public schools is that the classes are large and 
the teacher has not the time to give every 
child sufficient individual attention. This, 
then, must be the duty of parents. It is essen- 
tial that they be on the lookout for signs of 
nervous or bodily fatigue. 

In order to avoid excessive fatigue, a child 
must be interested in his work, and he must 
find a great deal of variety in it. His hours 
of work must not be too long; he must not 
do much outside work; he must get plenty of 
play, plenty of sleep, and plenty of good, 
nourishing food. It is the duty of parents, 
wherever possible, to cobperate with the 
teacher in securing the best working conditions 
within their power for the child light, well- 
ventilated school rooms, a comfortable desk 
and seat, adequate teaching equipment, and 




well-kept, spacious playgrounds. The com- 
fortable seat and desk are of vital importance, 
because the body of a growing child is very 
plastic, and a wrong sitting position held for 
several hours out of every day will change and 
deform the body. 

Signs of Fatigue. The signs of fatigue are 
inattention, restlessness, and irritability. Tests 
have shown that a person who is very tired is 
also not as sensitive to touch, that his eyes 
cannot distinguish colors as well as when he 
is rested, and that his muscular control is im- 
paired, for he will be more clumsy and awk- 
ward in moving about. He is more likely, too, 
to be impertinent and undisciplined than when 
he is rested. A good night's sleep and plenty 
of wholesome food ought always to restore a 
child's good temper and energy. If it does not, 
then the conditions under which he works and 
plays must be changed. 

The Exceptional Child. There is a large 
class of children who are constituted differently 
from the average child, and for whom inade- 
quate provision is made in the public schools. 
There is the exceptionally bright child; there is 
the eccentric child, who has marked individual- 
ity without being either inventive or original; 
there are the feeble-minded child, the backward 
child, and the wayward child. Of course all 
children vary a little from the average. There 
is actually no such individual person as the 
average child; it is simply a term given to a 
composite of all the statistics on children. 
Up to a certain point, this variation from the 
average has no significance, but beyond it 
we have the abnormal or exceptional child 
who is so great a problem in the schools. In- 
stitutions are now solving the problem of 
feeble-minded children and those difficult to 
manage, and in smaller classes and by special 
instruction, the problem of the exceptional and 
the backward child. All these exceptional chil- 
dren need an unusual amount of care. C.E.S. 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol- 
umes relating to children or to children's activities, will 
be of interest in connection with this topic* 

Anger in Children 

Boys' and Girls' Clubs 
Boy Scouts 
Camp-Fire Girls 
Canning Clubs 
Child Labor 
Children, Societies for 
Children's Bureau 
Child Study 
Cruelty to Animals, So- 
ciety for Prevention of 


Fear in Childhood 
Games and Plays 
George Junior Republic 
Habits in Childhood, 

Industrial Art 
Montessori Method 
Nursery School 
Story- Telling 


TAL MEASUREMENT (In Child-Guidance Clinics). 

CHILDHOOD, BEHAVIOR IN, as affected by 
gland development. Behavioristic doctrine, 
making a clean sweep of all previously acquired 
conceptions, has devoted a good deal of its 
interest and attention to the fresh study of 
movements, secretions, and their association 
by conditioning. They have undoubtedly 
contributed greatly to a better understanding 
of behavior. Regarded from the endocrine 
standpoint, the behavior of the child is modified 
as the hormones, the internal secretions of the 
endocrine glands, modify (i) the amount of 
energy functioning in the nervous system, 
(2) the irritability of the nervous system, (3) 
the fatigability of the nervous and muscular 
systems, and (4) the recuperability of the 
nervous system. 

All these effects are important in the excita- 
tions and inhibitions involved in the learning 
process, which becomes responsible for so much 
of the child's emotional, intellectual,, and 
volitional behavior. We have to consider, as 
affecting all of these, the various ductless 
glands, the pituitaries, pre-pituitary, and post- 
pituitary, the pineal, the thyroid, and para- 
thyroids, the thymus, the adrenals (medullary 
and interrenal), and the gonads, or sex glands. 

To begin with the best studied of these, the 
thyroid: The well-known picture of the cretin, 
the idiotic dwarf, illustrates the results of 
complete or considerable degrees of thyroid 
deficiency, presenting themselves as dullness, 
laziness, fatigability, associated ill-health, and 
poor growth these types are called cretinoids. 
In the regions of the world known as goiter 
belts in the United States, for example, 
around the Great Lakes they are fairly com- 
mon. These behavioral characteristics may be 
associated with behavioral apathy and lethargy 
associated with nervousness a tendency to 
bite the nails and to flush easily, for instance. 
On the other hand, thyroid hyperactivity, the 
hyper-thyroid, presents the contrasting phe- 
nomena: liveliness, activity, restlessness, fidgeti- 
ness, ease in learning and doing, with emotional 
instability and a tendency toward ups and 
downs in the moods. 

The pituitary glands, the pre-pituitary in 
particular, influence mental as well as physi- 
cal growth. Children with hyperactive pre- 
pituitary are generally calm, cool, and collected, 
have good judgment in learning, and retain 
what they learn. They have what is called 
ability to concentrate, to focus attention or 
energy upon a situation. They are protected, 
in other words, against distraction. On the 
other hand, children with a sub-average pre- 
pituitary have difficulty in concentrating, are 
easily distractible, mentally fatigable, and 
have poor memories; they retain learned mate- 
rial poorly. 

The post-pituitary has relation to what may 
be called the dominant mood attitude in be- 




havior. Children with a hyperactive post-pi- 
tuitary tend to be thin, rathe'r moody, and what 
is called temperamental. At the same time, 
they are cold in their relation to human beings, 
egotistical, and self -centered. On the other 
hand, those with post-pituitary deficiency 
tend to be fat and affectionate, and even 
sentimental. The post-pituitary functions 
with the emotional centers in the floor of the 
third ventricle and the sub-thalamus in the 
brain. A certain balance between pre-pituitary 
and post-pituitary seems to determine the 
degree of development of the sense of humor, 
which must be distinguished from the sense of 

As regards the pineal gland, sexual precocity 
in behavior may depend upon its proper func- 

The parathyroid glands, controlling as they 
do the history and metabolism of lime in the 
body, have a profound influence upon behavior. 
When they under-function, there is produced 
an overexcitability which may be associated 
with a repressed nervousness that may break 
out in tantrums and hysteria. The tendency 
of the child to indulge mild hallucinations 
occurs in the most marked form in those 
children in whom it may be either a curse or a 
blessing. Emotional misbehavior in the school- 
room has been changed by the treatment of 
parathyroid deficiency. 

The thymus gland in the chest is important 
in behavior, because it undergoes a certain 
amount of evolution and involution parallel 
with the development of the whole personality. 
If its involution or evolution is interfered 
with, there may result an interference with the 
evolution of the other glands, particularly 
the pituitary and the sex glands, with a con- 
sequent retardation in the normal evolution 
of the whole personality. The individual is 
tainted with a certain infantilism or juvenility 
in his behavior, reminding one of the habits 
of those much younger than himself, and 
characterized by an inability to lift himself to 
the right age of adaptation. 

The adrenals play a definite part in the 
behavior of children, according to clinical ex- 
perience. Children whose adrenals have been 
damaged tend to be timid, inactive, and 
fatigable. On the other hand, those with 
hyper-active adrenals tend to be positive, 
aggressive, pugnacious, active, and able to 
resist fatigue. 

In general practice among children, we 
often see the child whose adrenals have been 
damaged by one of the common infectious 
diseases, such as diphtheria or influenza. They 
are characteristically apathetic. Socially, how- 
ever, they are described as "sissies," when they 
are males, and they may tend toward introver- 
sion because of a developing social-inferiority 

As regards the sex glands, children show in- 
dividual variations in behavior, both masculine 
and feminine, depending upon the degree of 
development of the internal secretions of the 
gonads, or reproductive organs. In relation 
with the thymus, there may be curious dis- 
tortions and mal-development of this func- 
tion of the sex glands, which may lead to all 
degrees of variability in sexual attitude and 
behavior. L.B. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to a number of articles closely related to childhood: 

Anger in Childhood 
Character Training 
Dishonesty in Childhood 
Fatigue and Nervousness 
Habits in Childhood 

Heredity (Inheritance of 
Intellectual and Moral 

Mental Conflict, a 
Cause of Misconduct 

CHILD LABOR, a term relating to the em- 
ployment of children in industry. Children 
have been thus employed from the earliest 
days of recorded history, but the problem of 
child labor, as it is commonly understood, has 
developed with the modern factory system. 
In every country in which manufacturing in- 
dustries have reached a high state of develop- 
ment, competition is keen, and effort is 
constantly being made to keep the cost of 
production low. In such countries, child labor 
is a vital social and economic issue. 

The Development of the System. Under the 
conditions of labor which preceded the factory 
system, the employment of children was re- 
garded as a part of their education. Either 
as apprentices or in the workshops of their 
parents, they learned a trade and * 'habits of 
steady industry." While there were many cases 
of abuse under this system, there was a close 
personal relation between the master and the 
child, which usually checked the master's in- 
difference to the child's good. The factory 
system is characterized by two features which 
did not exist under any preceding system of 
labor: first, the employment of workmen in 
large numbers has tended to destroy per- 
sonal relations between master and workman; 
second, the operation of automatic machinery 
frequently requires quickness and deftness 
rather than physical strength. In England, 
where child labor first became a social menace, 
the demand for children to work in textile 
mills was supplied by a vicious system, using 
pauper children collected from the poorhouses. 
These children received as pay only their food 
and lodging. As competition became more in- 
tense, the working and living conditions of 
the children became worse, until they consti- 
tuted a form of slavery. Children five years 
of age were sometimes found in the mills. 
Hours of work were unregulated, and a day 
of twelve hours, or "from sunrise to sunset," 
was not uncommon. 

Such conditions existed in England during 
the first quarter of the nineteenth century. In 




the United States, child labor did not involve 
great numbers of children until the period of 
industrial expansion which followed the War 
of Secession. In Belgium, Germany, and Italy, 
it began to trouble economists and sociologists 
about 1875 to 1880, and in Canada the problem 
is even more recent. 

The Regulation of Child Labor. All students 
of social welfare recognize the fact that child 
labor is an evil whose influence extends to 
succeeding generations, and that it must be 
controlled by legislation. 

The first law regulating child labor, in the 
modern sense, was passed by the British Parlia- 
ment in 1802. It applied to cotton mills only, 
forbade work between 9 P.M. and 6 A.M., limited 
the working day to twelve hours, and required 
elementary school instruction for apprentices. 
An important act of 1819 prohibited the em- 
ployment of children under nine years of age in 
establishments for the preparation and spinning 
of cotton. These early statutes were weakened, 
however, by failure to provide for their enforce- 
ment. Step by step, greater protection was 
given to the child, until now the minimum age 
for full-time work is fourteen. 

Following the lead of England, Germany 
passed its first law regulating child labor in 
1839, and nearly all European countries now 
give the child some degree of protection. 

In the United States, where the problem 
is newer, there is naturally a variety in the 
details of state child-labor laws. These laws 
all fix a minimum age below which children 
must not be employed, ranging from twelve in 
special cases in a few states to sixteen in others. 
The average age limit is fourteen. Many states 
fix a sixteen- or eighteen-year limit upon em- 
ployment in specified dangerous or hazardous 
occupations. Many of them regulate the 
length of the working day and prohibit night 
work. Most states require children to procure 
certificates showing their age and extent of 
schooling, and in these states employers who 
hire children without such certificates are 
liable to a penalty. An educational minimum 
and a certificate of physical fitness are required 
in a few states, in addition to a documentary 
proof of the child's age. 

The enactment by Congress of a national 
child-labor law has been agitated by various 
organizations and individuals for many years, 
and such a law was passed in 1916, prohibiting 
the interstate shipment of goods produced in 
factories which employed children in violation 
of certain age and hour restrictions. The bill, 
known as the Keating-Owen Act, was signed by 
President Wilson in September. However, it 
was declared unconstitutional in 1918. 

In the following year, another law designed 
to protect children was enacted by Congress. 
It placed a ten per cent tax upon the income 
of manufacturing establishments of the type 

mentioned above. This statute was declared 
unconstitutional by the United States Supreme 
Court in May, 1922. It was held that the law 
encroached upon the rights of the various 
states to conduct their internal affairs in their 
own way. A constitutional amendment to 
authorize Federal legislation was then proposed, 
which as the Twentieth Amendment was ap- 
proved by Congress in 1924; it was submitted 
to the state legislatures for ratification, but 
was not ratified by the required three-fourths 
of the states of the Union. L.L.B. 


CHILDREN, SOCIETIES FOR. In all civilized 
countries there are organizations having for 
their purpose the protection and care of chil- 
dren who have become orphans, or who, for 
other reasons, have been deprived of suitable 
homes. In America the most widely known 
of these are the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children, Saint Vincent's Aid So- 
ciety, the Jewish Relief Association, the Chil- 
dren's Aid Society, and the American Humane 
Association. The purpose of these societies is 
to protect children from evil associates and 
from cruelty on the part of those who employ 
them or have the care of them. Home-finding 
societies, whose purpose it is to place orphans 
in suitable homes, are formed in many prov- 
inces, states, and large cities. Juvenile courts 
(which see) have jurisdiction over all cases 
of dependent and delinquent children, and 
those conducted according to the most ad- 
vanced methods exercise the right of jurisdic- 
tion in regard to placing children outside the 
home. The administration of these courts is 
for purposes of guardianship, education, and 
protection, not for trial and punishment. The 
Children's Bureau (which see), in the Depart- 
ment of Labor, was organized by the United 
States government to conduct investigations 
and publish reports relating to the weSare of 

CHILDREN'S BUREAU, a bureau of the 
United States Department of Labor, created 
by act of Congress April 9, 1912, and directed 
to investigate and report upon "all matters 
pertaining to the welfare of children and of 
child life" among all classes of people. It was 
the first public agency in the world the func- 
tion of which was to consider as a whole the 
problems of childhood. The first director of 
the Bureau was Miss Julia Lathrop (born 
1858), who was succeeded in 1921 by Miss 
Grace Abbott (born 1878), the present chief. 

The Children's Bureau has seven major 
divisions, as follows: maternity and infant 
hygiene, child hygiene, industrial, social service, 
statistical, editorial, and general administra- 
tive. The maternity and infant-hygiene divi- 
sion conducts research into the causes of infant 
and maternal deaths, and is charged with the 




administration of the Federal maternity and 
infancy act, under which the welfare and hy- 
giene of mothers, babies, and prc-school chil- 
dren are promoted, in cooperation with the state 
agencies of forty-five states and the territory 
of Hawaii. The child-hygiene division is in 
charge of the Bureau's studies in the field of 
child health, and assists the other divisions in 
the preparation of reports in which child health 
is a factor. The social -service division has for 
its field dependency, delinquency, and neglect 
of children, and the industrial division is re- 
sponsible for studies relating to the employment 
of children, protective legislation for working 
children, and vocational guidance. The statis- 
tical, editorial, and general administrative 
divisions serve the other divisions of the Bu- 

An important part of the Bureau's work is 
the answering of letters from parents asking 
questions about the care of children, and the 
distribution of literature, ranging from brief 
folders and popular bulletins on prenatal care, 
infant care, child care, and child manage- 
ment, to technical reports for professional 
child-welfare workers. K.F.L. 



CHILDS, GEORGE WILLIAM (1820-1804), one 
of the most notable of American publishers and 
philanthropists. He was born in Baltimore, but 
began his business career in Philadelphia, be- 
coming a partner in the publishing house of 
Childs & Peterson in 1840. In 1864 he pur- 
chased the Philadelphia Public Ledger, one of 
the earliest of the low-priced daily papers. 
Under his management, it became very influ- 
ential and made its owner a wealthy man. 
Mr. Childs' charities, both public and private, 
were numerous. Among the most noted of his 
public gifts were a memorial fountain at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon in England, a monument over 
the grave of Edgar Allan Poe, the presentation 
of a printers' cemetery - "Woodlawn"~-in Phil- 
adelphia, and a subscription which made possible 
the endowment of the home for union printers 
at Colorado Springs. His private benefactions 
were equally large, and included among many 
others the educating of 800 boys and girls and 
the pensioning of many old literary workers. 

r HILE, die' lay* a progressive republic 
in South America, extending ribbonlike along 
the Pacific coast for 2,700 miles. Its average 
width is but eighty-seven miles. If placed on 
the map of North America, this country 
(about thirty times as long as it is wide, and 
therefore sometimes called the shoestring 
republic) would stretch from Hudson Bay to 
about 200 miles south of Cuba. Another 
indication of its shoestring shape is the fact that 
the country is as long as from New York City 
to San Francisco, and as narrow as Lake Erie. 
Its total area is only 289,810 square miles. On 
the north, it touches Peru; on the northeast, 
Bolivia; along its eastern boundary stretches 
Argentina, and the Pacific Ocean washes the 
western shore; a large part of Tierra del Fuego 
(the Land of Fire) and the famous island of 
Cape Horn constitute the southern extremity 
of Chile; it is thus projected a thousand miles 
farther south than the southern point of Africa. 
The name Chile is Indian, but its origin is 
disputed. It was probably derived from an 
Indian word meaning cold, referring to the 
perpetual snow on many of the mountains. 


The People. About four million people live 
in this peaceful republic, the great majority of 
whom are of European descent. About one- 
fourth of them are of pure Spanish stock, very 
largely from the more energetic and progressive 
element of Northern Spain, where the climate 
most closely resembles that of Central Chile. 

The language of the country is Spanish. 
Very many of the influential families have been 
settled in Chile for more than a century, and 
the social customs reflecting the high culture of 
old Spain are everywhere in evidence. Roman 
Catholicism prevails. 

The foreign population consists chiefly of 
Spanish, French, Germans, Italians, and 
British, who have been drawn thither generally 
for purposes of business. There are also 
50,000 Peruvians and Bolivians in the north. 

Of the ancient inhabitants of Chile, the 
Araucanian and Patagonian Indians, dwelling 
on the slopes of the Andes, only about 100,000 
of the former remain, and the latter are 
practically extinct. Noted for their intense 
love of liberty and their determined, war- 
like spirit, they were the last native tribe in all 




America to give up their independence; not 
until 1 88 1 did they actually recognize the 
authority of the Chilean government (see 
PATAGONIA). In the southernmost part of 
Chile is the remnant of another primitive race, 
the Yaghans, still uncivilized. 

The Cities. Santiago, the capital, and Val- 
paraiso, the most important seaport, are de- 
scribed in these volumes under their individual 
titles. In addition to Coquimbo, a small sea- 
jxsrt situated in the iron-ore district, the re- 
maining cities of importance are the following: 

Conception, kon sep' se ohn, a river port situated 
^oo miles south of Valparaiso, in a fertile agri- 
cultural district. The city was founded in 1^50, and 
in early Spanish days was the second largest city of 
Chile, l>ut it has twice been destroyed by earthquake. 
The present city is modern, clean, and progressive, 
with a imputation of about 05,000 The independence 
of Chile was declared here in 1818 

Iquique, e kr' kay, a seaport for the northern arid 
district, where the great nitrate fields abound It is 
imiK)rtant as an outlet to the sea for Bolivia The 
city has suffered as the scene of earthquakes and 
of conflicts over boundary disputes. Its population 
is about ^7,000 

Magallanes, prior to 1028 culled PUNTA ARENAS, 
the southernmost incorporated town in the world, 
almost pathetic in its loneliness and in its distance 
from other cities It is situated on the Strait of 
Magellan, at the south end of the continent of South 
America, and is the capital of the Chilean territory of 

The city has been important chiefly as a coaling 
station for steamships, though its seal fisheries have 
considerable value It has many foreigners engaged 
in sheep-raising, farming, and lumbering, and it ex- 
ports meat and wool The city was founded in 1840, 
on the site of a former penal colony It has about 
2.$, ooo inhabitants; the territory of Magallanes has people. 

The Land Surface and Climate. The mighty 
mountains of the Andes extend the length 
of the country, and among the lofty snow- 
crowned peaks of the range are numerous vol- 
canoes; earthquakes are very frequent in this 
region of the world. 

This long strip of country falls into three 
distinct zones. In the north is the arid desert 
of Atacama, a sub-tropical region rich in 
minerals. In the center is a rich valley 600 
miles long, watered by numerous small rivers 
rising in the Andes. This agricultural sec- 
tion of Chile, where the rain supply is fairly 
abundant, enjoys the delightful climate of 
perpetual spring; it is the granary of the coun- 
try, the heart of the nation, and the home of 
most of its people. 

Finally, in the southern portion is found a 
mountainous, heavily forested section, a cold 
region with almost continuous rains. Here, 
where the famous Strait of Magellan cuts 
through Chilean lands, the otherwise uniform 
coast line breaks into picturesque ruggedness. 
The fiords and islands and forest-covered 

mountains topped with glaciers remind one of 
the romantic scenery of Northern Europe. 

The rivers are of little importance for 
transportation, being short and turbulent, but 
several in the south, the Imperial, Bio-bio, Val- 
divia, and Bueno, 
are navigated by 
small steamboats for 
some distance. Un- 
like many South 
American countries, 
Chile has few birds, 
beasts, fish, or 

Mineral Re- 
sources. The vast 
mineral wealth of 
Chile was the cause 
of early boundary 
disputes. In the 
northern desert of the 
country, a region in- 
hospitable in itself, 
lie the world 's great- 


Showing the position Chile 
occupies in the continent, 
and its si/.e <is compared 
with other South American 

est nitrate beds, sup- 
plying one of the 
finest fertilizers known. This whitish-looking 
mud, so easily obtained by a surface-scraping 
process, is Chile's chief export and source of 
revenue. Almost all of it is sent to Europe and 
the United States, Iquique being celebrated as 
the world's greatest nitrate port. This source 
of easy wealth, however, scientific men have 
estimated will be exhausted by the year 1040. 
Iodine, a by-product of nitrate of soda, is also 
a considerable article of export, especially to 
the United States. 

Copper ores are next to nitrates in impor- 
tance among the mineral resources. Chile is the 
world's second largest producer of copper. 
Immense iron-ore deposits are also found in 
the northern provinces, together with gold, 
silver, cobalt, nickel, and manganese. Valuable 
coal mines are situated south of Valparaiso. 

Agriculture. Most of Chile's agricultural 
activities are confined to its great central valley, 
where there are large estates owned by wealthy 
Chileans and by the Roman Catholic Church. 
These estates are worked with modern machin- 
ery. The poorer classes serve as laborers, for 
they cannot own farms, because of the high 
price of land. Sixty per cent of the agricultural 
land is owned by fewer than 600 proprietors. 
The most important cereal crops are wheat, 
barley, oats, maize, and beans. Mediterranean 
fruits, figs, olives, apricots, and grapes grow 
abundantly. Chile is noted for its production 
of excellent wines. Apple-growing has become 
very successful, especially in the southern 

The shaggy slopes of the more southerly 
areas, and even the region of Tierra del Fuego, 
provide pasture for millions of cattle and sheep; 




dairy fanning and the production of butter and 
cheese are on the increase The extensive 
forests of these regions are important for lum- 


Northern Chile is as far south of the equator as 
Haiti is north of "the line", its southern extremity 
is in a latitude comparable with Southern Hudson 
Bay The above map shows where Chile would lie 
could it be turned upon North America, with the 
equator as an axis 

bering industries. Immigration is small, and 
it is only by special inducements offered by the 
government that a number of Japanese farmers 
have settled in the country. 

Manufactures and Commerce. Manufactur- 
ing industries are unimportant. Soap, furni- 
ture, and shoes arc the chief products, except 
in a southern German settlement at Valdivia, 
where large breweries, distilleries, saw mills, and 
tanneries are found. Textiles, machinery, 
paper materials, animal products, and chemi- 
cals have for years been imported from Great 
Britain, Germany, and the United States, and 
sugar and petroleum from Peru. Most of 
Chile's agricultural products are consumed 
locally; the chief exports are nitrates, wool, 
hides, and leather. Chilean wines and beans 
find a market among the country's South 
American neighbors. 

Transportation and Communication. Chile 
was the first South American state to construct 
a railway, the oldest line having been opened in 
1852. By 1888 construction was begun on a 
large scale, and there are now more than 5,600 
miles of railway open for traffic, over 3,100 

miles of which belong to the state. One of the 
most famous in operation is the Trans-Andean 
Railway, connecting Valparaiso and Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, a distance of nearly 800 
miles. Chile has over 22,000 miles of public 
road, and about 850 miles of navigable rivers. 

Although harbors on the Chilean coast are 
not of the best, shipping from its ports exceeds 
that of any other South American country 
on the west coast. An excellent breakwater 
at the Valparaiso harbor has greatly improved 
that port and made anchorage safe. The chief 
ports ^re Valparaiso, Iquique, Talcahuano, 
and Antofagasta. The completion of the 
Panama Canal, greatly shortening the water 
route to Chile from New York and Europe, is 
vastly increasing the republic's commerce, 
especially notable in the mining industry. The 
ocean route from Valparaiso to New York has 
been shortened from 8,337 miles to 4,627 miles, 
and that from Valparaiso to Liverpool from 
8,747 miles to 7,185 miles 

Education. Until recently, public instruction 
was much neglected, and the illiteracy rate was 
very high; but rapid strides have been made, 
and through the efforts of teachers brought 
from Germany and the United States, modern 
methods and systems have been installed. 
Public schools are provided by the government, 
and education has been compulsory since 1020. 
Besides normal, secondary, and commercial 
schools, all public, there are agricultural and 
professional schools, schools of mines, music, 
arts, and trades, an institute for deaf-mutes, a 


school for the blind, public museums, and the 
National Library. There are two universities, 
one supported by the state, the other by the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Government and Religion. By amendments 
in IQ25, the executive power is vested in a 
President, who is elected for a term of six 
years by direct popular vote; he is ineligible for 
immediate reelection. A Cabinet of Ministers 
aids the President. Voters must be twenty-one 
years old, and be able to read and write. 

Legislative power is vested in a National 
Congress, elected by direct popular vote, and 




consisting of a Senate with forty-five members, 
elected for a term of eight years, and a Chamber 
of Deputies, consisting of one member for every 
30,000 inhabitants. For local government, 
Chile is divided into provinces, which are 

Square with star, blue; lower half, red; plain 
surface, white 

divided in turn into departments. Police 
of the capitals of departments and of Santiago, 
the capital of the republic, are organized by 
the President at the expense of the Treasury. 

Besides a High Court of Justice in the capi- 
tal, there are courts of appeal throughout 
the republic, Tribunals of First Instance in 
department capitals, and smaller courts in 
districts. There are two central prisons, more 
than twenty penitentiaries, besides houses of 
correction, reformatories, and public hospitals, 
lunatic asylums, shelters, and dispensaries. 

Affairs of state are sHU largely controlled by 
great landholders, the poorer classes being 
largely illiterate, and therefore disqualified 
to vote. The Roman Catholic Church, sus- 
tained at public expense until 1025, is still 
powerful because of its numbers, but Roman 
Catholicism is no longer the state religion. All 
churches are tolerated. 

History. The real conquest of Chile began 
under the direction of Valdivia, in 1540. For 
more than two centuries, the brave and intelli- 
gent Araucanians struggled against the Spanish 
power. By 1810 Chile, tired of Spanish domi- 
nation, revolted, and gained independence 
eight years later. 

The Chileans being a peace-loving and patri- 
otic people, the country has been fairly free 
from internal revolutions such as have marked 
the history of most Spanish-American countries. 
Disagreements with outside countries have 
provoked most of Chile's troubles. 

The valuable deposits of nitrate in Northern 
Chile have caused many boundary disputes. 
Beginning in 1843, the question of * the Argen- 
tina boundary menaced peaceful relations, until 
in 1 88 1 a treaty was signed. But even after 
that, rumors of war caused a disturbed condi- 
tion hi both countries until 1002. A remarkable 

statue of Christ was erected in the heart of 
the Andes, on the boundary between the two 
countries, to celebrate ultimate peace. (There 
is an illustration of this monument under the 
title ARGENTINA.) 

In 1865 Chile and Peru were forced into a 
war with Spain, the most significant event 
being the bombardment of Valparaiso by a 
Spanish fleet, in 1866. Through the interven- 
tion of the United States, hostilities were ended 
in 1869, and ten years later peace was estab- 
lished. Then war commenced with Bolivia 
and Peru over nitrate deposits. In the war, 
Chile added to its possessions the province of 
Atacama from Bolivia and Tarapaca from 
Peru, and also secured control of two small 
Peruvian provinces, Tacna and Arica. It was 
agreed that after ten years a vote of the people 
of these two provinces should determine their 
future sovereignty, but Chile placed such re- 
strictions on this proposed vote that Peru 
steadfastly refused to concur in the plan. Fi- 
nally, in 1923, the matter was put up to the 
United States for arbitration, with the Presi- 
dent as umpire. General Pershing was ap- 
pointed as head of an arbitration committee 
in 1025, but months of bickering brought no 
results; the question was settled in iQ2q. 

From the adoption of constitutional govern- 
ment, in 1833, to 1871, Chile had but four 
Presidents, each serving for two terms. In 
1873 the Constitution was liberalized by amend- 
ments. In 1891 President Balmaceda ad- 
vocated a still more democratic government, 
and a civil war broke out, which resulted in 
defeat and suicide for the President. The 
belief that the United States favored the cause 
of Balmaceda led to a serious conflict at 
Valparaiso between some United States sailors 
and a crowd of Chileans; the immediate dis- 
patch of warships from the American republic 
brought apology, and since then a spirit of 
friendship between the two republics has 
steadily grown, with increasing intimacy of 
relations between them. Chile is one of the 
"A B C" powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) 
which offered to medi?te in 1914 between 
Mexico and the United States. 

Chile remained neutral during the World 
War, but furnished the Allies with war mate- 
rials. Manufacturing has increased, and labor 
and social problems have been mitigated by 
law. In 1924 a group of army officers over- 
threw the government, substituting a military 
r6gime, which instituted necessary reforms. 
But the public soon began to demand a return 
to constitutional government. A greatly 
liberalized Constitution was adopted in Oc- 
tober, 1925; the President was recalled, and 
peace was restored. Late in 1928 Herbert 
Hoover, President-elect of the United States, 
paid a visit of friendship to the Chilean 






I. Location 

(1) Latitude, 17 57' to 55 58' 40" south 

(2) Longitude, about that of Boston 

(3) Boundaries 

(4) Distance from New York and London 

II. Size and Form 

(1) Length, 2,700 miles 

(2) Average breadth, 87 miles 
(j) Area 

(a) Comparative 

(b) Actual 

(4) "Shoestring republic" 

III. Physical Features 

(i) Surface regions 

(a) Northern desert section 

(b) Central valley 

(c) Southern mountainous section 
The Andes 



IV. Climate 

(1) Sub-tropical in north 

(2) Pleasant and healthful in central section 

(3) The cold southern region 

(4) Rainfall 

V. The People 

(T) Population 

(a) Actual 

(b) Comparative 

(c) Density 
(2) Natives 

(a) Origin 

(b) Characteristics 

(3) Foreigners 

(4) Ancient races 

(a) Araucamans 

(b) Patagonians 

(5) Religion 

(0) Education 

(a) Absence of compulsory education laws 

VI. Industries and Transportation 

(1) Mining 

(a) Nitrate of soda 

(b) Copper 

(c) Other minerals 

(2) Agriculture 

(a) Location in central valley 

(b) Stock-raising 

(3) Manufacturing 

(4) Communication 

(a) Railroads 

(b) Rivers 

(c) Roads 

(d) Coastwise trade 

(e) Connection with other countries 
i Influence of Panama Canal 

VII. Government 

fi) Republican form 

(2) Departments 

(3) Local government 

VIII. History 

(1) The conquest 

(2) Independence achieved 

( i) How its history has touched that of other 
countries in North and South America 

(4) Recent progress 


What might be called the "ice-houses of the Strait of Magellan"? 

What metal was once mined in Chile in greater quantities than in any other 
country in the world? 

How does the country now rank in the production of that same metal? 

Why is it safer for vessels to anchor in the harbor of Valparaiso now than it was 
a few years ago? 

What class of the population has most to do with governmental affairs? 

Who were the Patagonians? Give some of their characteristics. How many of 
them remain? 

What is the great mineral product of the desert region? What is it used for? 

What distinction has this country among South American states in the matter 
of railway transportation? 

By whom are the policemen paid in Santiago? 



Questions Continued 

How large a proportion of the inhabitants of the country are European -born? 
How many are from the South American countries to the north * 

How long do experts estimate that Chile's chief source of mineral wealth will 

Under what conditions do the few surviving primitive inhabitants of the coun- 
try live? 

How many prisons are there in Chile? 

What language does a Chilean speak? 

How does the country differ in its flora and fauna from most other states of the 

What connection has one of Chile's outlying possessions with a famous English 

What attitude does the government take toward immigration''* 

When did the United States intervene and bring about pence for Chile? 

How does this country differ in national character from those countries colonized 
by Spaniards from the south of Spain? 

What part of the Andes has the largest eternal snowfield? 

If South America were folded over upon North America, according to latitude, 
how far would Chile reach? 

What resource of great value has been the cause of numerous disputes between 
this country and its neighbors? 

How did Chile and Argentina celebrate the establishment of a lasting peace be- 
tween them? 

What was the probable origin of the country's name''' 

What resemblance is there between the far southern coast of this country and 
a certain far northern shore line? 

Why is this known as the "shoestring republic" "> 

What state of the American Union is nearest it in area? 

Are there any particulars in which Central Chile may be compared with Central 
California? How do the two compare in latitude? 

How large a proportion of the population makes its living by agriculture? 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol- teaspoonful salt, O7ie finely chopped onion, cloves 

limes will make more tUar crrtain phasrs of this general K arhc finely chopped, and the chicken, and cover wi 

ject boiling water Cook until chicken is tender Remo 

Andes Patagonia and thicken sauce with three tablespoonfuls each 

Argentina San Martin, Jose de butter and flour cooked together Canned pimcnt 

HornTcape Sheep** may be USCd in platC f red P l 'W )Crs - E v M 

Median (Strait of) Tierra del FUCRO CHILE SALTPETER. See SODIUM. 

Nltrate& Valparaiso CHILLICOTHE, chil i kolh' c, OHIO. S 

CHILE CON CARNE, chc ' lay kon kahr' nay, OHIO (back of map). 

a Spanish dish, now popular in the United CHILLON, shil Ion' or she yoN' , a cast 

States with those who enjoy 4 'hotly" seasoned fortress on a rock at the east end of La 

food. Chili, or Chilli, is the Spanish name for Geneva, Switzerland, reached from the ma 

red peppers, and chile con carne means peppers land by bridge. It has acquired inter 

with meat. The following is a recipe for from Byron's poem, The Prisoner of Chili 

enough to serve six or eight people : which tells the story of Francis Bonni va 

Clean, singe, and cut in pieces for serving, two P rior f ^ int Victor and Genevan patriot * 

young chickens Season with salt and pepper, and was cast into an underground dungeon of 

fry quickly in butter Remove seeds and veins from ^Stle by the counts of Savoy. From 1530 

eight red peppers, cover with boiling water, and cook 153$ he suffered there in the cause of religi 

until soft. Mash and rub through a sieve Add one The tale is not entirely true. See page i v - 




I'Luto OKOC 



CHILON, che lahn' . See SEVEN WISE MEM 

CHIMAERA, ki me' rah, in the stories of 
Homer, a fire-breathing female monster with 
the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the 
tail of a serpent, that long laid waste the land 
of Lycia and Caria. The hero, Bellerophon, 
commissioned by the Lycian king, lobates, to 
destroy this creature, procured with the help 
of Minerva the winged steed Pegasus. Speed- 
ing through the air, he found the Chimaera 
and killed her. See BELLEROPHON. 

Modern Application. The word chimerical, derived 
from Chimaera, has come to be applied to any idea or 
plan that is wild or fantastic. 

CHIMBORAZO, chim bo rah' zo, an imposing 
mountain of the Andes, located in Ecuador, 
about 120 miles from the Pacific coast. Viewed 
from a distance, it is a magnificent sight, rising 
20,408 feet above the level of the sea, and 
perpetually snow-covered from the summit 
down half a mile. It is an extinct volcano, but 

has no crater. For a long time Chimborazo 

was thought to be the loftiest mountain in the 

New World, but there are eight higher peaks in 

South America; Aconcagua rises 23,080 feet 

above sea level. 

Many men at- 

tempted to reach 



peak, called Sil- 

ver Bell, before 

the first success- 

ful ascent was 

made in 1880. 

BELL, subhead. 

Warm air, be- 
ing lighter than 
cold air, tends 
to rise. When 
warm air is con- 
fined within an 
enclosure open 
at the top and 
bottom, a strong 
upward current 

fills the Space. rhoto Vlaual Education Service 

As the warm air CHIMPANZEE 

rises, cold air rushes in through the opening as 
the bottom of the shaft; in this way a draft it 
created which supplies the fire at the foot of 


The chimpanzee named Hondo, in the garb of man, 
is an attraction in the San Diego (Calif.) Zoo. 

the chimney with the oxygen it needs to sup- 
port combustion. Chimneys, therefore, do 




more than carry off the smoke from a burning 
mass of wood or coal. They are built for utility, 
and not for ornament; they must extend higher 


than the topmost part of the building, or counter 
drafts may blow down the chimney. 

CHIMNEY SWALLOW, an incorrect desig- 
nation for the chimney sv;i?t. See SWIFT. 

CHIMPANZEE, Mm pan' ze, or chim pan- 

ze f , a large African ape, of the same genus as 
the gorilla, the two being closest to man of 
the anthropoid apes (see APE; GORILLA). The 
face and hands of the chimpanzee are flesh- 
colored, or yellowish, the teeth beautifully 
white, the ears very large. The body is cov- 
ered with long, shining, dark-colored hair. In 
one species the crown of the head is bald. 
When full grown, the animal is sometimes five 
feet high. It does not often stand erect, but 
usually supports itself in an upright position 
by its long forearms. A wanderer in habit, 
the chimpanzee lives in dense jungles, where 
it climbs to the tops of the trees, eating soft 
fruits, insects, and birds' eggs. At night its 
loud, terrific, long-drawn cries can sometimes 
be heard for a mile or more. Chimpanzees 
are easily tamed, and are docile if kindly 
treated. Those seen in menageries, vaudeville, 
and moving pictures often show marvelous 
intelligence. In French West Africa, capture 
of chimpanzees is under government control. 
See illustrations, page 1383. MJ.H. 

Scientific Names. Chimpanzees belong to the 
family Simiidae. The several species constitute a 
genus which has been variously named Pan, Troglo- 
dytes, Mimctcs, and Anthropopithccus. 


^HINA, the largest country of Asia, 
and one of the oldest on the globe that still 
exists as a nation. Long before Rome was 
founded, it is believed, China was a flourishing 
nation, with its arts, its government, and its 
peculiar family traditions well established. 
Through all the centuries until the nineteenth, 
it remained a shrouded nation, shut off from 
intercourse with other peoples; even to-day it 
is probably the least understood of all the 
nations, and most of the statistics which are 
given for it are little more than estimates. For 
thousands of years a monarchy of the absolute 
type, for nearly four years a republic, at least 
in name, then by a sharp reaction, a monarchy, 
then reverting to the republic again such has 
been the history of this country, which is called 
by its own people Chunghua, meaning Center 
of Civilization. 

China thinks in centuries. A man's life is a 
prolongation of that of his father and his count- 
less grandfathers, and he is certain that his 
own progeny will transmit the individual in 

him down through eternity. Countless ages 
he extends backward through his ancestry, and 
through countless ages he believes he will live 
in his posterity. 

Location and Size. China comprises most of 
eastern and southeastern Asia, and its area of 
4,278,000 square miles (estimated) comprises 
somewhat more than one-fourth of that vast 
continent. It is a million square miles larger 
than the United States; indeed, it is larger than 
the United States, Mexico, and Central Amer- 
ica combined. It is larger than all of Europe. 
These statements, however, are made on the 
assumption that China's title to Mongolia and 
Manchuria remains valid. Mongolia has de- 
clared its independence, and Russian and 
Japanese influence in Manchuria has put 
Chinese authority in jeopardy. In all the 
world, only Soviet Russia (which includes 
Siberia) and Great Britain and France with 
their colonial possessions surpass it in size. 
No census has ever made possible a statement 
of the exact population, but the Chinese Post- 




office Census places it at about 446,000,000-- a 
population greater than that of any other single 
nation on the globe, and actually twenty-six 
per cent of the world's population. Eighty-five 
per cent of the people live in one-third of the 


Showing, also, the proportion of the Asiatic continent 
occupied by China. 

area; the country is not over-populated, but 
distribution of the people is not even, owing 
to lack of transportation. In China proper, the 
people number 436,000,000. The entire popu- 
lation of the British Empire is greater, but it is 
scattered all over the world, and is of every 


China and the United States drawn to the same scale 

color, temperament, and language, while that 
of China is compact and almost a unit as to 
race; but in language there are hundreds of 

Of this vast population, over ninety-five per 
cent live in what is known as China proper, 
which comprises only about one-third of the 
entire Chinese republic. Between this compact 

southeastern portion and the other countries 
of Asia lie the great Chinese provinces of Tibet, 
Chinese Turkestan, Mongolia, and Manchuria, 
all of which are, either in their climate or in 
their soil, inhospitable enough to be real bar- 
riers against invasion. These buffer states ac- 
count in large measure for the degree to which 
China has been able to keep itself untouched 
by influences from the outside world. 

Physical Features. In no other country is 
the importance of rivers more evident than in 
China. PVom the mountainous inland regions 
they flow to the Pacific in roughly parallel 

SanFrancisco 5-Memphis TNevYork 
ver 6-NewOrleans 


China and the United States drawn to the same scale. 

courses, and in their fertile valleys is crowded 
together a large proportion of the inhabit- 
ants. Only two of these river basins that of 
the Yangtze, or "Great River," and that of the 
Hwang, or the "Yellow River "form great 
plains, the rest of China being largely moun- 
tainous. Both of these rivers, springing from 
the mountain section, where snow is heavy, are 
subject to floods which keep the near-by lands 
constantly fertile, but these floods have other 
and less beneficial results. Sometimes they are 
so vast that they sweep away the wonderful 
works built to hold the river in its course, 
bring death to thousands of people in their 
basins, and by widespread destruction of crops 
cause famine through the land. The Hwang, 
which in twenty-five centuries has altered its 
course eleven times, is especially treacherous, 





AREA-Mlhons of Acres 

10 20 30 40 50 

FRODUCTION-Millions of T6ns| 

10 20 30 40 50 




The area and production of rice in the United States is insignificant compared with that of China The latter 
country produces less wheat, but more sorghums and millet, than the United States. 

and by its devastating floods has won for itself 
the name of "China's Sorrow." 

In the north, west, and south are mountains, 
those of the west being the highest. By no 
means all of this mountainous section is lost to 
cultivation, for the Chinese have shown marked 
ability in adapting them&lves to their environ- 
ment. The southeastern mountains, steep in 
their higher slopes, are cultivated only to a 
height of 2,000 feet or thereabouts, but in the 
north, where the valleys are filled with a pe- 
culiar fertile soil called loess, the mountains are 
often terraced to a height of 8,000 feet. This 
inland mountain region is almost unknown to 
travelers, except the most determined and en- 
terprising of them, and contains none of the 
great cities. These, for the most part, are 
situated along the coast, which is 2,500 miles 
in extent, or on the rivers; and the rivers near 
a great city present a remarkably busy and 
crowded aspect. 

Of lakes, China has a number, though none 
of great size or importance. Practically all of 
them are near the Yangtze, and most of them 
are shallow and in danger of being filled up 
with silt from the river floods. The Chinese 
are a most ingenious people, and in certain of 
the lakes they have fashioned artificial floating 
islands, which are among the sights that 
travelers flock to see. 

Climate. Nowhere is the statement that a 
"temperate climate is one which shows extreme 
heat in summer and extreme cold in winter" 
better illustrated than in China, for though 
almost the entire country lies within the north 
temperate zone, the extremes of heat and cold 
are great, except upon the seacoast. This is 
accounted for by the fact that it is part of a 
very large land mass, a "continental climate" 
always showing much greater variations than 
does one affected by great bodies of water. 
In the northern part of China, the average 
temperature for the year is about 51; in the 
south, about 79; and the annual range is 

twice as great in the north as in the south. 
The summer months throughout much of the 
country are very hot, while in the winter the 
rivers are frozen through a great part of their 

Most of the rainfall occurs during the sum- 
mer season, but this is by no means evenly 
distributed over the country. In the south, 
near the coast, it is frequently 100 inches a 
year, while at Peking, in the north, it rarely 
reaches twenty-five inches. 

Plants and Animals. As might be expected 
in a country of such great size, the plant life 
of China is widely varied. The very name 
associates itself in the mind with certain plants 
tea, the opium poppy, the mulberry, and 
rice. These are widely cultivated, and are 
treated under the heading of Agriculture, be- 
low. Of the plants which the Chinaman finds 
ready to his hand by the gift of nature, by all 
means the most important is the bamboo, which 
he could no more do without than the people 
of the West could do without iron and its prod- 
ucts. But he uses bamboo in more ways than 
iron is used he eats the young sprouts, fash- 
ions a great deal of his furniture out of the 
full-grown reeds, builds houses and boats in 
which to live, and makes paper from it. 

Over large regions, however, the forests have 
been cut down, and vast, desolate stretches are 
clothed only with a tough grass. It is not 
that the Chinese do not appreciate the beauty 
of trees it is simply that they must use every 
resource at their command. Perhaps the land 
is capable of cultivation then assuredly the 
trees must come down; if not, wood is always 
good for burning, and the trees must come 
down, anyway. 

It might be surprising to learn how many of 
the commonly known fruits and flowers are 
Chinese in origin. Not only the various species 
of the azalea and the rhododendron, but the 
peach and the orange as well, have been intro- 
duced elsewhere from China. For centuries the 




Chinese have had their skilled gardeners, and 
no Western country has brought about more 
wonderful developments of flowers than has 
China, with the chrysanthemum, for instance. 
But it is only the wealthy who can have flower 
gardens; the poorer classes have no spot of 
ground, however tiny, which they can spare to 
grow anything that cannot be eaten. 

In the wild mountain regions, there are still 
to be found tigers, leopards, bears, and wolves, 
while in the southwestern extremity, near 
Burma, the elephant and the rhinoceros are 
frequently seen. Over much of the country, 
however, the large game has been driven out, 
but hares, rabbits, squirrels, rats, and mice are 
everywhere abundant, and the bird family is 
very numerous. Almost more important than 
the birds, which include geese, ducks, and other 
species used for food, are the fish, for China is 
one of the greatest fish countries of the world. 
Particularly interesting is the use made of cor- 
morants in fishing (see CORMORANT). 

Agriculture. For thousands of years the land 
of China has been cultivated, and during much 
of that time has supported a huge population, 
yet its fertility is not exhausted, and China is 
still primarily an agricultural nation. This tells 
much about the methods that are employed. 
Primitive they may be, but they tend to con- 
serve the elements of the soil. A Chinese city 
has no drainage system, no garbage-disposal 
problem. In the early morning hours, before 
dawn, the farmers' boats enter the canals of 

the city and glide here and there, collecting 
the refuse of every sort for fertilizing purposes. 

Farming is held in high honor. The govern- 
ment really owns the land, and has a right to 
eject any man from his holding if he does not 
till it carefully. Most of these holdings are 
small, comparatively few being over ten acres, 
but from these little patches excellent returns 
are received excellent, that is, from the view- 
point of the Chinese, who do not demand much 
beyond the necessities of life. No patch of 
ground is too small to claim attention. If a 
man has in his holding a rocky ledge, however 
small, which is level enough to retain earth, he 
will carry earth in a basket, cover the ledge, and 
there set out his plants. Thus he adds to the 
productivity of his bit of land. 

Nor are these their only space economies. 
Large rafts are built, covered with earth, and 
moored in the river. There the farmer plants 
his seed in early spring, and as the raft drifts 
slowly down the river, the crops grow and ripen. 
The picture is an attractive one to a person 
who has not seen the original, and gives the 
impression of a lazy, luxurious people who can- 
not even stay at home to grow their crops. But 
the truth is far otherwise. The Chinese peasant 
is the hardest-working man in the world, and 
only the dire necessity of finding a place to live 
and grow the things he needs for food forces 
him into such expedients. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of Chinese live on river boats, and have 
no other homes. 

Photo. U A V 

There is such a surplus of labor, such a scarcity of leather, and such dependence on traditional customs that 
in lieu of reins to guide the donkey, a boy leads him. 

Some Phases of Industry, (i) Converting timber into lumber (man power is cheaper than machinery). (2) 
Interior of a native bank; the strange material displayed is money. (3) A village mill, grain for the com- 
munity is ground into flour in this crude fashion. (4) A street restaurant. 1389 

Photo.: Viral Education*! Bwrlc*; O & < 

Some Phases of Industry, (i) Converting timber into lumber (man power is cheaper than machinery), i 

Interior of a native bank; the strange material displayed is money. (3) A village mill, grain for the co 

munity is ground into flour in this crude fashion. (4) A street restaurant. 




attempted to curtail still further the traffic 
in opium, without result. 

Of one phase of agriculture, China knows 
nothing, and that is stock-raising. Pigs and 
chickens may be seen, for they can subsist on 
refuse and live in the dooryard of the little 
thatched mud hut which shelters the family. 
But cows, sheep, and horses must have grazing 
land, and land is too valuable to be used for 
such purposes. There are no grassy commons 
on which the cows of the villagers may be 
tethered; no roadside stretches where they may 
crop the weeds, for every spot is under culti- 

The effects of this lack of animals are many. 
Not only do the people have little meat to eat, 
but they know nothing of milk or of butter. 
And even more serious is the scarcity of draft 
animals, for it means that men must pull the 
carriages and bear the heavy burdens, thereby 
injuring their health and shortening their lives. 
A Chinese coolie can do draft work more swiftly 
and more easily than could an American or a 
European, but after all, he is a man and not a 
horse, and he inevitably pays the penalty with 
relatively short life for the too-hard work which 
is laid upon him. 

Manufactures. That the Chinese are not 
behind other races in their inventive faculty is 
proved by the fact that they were the first to 
use gunpowder, paper, silk, movable blocks for 
printing, porcelain, the n^gnetic needle, and 
many other things which were later introduced 
into Europe or independently discovered there. 
But in the later centuries, the inventive faculty 
has been hampered by the conservatism and 
ancestor worship so characteristic of China. 
No premium is placed on the discovery of new 
and simpler methods the acceptable thing is 
to carry on a process just as it has been carried 
on in ages past. Thus it happens that the 
Chinese have been slow to introduce machinery, 
and many of their products continue to be 
made in the homes of the people or in very 
small establishments. Even so, their silk is 
better than any made elsewhere, while their 
embroideries are marvels of beauty and skill. 
Cotton mills are multiplying rapidly, however, 
and at present there are 3,500,000 spindles in 

Gold and silver filigree work, lacquer ware, 
wood and ivory carving, and 
bronze casting show not only the 
remarkable ability of the people, 
but their artistic sense as well. 
In recent years, great quantities 
of modern machinery have been 
introduced into factories in the 
cities, and some of the old hand- 
work, as the most intricate em- 
broidering and carving, has been 
forbidden by law because of its bad 
effect on the eyes. Certain stu- 

dents of economic questions have expressed the 
fear that the time may come when Chinese 
factories will be able to produce goods so cheaply 
that American and European products cannot 
compete with them, for the Chinese laborer has 
to be content with a wage of a few cents a day. 
Important Mineral Resources. That mineral 
deposits are enormous has long been known, 
but the research made has not been thorough 
enough to determine their exact extent. Of 
chief importance is coal. About twenty miles 
south of Mukden is the largest strip mine in 
the world. It is ten miles long and two miles 
wide, and the seams are from seventy-eight to 

Photo Viaual Education Service 

Chinese toolics pulling a vessel up-stream. 

480 feet thick; 7,000 tons of bituminous coal 
are taken from it daily. China produces 
seventy-five per cent of the world's antimony 
Iron, too, occurs in great quantities, some of 
it so near the coal fields that considerable iron 
industries have sprung up; but mining, like 
most of the other industries of China, has never 
reached a high stage of development because 
of a lack of transportation facili- 
ties. If metals exist near the great 
waterways, well and good they 
can be transported with ease and 
widely used; if not, they are of 
service only in the sections in 
which they are found. Apparently 
inexhaustible beds of kaolin, or 
porcelain clay, early gave rise to 
the china-making industry, and 
this clay still forms one of the 
most valuable mineral resources. 

Photo- Vwuml Education Service 


Some gold, silver, copper, and lead are mined by 
primitive or surface methods, but how rich the 
deposits may be has never been determined. 

Commerce and Transportation. Though 
China has long had commercial relations with 
foreign countries, it was only after the opening 
of the treaty ports, in 1842, that its foreign 
commerce became extensive. To-day its for- 
eign trade amounts to about $1,800,000,000 
annually, the imports making up nearly two- 
thirds of that amount. By far the largest ex- 
ports are silk, raw and manufactured, while 
cotton and cotton goods, kerosene, and tobacco 
constitute the chief imports. Everywhere in 
China are to be seen the blue cotton garments 
of the people. Though China is a million square 
miles larger than the United States and has 
four times as many people, it uses only one 
one hundred-eightieth as much steel and only 
one one hundred-fiftieth as much cement. The 
foreign trade is carried on in sixty-nine cities 
known as treaty ports, some of them on the 
coast, some hundreds of miles inland on the 
great rivers. There are also eleven voluntary 
open -trade marts. 

Of the vast interior trade of China, it is im- 
possible to make even a fair estimate, and it 
is carried on under difficulties. In the well- 
settled parts of the country, there are many 
roads, built centuries ago, but these are in very 
bad condition, for the Chinese expend no energy 
in repairing them. There are fewer than 10,000 
miles of roads on which automobiles can be run. 
Some of the towns have paved streets, but out 
on the plains and between the villages, espe- 
cially in the rice zone, the farmers have gradu- 
ally encroached upon the roads until to-day 
mere footpaths are left, wide enough for a man 
with a pack or with a wheelbarrow, but not for 
vehicles. The reason for this backwardness of 
transportation is that the Chinese believe that 
in isolation lies their safety. 

Railway-building has made but compara- 
tively slight headway, for the government from 
the first set itself strongly against it. The 
people, too, objected, for the desired right of 
way often ran through graveyards, and to dese- 
crate a grave is to the Chinese the height of 
impiety. But every line of railway built thus 
far has proved its value. Railroads connect 
the largest cities, but in the entire country the 
mileage is only 7,700. There is no other land in 
the world where the influence of transportation 
is so apparent as in China. Where railroads 
run, produce is easily distributed; elsewhere 
dire famine may abound because food cannot 
reach the people. 

The great highways of China are the rivers 
and canals, of which there is a network all 
over the country. On all the large rivers, but 
especially on the Yangtze, the volume of trade 
has steadily increased until the waterways 
literally swarm with boats, junks, and barges 


of all sizes. Probably there are as many boats 
in China as in all the rest of the world together. 
Thousands and thousands of people pass their 
lives in houseboats or sampans, and great 
stretches of the rivers are so crowded with these 
along the shore that no water shows between. 

Photo OROC 

The town crier engages in a man hunt The relatives 
of a person who has disappeared employed a man to 
go through the city streets to read the message on 
the banner to the crowds whom the heating of the 
gong would attract. The message, loosely trans- 
lated, reads. Special Notice. Please pay attention. 
There is a man named Tung Kwei Hwang, belonging 
to the district of Lciyang (Hunan province), lie is 
a share broker, coming to Changsha for the first time 
a few days ago. He stayed at th*e Double Honor 
Hotel, Sin An Street, and went out on the 2ist inst , 
to buy more share certificates, when he was lost. 
Whoever has seen this man will please let me know. 

These are not luxurious houseboats, but have 
cabins of one small room, which are satisfactory 
enough in good weather, but leave much to be 
desired during the cold and the rainy seasons. 
The People and Their Mode of Life. The 
Chinese are a Mongolian people, with the yel- 
lowish skin, straight black hair, obliquely set, 
almond-shaped eyes, and high cheek bones 
characteristic of that race. In general they 
are of rather low stature and have small hands 
and feet, but variations in physical structure 




are to be seen in the different parts of the 
country. Many of their moral qualities are 
excellent. For example, they are unusually 
industrious, and they toil constantly for the 
support of their families; they are strongly at- 
tached to their homes; they hold age in great 
respect, and are capable of loyalty to the point 
of martyrdom. Gambling is common among 
them, and opium-smoking was long a dreadful 
curse, but it has been decidedly lessened 
through the efforts of the government. 

Family Life. Marriage is universal, and 
takes place at a far earlier average age than in 
any American or European country. A youth 
does not wait until he can support a wife. He 
simply brings her home to his father's house, 
and there she has her share, meager enough in 
the case of the poor, of the family rice. Families 
are large, for the number of his sons is the 
thing upon which a man most prides himself. 
And so long as the social system remains as it 
is, so long as China is "ruled more from the 
cemetery than from the palace," men will de- 
sire sons to live after them and honor them, 
and population will know no decrease. The 
death rate, however, is high. 

In general, the men and women of the house- 
hold are kept separate. In the interior, at 
least, the women have practically no social 
advantages. In the past, not one in a hundred 
after marriage traveled far from the house to 
which she was brought as a bride. In part, 
this was because it was so difficult for them to 
walk, owing to their bound feet. Lest a girl 
might not find a husband, her parents bound 
her feet while she was but a child, for tiny feet 
were considered a mark of beauty and aristoc- 
racy. This took place not only among the 
wealthy and fashionable, but among all classes. 
However, it may be positively stated, to-day 
the practice of foot-binding is over; penalties 
are now laid against any family permitting it. 

What the Chinese Eat. It is a common say- 
ing that a Chinese family could live on what 
an American family would not eat, and while 
it may not be literally true, it is most suggestive 
of the real condition of the people. Prof. E. A. 
Ross, author of The Changing Chinese, puts it 

The sea is raked and strained for edible plunder. 
Seaweed and kelp have a place in the larder. Great 
quantities of shellfish no bigger than one's finger nail 
are opened and made to yield a food that finds its way 
far inland. The fungus that springs up in the grass 
after a rain is eaten. Fried sweet potato vines furnish 
the poor man's table. The roadside ditches are bailed 
out for the sake of fishes no longer than one's finger 
. . . After their work is done, horses, donkeys, mules, 
and camels become butcher's meat. 

Tea is the universal drink, taken not with 
the meal, but just as water is drunk elsewhere. 
Nor is a love for tea the only reason for this 
large consumption. Where people are so 

crowded together and all care for sanitation is 
lacking, only boiled water is safe for drinking, 
and this the tea makes palatable. 

Language and Education. The Chinese lan- 
guage has no alphabet, for it is not a letter but 
a syllable language. Each written character 
represents not a sound, but a word of one 
syllable, for no Chinese word has more. Thus 
a Chinese child learning to read must learn not 
twenty-six letters, as in English, but characters 


The type room of a native Shanghai newspaper. The 

man in what seems to be a pit is surrounded by type 

cases containing the thousands of characters in the 

Chinese language. 

standing for every word he ever hopes to use. 
Out of the 44,449 word-characters contained in 
the dictionaries, however, even a well-educated 
man needs fewer than 3,000. To-day, revisions 
of the vast list of characters have reduced the 
number of symbols to the above-mentioned 
3,000. As the same word may stand for a 
number of different ideas, according to its posi- 
tion in the sentence, and as each sound may 
be pronounced in a number of different tones, 
each of which has a different meaning, the 
language is one of the most difficult in the 
world for a foreigner to master. When written, 
the characters are placed in columns, not in 
lines, and are read from top to bottom, and 
from right to left. 

Education is held in high honor among the 
Chinese, but their ideas as to what constitutes 
education are steadily changing. In the old 
China, before it became tinged with the notions 
of Western peoples, there was a special class 
which devoted itself to study, with the object 
of passing the examinations which alone could 
admit to public office. These examinations 
were held throughout the country at stated 
times, and concerned themselves only with 
literature and philosophy subjects which did 
not necessarily fit men to discharge their official 
duties well. 

In 1905, however, the old formal examina- 
tions were abolished, and strenuous efforts are 
being made to introduce a system of education 
on a Western basis. Primary and secondary 
schools have been established, grading up to 




institutions of higher learning, the whole system 
culminating in the universities, of which there 
are about five or six. As yet, however, educa- 
tion is by no means widespread. Probably 
ninety-five per cent of the people have no 
knowledge of reading and writing, or just 
enough for actual necessities of life. All 
Chinese, however, are conversant with estab- 


A few of the 300 stone steles (pillars with inscriptions) 

comprising the complete texts of the Nine Chinese 

Classics, in Peking 

lished chops (trade-marks), and by these they 
are able to distinguish one article from another. 
Only of late years have the Chinese been 
brought to look upon women in general as im- 
portant enough to deserve even to know how 
to read, but women of the better classes were 
taught to read and write even in old China. 

Religion. Religion plays a great part in the 
life of the Chinese, but it is a religion of super- 
stition rather than of spiritual appeal. Temples 
are numerous, shrines are in every house, but 
fear of demons and not love of deity is the 
dominant feeling. Mohammedanism has made 
about 20,000,000 converts, Christianity fewer 
than 1,500,000, and the rest of the people pro- 
fess Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, or a 
mixture of the three. In 1914 a strong effort 
was made to adopt the last-named as the state 
religion, but the attempt failed. Ancestor 
worship, growing out of Confucianism, is the 
controlling factor in Chinese life. It has led 
to lack of progressivcness, for only those things 
which were done in ancestral times are honor- 

History of China 

The Chinese claim for themselves a history 
that reaches back for fifty centuries or more, 
and the closest student can find nothing that 
absolutely denies the possibility of this. There 
are, however, no monuments or pyramids, as 
in Egypt, to prove conclusively the antiquity 
of the nation, and not until about 1125 B.C. 
can their history be regarded as really authen- 
tic. Confucius, it is true, begins his record 
with an emperor who is supposed to have 
reigned from 2357 to 2306 B.C., but Confucius 


took his statement from earlier records which 
were far from being historically accurate. 

Early Historical Period. With the Chow 
dynasty, which began to reign in 1122 B.C., 
better times dawned for the country. The 
people changed from the wandering," or no- 
madic, life to a settled existence, and began 
that careful cultivation of the soil which has 
gone on unbrokenly until to-day. A feudal 
system grew up; the great land-holders acquired 
fiefs so large that they were practically separate 
states, and thus China became in effect a con- 
federation rather than an empire in the true 
sense of the word. The emperor, however, re- 
mained the real head, politically as well as 

The first date that is known with accuracy in 
Chinese history is during this Chow dynasty 
August 20, 776 B.C., according to "Western 
chronology; for on that day occurred an eclipse, 
the account of which a Chinese poet preserved. 
The great feudal states, each jealous of its 
rivals, kept up a constant strife which so dis- 
turbed the empire that finally, in the third cen- 
tury B.C., the Chow dynasty was overthrown 
by the Tsin, or Chin, dynasty, from which 
China takes its name. 

Though this dynasty ruled for less than half 
a century, it accomplished certain notable 
things. The Great Wall of China, which is the 
most stupendous structure ever built by man, 
was erected to keep out the Tartars, and the 
feudal system was abolished. The emperor 
who performed this latter service was so anxious 
that his own reign should go down in history 
as the beginning of the empire, and especially 
that none of the feudal heroes should be kept 
in mind, that he had all the literature dealing 
with previous ages destroyed, and put to death 
hundreds of learned men. After the overthrow 
of the Tsin rulers, dynasty after dynasty 
reigned, some of them doing much for the 
country, others fomenting strife and bloodshed. 
There were ages of invention, ages of literary 
activity, and occasional dealings with outside 
countries, as Japan, Persia, and Korea. 
Through them all, however, China was crystal- 
lizing into the conservative, tradition-loving 
nation, which, to a large extent, it still remains. 
Printing was invented in the tenth century A.D., 
and the practice of binding the feet of women 
was introduced about the same time. 

But a great change was coming to China. In 
the thirteenth century, the Mongols, under 
Genghis Khan, swept over the country, and 
under Kublai Khan, grandson of that con- 
queror, established a firm rule. Never before 
had China known such prosperity and splendor 
as it knew then. Marco Polo, a Venetian 
traveler who visited China, or, as he called it, 
Cathay, brought back glowing accounts of its 
high civilization, and Italy established certain 
commercial relations with its merchants (see 





This is the most colossal line of defense in the world, a wall over 1,500 miles long, extending between Mongolia 
and China proper Jt is called in Mongolian the White Wall, and in Chinese The \\'all of io,uuu Li In the 
third century H c a crude earthwork was erected against the inroads of the Tartars; this was supplemented by 
the present wall, which recent investigations establish as dating only from the latter part of the fourteenth 
century The structure is about twenty-two feet high, and twenty feet broad, with towers at intervals of a 
few hundred yards The immensity of this engineering feat impresses one when it is realized that the wall is 
as long as from New York City to Omaha, or from the uty of Quebec to Winnipeg Tt is built of brick or 
dressed granite shell, filled with earth and covered with a very hard coating of bricks in lime It follows a 
winding course over mountains and through valleys, and is still in a fair state of preservation for hundreds of 
miles At a point near Kalgan it has been cut through to admit the railway line from Peking. 

POLO, MARCO). The Mongol dynasty, never strange mixture of advanced civilization and 
popular with the Chinese, was overthrown in skepticism about anything new. Unable en- 
1368 by the Ming dynasty, which reigned for tirely to avoid trade relations with Europe and 
almost 300 years, and permitted the Portuguese America, the Chinese submitted to them as 
and Spanish traders to enter the country and little as possible, and made it difficult and even 
settle at its ports. 

Early Modern Period. During the latter * 

part of the Ming rule, rebellion was rife, the 
very throne being menaced, and finally, in 1644, 
the Manchus were invited into the country to 
establish order. Their object accomplished, the 
Manchus refused to leave, but took Peking, 
proclaimed a Manchu prince emperor, and 
founded the last royal dynasty of China, which 
continued nearly 30x5 years, until the formation 
of the republic, in igi 2. For a time the Chinese 
refused to submit, but opposition gradually died 
out, and the conquerors were merged with the 
original inhabitants of the country. One sign 
there was of the subjection of the Chinese 
they were forced to adopt and to wear contin- 
ually the queue, or "pigtail," introduced by 
the Manchus. For two centuries internal prog- 
ress went on slowly, as progress has always 
taken place in China, and still the outside 
world knew little of the great nation with its 

fhoto CROC 

A section of the wall which surrounds the foreign 

diplomatic offices in Peking The Western world 

viewed with apprehension the removal of all Chinese 

government offices to Nanking. 

dangerous for "foreign devils" to enter the 
country. But the Western nations were not 
prepared to submit tamely to the regulations 
which restricted their trade, and before the 
middle of the nineteenth century, they had 




A Chinese Garden 

- - I Chinese Junk, f^^ 

Temple of Heaven, inPeking. Built in 1420 

Chinese Actor* 

and Child collate stud 

Pbotoi: ViiMl Education Scrrio*, O R O 




begun to show China that a change in attitude 
was expedient. 

Increased Intercourse with the World. Un- 
fortunately for the credit of the European na- 
tions, the first sharp dispute with China was 
over the opium question. Late in the eighteenth 
century, opium traffic had been declared illegal 
by the Chinese government, but the decrees 
were not really enforced until 1839, and then 
the attempts at enforcement met with protest 
from the British government. For the opium 
trade was worth millions of dollars annually to 
Great Britain, and could not lightly be relin- 
quished. Finally, in 1840, actual war broke 
out, and at its close China was compelled to 
surrender the island of Hong Kong, pay an 
indemnity of $21,000,000 and open to British 
trade five of its chief ports. The treaty made 
no mention of the opium trade. Two years 
later, the United States and France also made 
trade treaties with China. In 1856 China again 
roused the wrath of Great Britain by refusing 
to apologize for the seizure of a Chinese boat 
flying the British flag, and again war resulted. 
With France as its ally, Great Britain actually 
took Peking, and in 1860 secured by the treaty 
of peace increased trading privileges and the 
promise of toleration for the Christian re- 

In the meantime, China had been disturbed 
by a severe rebellion, which had grown out of 
the attempt of a half-mad fanatic schoolmaster 
to overthrow the Manchu dynasty and establish 
himself as the Heaven-sent head of the nation. 
Everybody who had a grievance flocked to his 
standard, and by 1853 the rebellion had reached 
great dimensions, Nanking having been seized 
as a capital and Hung-siu-tseuen proclaimed as 
the head of the Peace dynasty. From his 
watchword, Ping, or peace, and the word tai, or 
great, this upheaval is known as the Tai-Ping 
Rebellion. The Chinese government suppressed 
it, and in this struggle Frederick Townsend 
Ward and Charles George Gordon, or "Chi- 
nese" Gordon, greatly distinguished them- 

Relations with Japan. Korea was always a 
debatable ground between China and Japan, 
and in 1894 the difficulties concerning it 
brought about open war between the two 
powers [see JAPAN, (History)]. From the first, 
Japan had the upper hand, and after a complete 
victory was able to wrest from China a treaty 
guaranteeing Korean independence, giving up 
to Japan the island of Formosa and the Liao- 
tung Peninsula, with the strong fort of Port 
Arthur, and promising a huge indemnity. 
Foreign powers intervened and made Japan 
relinquish much of its gains, but they also used 
the opportunity to secure from China increased 
commercial privileges, and it became evident 
that their aggressions were likely to go beyond 

The Era of Internal Reform. Sadly weak- 
ened by the war with Japan, China stood in 
need of thorough and immediate reform, but 
how this was to be secured remained uncertain. 
For a time it looked as though the young em- 
peror, Kwang-su, with the aid of the reform 
party, might bring China into closer relation- 
ship with other nations, but the reactionary 
influence of his aunt, the empress dowager, 
was too strong. Gradually she drew almost all 
the power into her own hands, and violent anti- 
foreign demonstrations were the immediate 
result. These culminated in the famous Boxer 
Rebellion, tacitly encouraged, at least, by the 
empress dowager. Even the empress dowager 
could not fail to derive some lesson from the 
disastrous effects of this rising and the attitude 
of the powers toward it; for the rest of her life 
she adopted a different attitude. 

But the need for reform was greater than 
ever, and wise statesmen began to see and 
declare the necessity of introducing Western 
methods. Somehow, just how is not clear, a 
new national spirit was awakened, and public 
opinion began to demand constitutional reform. 
The absolute monarchy which had served for 
forty centuries no longer satisfied, and at length 
a commission was appointed to study the repre- 
sentative forms of government in foreign 
countries with a view to determining the one 
best fitted for China. In 1008 an edict signed 
by Emperor Kwang-su outlined a constitution 
and promised a parliamentary government 
within nine years; but this was too slow to 
suit the public demands, and when, later in 
the same year, the emperor and the empress 
dowager both died and the infant Pu-yi suc- 
ceeded, discontent became outspoken. The 
provinces elected assemblies in IOOQ, and two 
years later, the government, which had been 
forced to submit to the establishment of a re- 
sponsible Ministry, promised a Parliament in 


But a radical element which had grown up 
among the reformers refused to be satisfied 
with any such halfway measures, and de- 
manded the abdication of the emperor and 
the establishment of a republic. Rioting and 
later organized revolution resulted, and the 
revolutionists spurned the suggestions of Yuan 
Shi-kai, newly appointed Premier, for a consti- 
tutional monarchy. With Shanghai, Nanking, 
Hankow, and other cities in their hands, with 
Canton a self-proclaimed South Chinese repub- 
lic, and one province after another declaring 
its independence, the revolutionists were able 
to enforce their demands and bring about the 
organization, in December, IQII, of a provi- 
sional republican government. Dr. Sun Yat 
Sen was elected provisional President, and the 
child emperor was compelled to abdicate. In 
February of the following year, Yuan Shi-kai 
was elected first President, with powers to or- 






I. Location 

(1) Latitude, 18 50' to 53 25' north 

(2) Longitude, 74 to 135 east 

II. Size 

(1) Greatest length, east to west, 3,000 miles 

(2) Greatest breadth, 2,400 miles 

(3) Actual area, 4,278,000 square miles 

(4) Comparative area 

(a) Larger than all of Europe 

(b) Compared with Canada and United 


(5) Distinction between Chinese republic and 

China proper 

III. Surface and Drainage 

(1) Mountainous sections 
(a) Cultivation 

(2) River basins 

(a) Parallel course 

(b) The two great rivers, the Yangtze 

and the Hwang 

(3) Destructivencss of rivers 

(4) Lakes 

(a) Floating islands 

IV. Climate 

(1) Extremes of heat and cold 

(2) Variations in temperature 

(3) Rainfall 

(a) Uneven distribution 

V. Vegetable and Animal Life 

(1) Best-known plants 

(2) Importance of bamboo 

(3) Forest areas 

(4) Absence of trees in certain localities 

(5) Fruits and flowers of Chinese origin 

(0) Game animals 

(7) Birds 

(8) Fish 

VI. Industries 

(1) Agriculture 

(a) Fertilization of soil 

(b) Irrigation 

(c) Intensive methods 

(d) Cultivation of hill country 

(e) Floating farms 

(f) Crops 

1. Rice 

2. Tea 

3 Mulberry 
4. Other plants 

(g) Absence of stock-growing 

(2) Fishing 

(3) Manufacturing 

(a) Introduction of machinery 

(b) Industries in the home 

(4) Mining 

(a) Coal 

(b) Iron 

(c) Kaolin 

(d) Other minerals 

VII. Communication 

(1) Navigable rivers 

(2) Canals 

(3) Railroads 

(4) Roads 

(5) Commerce 

(a) Imports and exports 

(b) Internal trade 

VIII. The People 

(1) Physical and mental characteristics 

(2) Family life 

(a) Effect of large population 

(b) Position of women 

(c) Food 

(3) Language 

(a) A "syllable," not an "alphabet," lan- 


(b) Written language 

(4) Education 

(a) Old style 

(b) New style 

(c) Education of women 

(5) Religion 

(a) The dominant faiths 

(b) Effects of ancestor worship 

IX. Government 

(1) Republican form 

(2) Extensive powers of President 

(3) The legislature 

(4) Local government 

X. History 

(T) Antiquity 

(2) Early historic times 

(3) Mongol invasion 

(4) The coming of the Manchus 

(5) The opening up of China to the outside 


(6) The Chinese-Japanese War 

(7) Reform demands 

(8) The establishment of the republic 
(g) Later history 




Why does the climate exhibit greater extremes than would that of an island 
in the same latitude? 

How do the Chinese manage to produce crops on arid hillsides? 

What relation is there between the Chinese reverence for ancestors and the scar- 
city of railways in the country? 

Which has the easier task in learning to read, a Chinese schoolboy or an English 
schoolboy? Why? 

With what science is the first really authentic date in Chinese history connected? 

What is meant by the term ''Boxer," and what did the Boxer Rebellion hope to 

How is it possible that some day China will have no lakes? 

What are the "floating farms"? Why are they necessary? 

What effect has the overcrowding of the country had on the roads in country 

What does a Chinaman mean when he speaks of "golden lilies"? Of "a little 

Why is tea drunk so widely and so copiously? 

What third country was the occasion for war between China and Japan? 

To what height are the northern mountains terraced and cultivated? 

How is the garbage-disposal problem solved in a Chinese city? What effect 
has this on agriculture? 

What is ' "pidgin-English"? Give an example. 

Why would you not care to eat with a Chinese family of the poorest class? 

Does the government resemble that of Canada or that of the United States in 
the relative amount of power delegated to the central government and to the indi- 
vidual provinces or states? 

Why was Charles George Gordon known as " Chinese" Gordon? 

What is ''China's Sorrow"? Why is it so called? 

Of what bird do the people make use in one of their important industries? 

What has been the chief curse of the women of China? 

How did Great Britain gain possession of Hong Kong? 

Why was the country able to keep itself shut up, away from intercourse with 
other peoples, for so long a time? 

Name two fruits, very familiar in North America, which originated in this Ori- 
ental land. 

Why is the extremely fine, elaborate embroidery no longer made? 

What has religion to do with the overcrowding in China? 

How and when did a mode of hair-dressing become a symbol of subjection? 

How does China rank as to size among the countries of the world? As to pop- 

Name four ways in which the Chinese would miss the bamboo if they were de- 
prived of it. 

Why are there almost no cows or horses to be seen throughout the country? 

What great curse of the people has the government undertaken to abolish? 

What does religion chiefly mean to the Chinese? 

What do the Chinese call their country? 

What was the object of the famous examinations to which Chinese students 
were formerly subjected? 

What is the basis for the statement that man-power is cheaper than machinery? 

In what condition is the Great Wall of China at present? 




ganize the republic, and it seemed that China 
had given up its monarchy forever. 

The Republic. The position of the new Presi- 
dent was by no means entirely pleasant, for the 
lack of money was a very serious embarrass- 
ment, and only with the greatest difficulty was 
a loan of $125,000,000 secured from five of the 
great powers. Yuan's method of securing this, 
without the consent of his Parliament, roused 
violent opposition, and a sharp rebellion, headed 
by Sun Yat Sen, was put down with some 

The republic had been established, seemingly, 
too suddenly; the people were not ready for it 
after their centuries under absolutism, and they 
failed to grasp many of its main principles. In 
fact, while a republic in name, the new govern- 
ment was practically a monarchy, and attempts 
of a parliamentary party to take the power 
into its own hands and make of the President 
a mere figurehead, led in the end to a large 
increase in Yuan's power. Finally, in Novem- 
ber, 1015, an election was held by a specially 
constituted convention of "electors." The re- 
sult was overwhelmingly in favor of restored 
monarchical government, but the empire was 
not proclaimed at once, because the European 
powers convinced China that such change dur- 
ing the great European war might endanger 
the peace of the Orient. It was finally decided 
to continue the republican form of government. 
In June, iqi6, President Yuan Shi-kai died, 
and was succeeded by Vice-President Li Yuan 

China remained neutral in the World War 
until 1917, although its aid had been volun- 
teered earlier. Inspired, however, by the 
moral example of the United States in its dec- 
laration of a state of war, the Chinese republic 
declared war on Germany on August 14 of that 
year. The country sent no troops to Europe, 
but many thousand Chinese laborers went to 
France and labored with zeal, thus releasing an 
equal number of men from the allied armies 
for the fighting fronts. 

Moved by the threats of Japan to withdraw 
from the Peace Conference in IQIQ, the makers 
of the peace treaty gave to Japan occupation 
and virtual ownership of the Shantung penin- 
sula of China, where 40,000,000 Chinamen 
live. This section for a number of years had 
been dominated by Germany. Chinese en- 
voys at the Versailles peace table refused to 
sign the treaty containing that provision, but 
the conference retained it. The United States 
Senate announced its objection to Japan's 
plans; in the armament conference at Washing- 
ton (1921-1922), Shantung was given back to 

For several years following, China was torn 
by civil war waged among three war lords, 
governors of the strongest provinces. From 
1926 to 1928, Chang Tso-lin, war lord of Man- 

churia and leader of the armies of North 
China, held Peking against the attacks of the 
Nationalists, who favored a united country. 
In June, 1928, Chang Tso-lin evacuated Peking 
without a fight and fled to Mukden, Man- 
churia, but on the way he suffered fatal in- 
juries from a bomb explosion. Subsequently, 
the Nationalists gained control from Canton, 
in the south, to the Great Wall, beyond 
Peking, in the north. On June 15 Nanking 
was selected as the new capital, and the 
ancient name of the old capital was changed 
from Peking to Peiping (pronounced ba' ping). 
The Nationalist government was organized 
under ten executive departments, and Ameri- 
can and German advisers were engaged to 
assist the Chinese in the difficult reconstruc- 
tion problems that the country faced. The 
Nationalist President, Chiang Kai-shek, was 
inaugurated in October, 1928. In 1929 war 
with Russia over the Chinese Eastern Railway 
was narrowly averted. S.K.A.S. 

Related Subjects. The following classified list will 
simplify reference to articles in these volumes which relate 
to China- 


Amoy Kiao-chau 

Canton Nanking 

Fu-chau Ning-po 

Hangchow Peking 

Hankow Shanghai 

Hong Kong Tien-tsin 


Boxer Rebellion Sun Yat Sen 

Yuan Shi-kai 

Hong Kong 












Sugar Cane 



























CHINA PAINTING. The art of decorating 
china is a handicraft that makes its appeal 
not only to amateurs, but likewise to pro- 
fessionals. Due in part to the great advance 
made in materials and firing facilities, and in 
part to the vogue for the conventional in 
design, which has made it possible for very 
acceptable work to be done even by those 
unskilled in freehand drawing, its popularity 
has grown. 




Special Paints for China. The pigments 
used in china painting are called mineral 
paints, because their bases are metals; and they 
are said to be verifiable, which means that 
in the intense heat of the kiln they will fuse 
that is, attach themselves to the glaze of 
the china and thus become an inseparable 
part of it. They come both in powdered form, 
contained in small bottles, and as a prepared 
paint put up in collapsible twbes. The latter 
pigments are more convenient, since they need 
only to be diluted with spirits of turpentine as 
used; but as they tend to grow hard in the tube, 
they are not so economical as the powdered 
paints, which are good indefinitely. On the 
other hand, experience is required to prepare 
the powdered colors properly, for too much oil 
not only attracts the dust in the air, but may 
cause blistering and "bubbling" when the 
china undergoes the kiln test. 

Before applying the paint to the china, the 
brush is dipped lightly into what is called 
the medium, in order that the color may be 
smoothly worked. This medium is usually 
spirits of turpentine. 

Brushes and Pads. Brushes called square 
shaders are considered best for general use 
and should figure in the collection in small, 
medium, and large sizes. There are also 
blender, pointed, and tinting brushes, sable 
liners for putting in the delicate touches, and 
various other kinds. A pad, or pounce, made 
of cotton covered with soft China silk, is used 
for tinting large surfaces and to some extent 
in blending. Brushes are quickly cleaned for 
use with a different color by dipping them into 
turpentine or alcohol, but the special ones 
kept for gold, enamels, and India ink should 
never be used for the colors. 

Choosing the Design. The first essential of 
the design is appropriateness. It must harmo- 
nize both with the shape of the article and with 
its purpose. The design must also be adapted 
to the space it is to adorn. A small vase or jar 
decorated with an elaborate landscape looks 
overloaded and uninteresting, whereas a deli- 
cate spray of blossoms or leaves or an at- 
tractive conventional design would have made 
it a thing of beauty, artistic and harmonious. 

Drawing the Outline. After the design has 
been selected, the next thing is to decide how 
often it is to be repeated. If one is painting 
a plate whose border calls for five applications 
or "repeats" of the design, the rim of the plate 
on the under side is accurately marked off 
into fifths by means of a cardboard measuring 
device called a plate-divider. Next, the plate 
is washed perfectly clean and then rubbed over 
with a cloth moistened with spirits of turpen- 
tine, which gives a surface to which pencil lines 
will adhere. 

If the design is a simple one, it is frequently 
drawn freehand; if complicated, or if the 


worker is not skilful at drawing, a tracing from 
copy is generally made on transparent tracing 
paper and transferred to the china by going 
over the lines with some sharp point, such as 
that of a hard 
lead pencil or an 
ivory stylus. 
Most painters 
then secure the 
drawing by re- 
tracing with 
India ink, ap- 
plied with a pen 
or a very fine, 
pointed brush ; or, 
if the finished 
work is to show 
an outline, this 
is put in at once 
with the mineral 
paints in the de- 
sired color, after 
which the piece 
is fired in order 
to fix the lines. 
In either case, 
the outline is fundamental and must be care- 
fully and accurately drawn. 

The Actual Painting. The next step is to 
make up or "set" the palette with the colors 
needed for working out the design. The worker 
is then ready to fill the spaces with color and 
apply the gold, enamel, or luster called for by 
the design. Sure, firm strokes, making cor- 
rections unnecessary, are required in applying 
mineral paints; for, being transparent, they do 
not allow the same working over that is pos- 
sible with oils. One also must know which 
colors can be used together. A gold color, such 
as ruby, for in- 
stance, will "eat" 
an iron color, such 
as carnation, if 
painted over it, 
while yellows will 
eat almost any 
color over which 
they are applied. 

xi r v ^ , i STILTS 

When the 

painting is completed, the china is sent to the 
kiln, for its first firing. If there is gold in the 
design, it will need at least one more painting 
and then a second firing; and, in fact, the oftener 
the process is repeated, the heavier and richer 
the gold will look. It is not always necessary 
to go over the painting itself the second time, 
although this is generally done to enrich the 
color. After the china has had its last firing, 
the gold portions are polished with what is 
called a glass burnisher, which is a brush made 
of spun glass; less frequently, an agate bur- 
nisher is used, and sometimes burnishing 




What a China Kiln Is Like. There are many 
different makes of china kilns on the market, 
but in general those adapted for home or 
studio use are similar to the portable kiln here 
illustrated. This is made of metal lined 
throughout with fire brick, and burns kerosene 
oil. Some kilns burn gas or gasoline and others 
employ charcoal, but the latter must be fired 
out-of-doors on account of the fumes. A kiln 
the size of the one illustrated, which is about 
four and one-half feet in height, requires from 
one and a half to two hours to fire and consumes 
two gallons of oil. 

The kiln is connected with the house chim- 
ney by means of an asbestos-lined stovepipe. 
From the tank at the side the oil is fed me- 
chanically into the burner the small pan 
shown directly below the fire box; the larger 
pan underneath contains sand, which absorbs 
any overflow. A match applied directly to a 
small wad of asbestos placed in the burner 
lights the kiln, and the heat is communicated 
to the lining tubes through an opening in the 
bottom of the fire box. Through these tubes 
the flames are drawn upward until they com- 
pletely surround the interior of the kiln. 

Regulating drafts in the burner make it 
possible to fire to the desired heat in any part 
of the kiln a great advantage, by reason of 
the fact that different kinds of paints and dif- 
ferent grades of china require varying treat- 
ment. The china is stacked in the kiln with due 
regard to these considerations In stacking, 
stilts of fire clay are placed between the pieces 
to keep them separate, and care is taken not to 
pack them too close, so that there may be 
sufficient room for expansion. 

The Firing Process. In the door of the kiln 
is a mica-covered "peep-hole," permitting the 
firer to watch the progress of the glazing and 
stop the firing at the proper time. When the 
china takes on a translucent appearance and 
begins to turn an ashy-red tint, it is time to 
stop the flow of oil and let the kiln begin to 
cool. Several hours must elapse before it is 
opened, however, lest the current of cold air 
admitted cause the china to break or "crackle." 
The china must never be removed until it has 
thoroughly cooled. 

CHINA SEA, the largest of the enclosed seas 
lying along the east coast of Asia. These seas 
are formed by the long chain of islands in the 
Pacific Ocean extending from Kamchatka to 
the end of the Malay Peninsula. Formosa 
Strait connects China Sea with the Eastern 
Sea on the north. The gulfs of Tonking and 
Siam are extensions of the China Sea on the 
west, and Manila Bay on the east. In the 
southern part it is very shallow, its average 
depth being less than 1,000 feet; farther north, 
however, it is 13,000 feet deep, off the Philippine 
island of Luzon. As it is situated entirely 
within the tropics, violent typhoons sweep 


About nine times actual 

over it and make navigation very danger- 
ous (see TYPHOON). The Mekong and the 
Menam are two large rivers emptying into it. 
The great ports of Canton, Hong Kong, Saigon, 
Bangkok, Singapore, and Manila all lie either 
directly on this sea or are near it. Hainan is 
the only important island. (See map of ASIA.) 




CHINCH BUG, a small, blackish bug with 
white wings, found all over the United States 
and in Canada, Central America, and the West 
Indies. It is one of the 
worst pests of corn, 
wheat, and other small 
grains. The adult in- 
sect, which is about 
one-sixth of an inch in 
length, spends the win- 
ter in old grass and 
rubbish. In the early 
spring, each female lays 
about 500 eggs on the 
roots and stems of 
grain, and soon the 
newly hatched insects, 
red in color, may be 
found in countless num- 
bers, feeding on grains 
and grasses, particularly 

wheat. Corn is usuafly attacked later in the 
season, after the grain is harvested. There 
are two generations each year, the second ap- 
pearing in late July or early August. The 
broods keep together at first, moving on foot 
in great masses as the food is exhausted, and 
scattering when the insects reach maturity. 
In dry seasons they multiply at an appalling 

Control. Just before the bugs are ready to 
leave the small-grain fields for the corn fields, 
barriers in which they may be entrapped and 
destroyed should be constructed by plowing a 
furrow around the field and dragging a log 
back and forth in the furrow. The burning of 
waste grass and rubbish near the fields, in the 
fall, where the bugs are apt to hide through the 
winter, is also helpful. Bulletins on methods 
of extermination will be sent on request by the 
United States Department of Agriculture and 
by state experiment stations. w.j.s. 

Classification. The chinch bug is classed as Blissus 
leucopterus, of the family Lygaeidae, order Hemiptera 
(which see). 

CHINCHILLA, a squirrel-like animal of 
South America, one species of which is greatly 
valued for its beautiful pearly-gray fur. It 
is about fifteen inches long, with large ears, 
and a tail about one-half the length of its head 
and body. Chinchillas live in colonies in the 
high Andes of Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, make 




numerous and very deep burrows, and feed 
on roots and tough vegetable growths. These 


little animals are of a gentle, sportive nature, 
and very cleanly; when tamed, they make 
interesting house pets. Chinchilla fur is used 
for muffs, coats, and linings (see FUR AND FUR 

Scientific Name. Chinchillas belong to the order 
of rodents and the family Chine hillidae The species 
described above is Chinchilla tamper a 

CHINCHILLETTE, chin chil et' ', a fur. See 


CHIN DYNASTY, a period of Chinese 
history that gave to China its present name. 
See CHINA (History). 



CHINESE EXCLUSION. Soon after gold 
was discovered in California, in 1848, Chinese 
laborers began to come into the territory. 
Their number was small, and for many years 
there was no opposition to them, but about 
1878 the immigration of Chinese to the Pacific 
states increased so rapidly that the citizens of 
those states became alarmed and appealed to 
Congress to enact a law restricting their immi- 
gration into the country. In 1880 a treaty was 
ratified with China, giving the United States 
the right to restrict or suspend Chinese immi- 
gration. In 1882 an act shutting them out for 
ten years and prohibiting their naturalization 
was passed. In 1892 the Geary Act was passed. 
This continued the exclusion for another ten 
years, and compelled all Chinese in the United 
States to procure certificates of residence. 
In 1 902 the law was continued and made still 
more comprehensive; it extended the statute 
to cover the country's insular possessions, 
and prohibited migration from one American 
island to another. 

Objection to Chinese immigrants is largely 
confined to the Pacific states. The residents of 
those states claim that their method of living 
and the low wage for which the Chinese will 

work are demoralizing to American workmen. 
There are fewer than 65,000 Chinese in con- 
tinental United States. 

[See ARTHUR, CHESTER ALAN (Administration) for 
further details of the Chinese Exclusion Act. See, 
also, CALIFORNIA (Oriental Immigration) ] 


rebellion broke out in Korea (see CHOSEN), 
which was at that time strongly under the in- 
fluence of the Chinese government. Japan also 
had large interests in Korea, which it had gained 
through negotiations with China. China sent 
troops to Korea to quell the disturbance, and 
Japan sent troops to protect its interests. 
When the rebellion was put down, the nations 
could not agree upon the withdrawal of their 
troops. This dispute led to war, which began 
in July, 1804, and was ended by the Treaty 
of Shimonoseki, April 17, 18(35. The army and 
navy of Japan were far superior to those of 
China. Several important Chinese cities were 
captured, and the Chinese navy was destroyed. 
China ceded the island of Formosa and Liaotung 
peninsula to Japan, and agreed to pay a war 
indemnity of about $150,000,000. The Euro- 
pean powers, however, interfered and compelled 
Japan to cede Liaotung back to China. This 
war opened the way for the Great Powers to 
secure important trade concessions in China, 
and gave Japan such a preponderant influence 
in Korea that in IQII the country was annexed 
to Japan, and renamed Chosen. 



CHINGMA, ching' mah. See INDIAN MAL- 

CHINKARA, ching kali' rah. See GAZELLE. 

CHINOOK', a name given by early set- 
tlers to a warm, dry wind which blows down 
the slopes of the Rocky Mountains in the 
winter and early spring. It prevails at inter- 
vals in Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Wash- 
ington, and in some of the western parts of 
Canada. The chinook is always a descending 
wind, and for that reason is dry, having lost 
its moisture on the mountain tops. In coming 
down the mountains, the pressure, due to the 
lowering altitude, squeezes out the moisture 
and raises the temperature at the rate of i F. 
for every 183 feet. Hence, in coming down 
from an altitude of 5,550 feet, the wind would 
be 30 warmer at the bottom than at the top. 
This warm, dry wind spreads out over a large 
surface and absorbs or melts the snow, and thus 
makes cattle-grazing possible all winter in these 

The wet chinook, a moist, warm wind blow- 
ing southwesterly on the Pacific coast of Ore- 
gon and Washington, is often confused with 
the dry chinook; but it is entirely different. 
It was supposed to come from the country of 




the Chinook Indians, at the mouth of the 
Columbia River, hence the name. R.H.W. 

Related Subjects. For a list of all the winds, see WIND. 
See, also, CANADA (Climate); MONTANA (Climate) 

CHINOOK, a species of salmon (which see). 

ICAN (Most Important Tribes). 

CHINQUAPIN, ching' ka pin. See CHEST- 

CHIPMUNK, a small ground squirrel, very 
common in Eastern North America. Its back is 
striped with black and white, and its tail is 
nearly as long as 
its body. This 
cheery, friendly 
little animal loves 
the sunshine and 
hot weather, and 
in summer is often 
seen on fences, 
hedgerows, or 
stumps. When the 
frost comes, it goes 
to its tunnel-like burrow in the 
ground, and, living on the nuts and 
grains it has stored, remains hidden 
through the long winter. The 
chipmunk home consists of a cham- 
ber nearly a foot high and wide and perhaps 
twice as long, with several tunnels leading to 
the surface above. Chipmunks always take the 
precaution to carry the soil they remove some 
distance away from the openings to the burrows, 
leaving no tell-tale evidence of their under- 
ground abode. Chipmunks rarely eat the 
eggs of birds, although it is thought a common 
occurrence. They do, however, run oil with 
newly planted corn, berries, apples, pears, and 
tomatoes. They can be tamed quite easily, 
and many boys imprison them in cages as 
pets. W.N H. 

Scientific Names. Chipmunks belong to the order 
of rodents, the family Sctundac, and the genus 
Tamia* The species described above is T stnatu\ 
Other species are found in the Central and Western 
United States 


(Most Important Tribes, article Ojibwa). 

CHIROMANCY, ki f ro man sic. See PALM- 

CHIRON, ki f ron, in Greek mythology the 
famous learned centaur (half horse, half man) 
who taught such renowned heroes as Achilles, 
Hercules, Ulysses, and Aeneas. Chiron was the 
son of Kronos (Saturn) and Philyra, and be- 
came skilled in medicine, music, hunting, and 
the art of prophecy, under the instruction of 
Apollo and Diana." He lived at the foot of 
Mount Pelion, in Thessaly. One day the other 
centaurs were driven into Chiron's home by 
Hercules, and by accident a poisoned arrow 

from the bow of his old pupil struck Chiron. 
The poison caused him such torture that Zeus 
mercifully ended Chiron's life on earth and 
placed him among the stars, where he became 
the constellation Sagittarius, or The Archer. 

Related Subjects. See CENTAUR; also map of the 
heavens, in article ASTRONOMY See, also, articles on the 
mythological personages, in their alphabetical positions. 

CHIROPODIST, ki rop' o dist. See CORNS. 
CHIROPRACTIC, ki ro prak' tik, a method 
of treating disease through adjustment of 
vertebrae by pressure exerted by the hands. 
The basis of the method is the theory that 
disease is caused 
by interference 
with the normal 
flow of nervous or 
health energy 
along the spinal 
nerves, through 
pressure on those 
nerves exerted by 
dislocated verte- 
brae. The chiro- 
practor claims that by skilful 
handling he can push the displaced 
vertebrae into position, thus re- 
lieving the pressure and permitting 
the health energy to flow properly. 
This method was discovered in i8q5 by D. 
J). Palmer. A school of practice based on the 
method was founded by his son, B. J. Palmer. 
There are said to be 15,000 practitioners of 
the chiropractic art in the United States, be- 
sides others in fifteen foreign countries. Many 
chiropractic schools arc in operation. W.A.E. 
CHIROPTERA, ki rop' tc rah (from the 
Greek for hand and wing), an order of night- 
flying animals the bats found in all parts of 
the world. The fingers of the fore limbs are 
greatly elongated, and between these and the 
hind "limbs is stretched a thin membrane 
which forms the wings. The bones are slender 
and filled with a light marrow, and this les- 
sens the animal's weight. In the zoological 
scale, this order ranks next to the Primates, 
to which man belongs. See BAT; VAMPIRE 
BAT. M.J.H. 

CHITON, ki' ton, a Greek dress. See illus- 
tration, in article DRESS. 

CHITONS, ki' tonz, a large order of mollusks 
with boat-shaped shells. Gray or brown is the 
usual color, but in some species the shell is 
variegated by red, yellow, and other bright 
colors. The shell is composed of eight pieces, 
often in contact with and overlapping one 
another, but never truly joining. The animal 
clings to rocks by means of a strong, oval, 
muscular foot which extends the whole length 
of its body. It also has the power of rolling 
itself up by the contraction of the foot muscles, 
so that nothing but the shell is seen. A charac- 





teristic of some chitons is the possession of 
thousands of tiny eyes, borne on the shell 
valves. Small chitons are found on the North 
Atlantic coast, larger ones in Florida and the 
Gulf of Mexico, and those eight and ten inches 
long the giants occur along the north- 
western coast of the United States. See MOL- 


CHIVALRY, shiv'alrie. In the Middle 
Ages, when military feudalism held sway in 
Europe, the sons of the nobility were educated 
for knighthood. The spirit and ideals of this 
organization of knighthood are summed up 
in the term chivalry, which to-day is associated 
with protection of the weak, gallantry toward 
women, honesty in everything. 

In those "days of old, when knights were 
bold," as the familiar song runs, the education 
of the young noble began in his childhood. 
At the age of seven, he was sent to a court 
where he could be taught the use of arms, how 
to ride, and how to attend the ladies. When 
qualified for war, he became an esquire, or 
squire, and accompanied his lord in battle. 
The third and highest rank of chivalry was 
that of knighthood, which was usually not con- 
ferred before the twenty-first year. The person 
to be knighted prepared himself by confessing, 
fasting, and keeping vigil all night over his 
arms. Religious rites were performed, and then, 
after promising to be faithful, to protect ladies 
and orphans, never to lie nor utter slander, to 
live in harmony with his equals, and to protect 
the Church, he received the accolade, a slight 
blow on the shoulder with the flat of the 
sword, from the person who dubbed him knight. 

This ceremony often took place on the eve 
of battle, to encourage the new knight to 
brave deeds, or after the combat, to reward 
special bravery. 

As a system of education for the nobles, 
chivalry taught them the best ideals, social 
and moral, which the times could understand. 
The spirit of chivalry led to the Crusades, and 
the deeds of knights were celebrated in song by 
the "minstrels" in England and the "minne- 
singers" in Germany. See illustration, page 1405. 

In Literature. We read of knightly deeds in many 
of Scott's novels, in Spenser's Faerie Queene, and in 
Tennyson's Idylls of the King and other tales of King 
Arthur. Cervantes' Don Quixote, however, is a bur- 
lesque on chivalry and its tendency to affectation and 
exaggerated sentimentality 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 

Arthur, King Feudal System Minnesingers 

Don Quixote Knighthood Minstrel 

CHLORAL, klo' rahl, a bitter, colorless, oily 
liquid with an irritating smell, the hydrate of 
which, in the form of a white crystalline sub- 
stance, is extensively used in medicine. When 
hydrate of chloral comes in contact with alka- 
lies in the human system, it separates into 
chloroform and formic acid. The chloroform 
acts on the heart and brain, and when the 
hydrate is taken in prescribed doses, it pro- 
duces a refreshing sleep. It has been used 
with success in cases of insomnia, delirium 
tremens. Saint Vitus's dance, lockjaw, asthma, 
and whooping cough. Too large doses may 
affect the mind seriously or cause death, and 
hydrate of chloral should only be used under 





The ceremony of 
horn a.g e. from a seal 
of the twelfth century 


Fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries 

A knight and his castle 

Conferring knighthood 
on the field of battle 

Water transportation 
in the feudal age 

A tilting match 
between two knighte 

A fully-armored horse and rider 
From a bronze statue in Madrid 

Jntpuet*d sa rh <wt f || II At 

w*r bctwn the ^<M of I tha 




expert medical advice. Another argument 
against self-dosing is that chloral sometimes 
becomes a habit-forming drug. To treat poison- 
ing by chloral, the person should be kept awake, 
his body warmed by friction or otherwise, hot 
coffee taken, and artificial breathing resorted 
to, if necessary. See ANTIDOTE. 

Chloral is the poisonous principle in the 
"knock-out drops" employed by criminals to 
induce unconsciousness in their victims. 

[Chloral hydrate is a compound of carbon, chlorine, 
hydrogen, and oxygen ] 

CHLORIDE, klo'ride, OF LIME. See 

CHLORINE, klo' rin, a. highly poisonous 
gas of greenish-yellow color and disagreeable, 
suffocating odor. It is a simple substance, or 
element, and has the symbol Cl. Chlorine 
belongs to the halogen (salt-producing) family 
of elements, those that enter into the compo- 
sition of substances resembling common salt. 
(The other halogens are fluorine, bromine, 
and iodine.) When combined with the metal 
sodium, chlorine forms common table salt, 
or sodium chloride. It is manufactured on a 
large scale by the passage of an electric current 
through liquefied or dissolved salt. Chlorine 
combines with hydrogen to form hydrogen chlo- 
ride, the solution of which is hydrochloric acid. 

Pure chlorine gas turns to a liquid under 
pressure, and can be shipped in tanks. The 
liquefied product has long been a standard 
disinfectant for purifying city water supplies. 
For bleaching purposes, both liquid chlorine 
and chlorine combinations in powder form are 
found on the market. The element is widely 
used in industry, especially in connection 
with the manufacture of explosives and dye- 
stuffs. It is also employed in the extraction 
of gold from ores. 

Mixed with air in proper proportions, chlo- 
rine is believed to be a remedy for diseases of 
the respiratory organs, and experiments arc 
being carried on to test its value as a cure for 
heavy colds, bronchitis, and similar ailments. 
Because of its deadly poisonous properties 
and the ease with which the wind carries it, 
chlorine gas was much used by the belligerents 
in the World War in gas attacks. T.BJ. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles. 


Hydrogen Chloride 
Poison Gas 

CHLORIS, klo'ris, in mythology. See NIOBE. 

CHLOROFORM, klo' ro form] a powerful 
anesthetic. It was discovered at about the 
same time (1831) by three chemists, Samuel 
Guthrie of America, Liebig of Germany, and 
Soubeiran of France, each of whom worked 
independently of the others. The anesthetic 
value of the drug was brought to the general 

attention of the public in 1848 by Sir James 
Simpson of Edinburgh (which see). 

Chloroform is a heaw, colorless liquid, with 
a pungent odor and a sweetish taste. It is non- 
inflammable and dissolves freely in alcohol and 
ether, but does not mix with water. Air, light, 
or heat causes it to decompose. Besides being 
used in medicine, it is employed by chemists 
as a solvent for fats, alkaloids, iodine, and 
other substances. 

Inhaled in small quantities, chloroform 
deadens pain, and is sometimes administered 
in childbirth. General anesthesia for major 
operations requires larger quantities. The 
duration of unconsciousness is shorter than 
that produced by ether, and the after-effects 
are not so disagreeable, but chloroform is con- 
sidered a much more dangerous drug, because 
it lowers the blood pressure, weakens the 
heart, and is harmful to the liver. It is self- 
evident that chloroform should never be 
administered except under the direction of 
a skilled physician. In America, ether has 
largely replaced it in major operations. 

Chloroform is a strong irritant, and is used 
in liniments for chronic rheumatism and 
neuralgia. Small doses taken by mouth are 
prescribed for gastric fermentation and colic, 
and larger doses are given to expel worms. 
Physicians prescribe this drug very cautiously, 
however, since overdoses produce coma or 
death. Chloroform is also inhaled to relieve 
spasms in lockjaw and hydrophobia. See 

[Chloroform is a compound of chlorine, carbon, and 
hydrogen The purest form is made by decomposing 
chloral with an alkali j 

CHLOROPHYLL, klo' ro fil, the green color- 
ing matter of plants, is concerned primarily, 
if not entirely, with the absorption of energy 
from light. With this energy the manufacture 
of organic material (see LEAVES) proceeds in 
the leaf or green stem. Starch can be formed 
by leaves or other green parts only in the 
presence of light. Hence, green leaves or stems 
which are deprived of light will bleach or turn 
white to yellow, a fact applied commercially 
in the blanching of plants like celery. See 

CHLOROSIS, klo ro' sis. See ANAEMIA. 

CHOATE, chote, the family name of two 
American public men who won distinction in 
law and statesmanship. 

Rufus Choate (1799-1850), one of the ablest lawyers 
America has produced and an eloquent and scholarly, 
public speaker, was born at Ipswich, Mass. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1819 at the head 
of his class, and after studying law, was admitted to 
the Massachusetts bar in 1823. He served in the 
House of Representatives from 1830 to 1834, and in 
the Senate from 1841 to 1845, and in the upper house 





won wide public notice because of his brilliant 
speeches on the tariff, the Oregon boundary, and 
Texas annexation. His orations and addresses are 
distinguished for learning, purity of style, and elegance 
of form. 

Joseph Hodges Choate (18^2-1017), the nephew of 
Rufus Choate, was born at Salem, Mass , and edu- 
cated at Harvard College. Admitted to the New 
York bar in 1865, he soon 
became one of the best- 
known lawyers of New 
York City, and was em- 
ployed in such famous cases 
as the income tax and the 
Tweed Ring suits (see 
He won greatest repute as 
a cross-examiner On the 
organization of the Repub- 
lican party, in i8s4, hf 
adopted its political prin 
riples, though he did not 
hold office until i8gg, when 
President McKinley ap- 
pointed him to SUCCeed Photo Brown Uro* 
John Hay as ambassador 
to Circat Britain In this 
position he strengthened the friendly relations be- 
tween the two English-speaking nations In IQOS 
he returned to his practice in New York, and two 
years later represented the United States at the 
second J'eace Congress at The Hague 

CHOCOLATE, chok' o late, a food product 
widely used in cookery and in candy-making. 
Chocolate is made from the seed kernels of the 
fruit of the cacao tree, from which, also, cocoa is 
obtained. Chocolate differs from cocoa chiefly 
in having a higher percentage of fat. Tn the 
preparation of chocolate, the seed kernels, 
when freed from the shells, are crushed in a 
grinding mill, and the smooth paste which 
flows out is molded into cakes of the desired 
size and shape and allowed to harden. (For 
other details of the process, see COCOA.) Ac- 
cording to the decisions of a committee on 
standards, the following descriptions of choco- 
late preparations are generally accepted in 

Chocolate \ plain chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate 
liquor, chocolate paste , and bitter chocolate coating are 
designations for the solid or plastic mass obtained by 
grinding the cacao kernels, which contain not less 
than fifty per cent of cacao fat, not more than eight 
per cent of total ash, and not more than seven per 
cent of crude fiber. 

Sweet chocolate and sweet chocolate coating arc desig- 
nations for chocolate mixed with sugar, with or with- 
out the addition of cacao butter, spices, or other 
flavoring materials. 

M ilk chocolate and sweet milk chocolate are designa- 
tions for the product obtained by grinding chocolate 
with sugar, with the solids of whole milk, or the con- 
stituents of milk solids in proportions normal for 
whole milk It contains not less than twelve per cent 
of milk solids 

The beverage chocolate, made by dissolving 
chocolate in hot milk, is a wholesome, agreeable 

drink, when used moderately. Unlike tea and 
coffee, it has valuable food properties in addi- 
tion to being an excitant of the nervous 
system. The uses of chocolate in making con- 
fectionery, pastry, puddings, and ice cream are 
numerous and well known. It should be used 
in moderation, however, especially when it is 
eaten in the form of candy. Physicians say 
that most American people, young and old, 
eat far too much chocolate candy, which is in- 
jurious to the teeth, the digestion, and the 
nervous system, when used too freely. E.V.M'C. 

Important Tribes). 

CHOICE. See WILL (in psychology). 



CHOLERA, kol' c ruh, a form of diarrhoea 
caused by the cholera bacillus. It is infective, 
being spread by water, milk, raw food, by 
flies, and by soiled hands. The outstanding 
symptoms are profuse watery diarrhoea and 
profound shock. In times of prevalence of an 
epidemic, the disease can be guarded against by 
the exclusive use of sterilized water, cooked 
milk, vegetables, and other foods, exclusion 
of flies, and extreme cleanliness. The disease is 
present always in India and near-by countries. 
Occasionally it spreads to other countries, 
sometimes reaching Europe and America. 
Its spread is prevented by quarantines, by 
control of cases and carriers, and by protecting 
water and food supplies. 

Cholera Morbus. This is acute, violent, 
watery diarrhoea accompanied by vomiting. 
There is some evidence of shock. The possi- 
bility of food poisoning, and even chemical 
poisoning, should be inquired into in every 
case of cholera morbus. 

Treatment. Give no food. Give water to 
drink unless it provokes vomiting. Carbonated 
water may be acceptable to the stomach. In 
some cases a dose of castor oil or some similar 
purgative may be given as soon as the stomach 
will tolerate it. Morphine by hypodermic, or 
some cholera mixture, certain aromatics, and 
sedatives may be used. Aromatic spirits of 
ammonia and warm coffee can be given when 
the nausea subsides. Warm applications to 
the extremities and back add to comfort and 
overcome shock. 

Cholera Infantum. This is a form of diar- 
rhoea accompanied by great shock and rapid 
wasting due to great loss of water. It occurs 
in babies in hot weather. Cholera infantum 
differs only from the ordinary diarrhoea of 
infants in that it develops more rapidly and 
with evidence of shock. It is a diarrhoea with 
rapid loss of water from the tissues plus a heat 
prostration. The treatment is that of acute 
diarrhoea in infants, plus treatment of heat 
prostration and shock. Prompt medical atten- 
tion is advisable. See DIARRHOEA. W.A.E. 




Photo Brown Bros 

page 1407. 


(1810-1849), a celebrated musician, one of the 
great masters of modern piano music. He was 
born near Warsaw, of French parentage on 
his father's side, and Polish on his mother's. 
In 1820, at the age of nineteen, he played 
some of his compositions at a public concert 
in Vienna, after which 
he traveled exten- 
sively. The political 
troubles of Poland 
drove him to Paris in 
183 r , where he resided 
for the rest of his life. 
Chopin's fame rests 
chiefly on his com- 
positions forthepiano, 
for he had a perfect 
appreciation of every 
effect which that in- 
strument can pro- 
duce. His mazurkas, 
waltzes, polonaises, 
preludes, etudes, and 
nocturnes are a complete revelation of his 
dreamy, romantic nature and of his love for 
new and exquisite harmonies. 

Chopin's music has an undercurrent of mel- 
ancholy that suggests the unhappy lot of his 
native country, Poland; his celebrated Funeral 
March is one of the most effective compositions 
of that character ever composed. His own age 
recognized his greatness; Mendelssohn, born 
the same year as Chopin, said of one of 
his pieces, "It is so perfectly beautiful that I 
could go on forever playing it.'' 

CHOPINES, high-heeled clogs or slippers 
hi vogue in Europe in the seventeenth century, 
originating, it is believed, in Turkey. They 
reached England in due time, and English 
literature contains many references to them. 
Charles Reade, in Cloister on the Hearth, wrote, 
"Your wooden -heeled chopines, to raise your 
little, stunted limbs up." Another writer called 
them "high-heeled shoes particularly affected 
by these proude dames, or as some say, in- 
vented to keepe them at home, it being very 
difficult to walke with them." 

CHORD, kawrd. See CIRCLE; Music. 

CHORDA TA, kawr da ' tah. See VERTEBRATES ; 
ZOOLOGY (Divisions of the Animal World). 

CHOREA, ko re' ah. See SAINT Virus's 

one of the foremost English musical critics of 
his day. For thirty-eight years he was asso- 
ciated with one London paper, The Athenaeum, 
as critic, and his opinions were widely accepted. 
His literary reviews showed fine insight. There 
was hardly a phase of the subject of music 

which was not illumined by his pen. He left 
an unfinished autobiography. 

CHOROID, ko' royd, COAT. See EYE. 

CHOROLOQUE, ko ro lo'kay, a peak in Bo- 
livia. See BOLIVIA (The Land and Its Rivers). 

1834), a French writer and authority on music 
of the first third of the nineteenth century, 
who died at the age of sixty-two with the 
reputation of having possessed more informa- 
tion relating to the theory and practice of 
music than any other French musician. In 
his practical way, he reorganized the schools 
for training church choirs; he was a successful 
conductor of religious festivals, and for one 
year (1816) was the conductor in the great 
opera house in Paris. 

Choron established, in 1817, the Conserva- 
toire de Musique Classique et Religieuse (Con- 
servatory of Classical and Religious Music), 
and until nearly the year of his death it ex- 
erted a powerful influence throughout cultural 
Europe; it raised music among the masses to 
a higher level. 

CHORUS, ko' rus. This term has come into 
our language from the Greek, but has a dif- 
ferent meaning from that of the root word. In 
ancient Greek drama, the chorus was a group of 
singers who helped explain the action, made 
comments, or even took part in the dialogue. 
The chorus of to-day consists of a number of 
persons singing together in an opera, oratorio, 
cantata, or concert. The name is also applied 
to any part of a musical composition that is 
sung by several voices, and to that part of a 
song which is repeated as a refrain, at the 
end of each stanza. The importance of the 
chorus in opera and oratorio has been recog- 
nized by the greatest composers. Such com- 
positions as The Pilgrims' Chorus in Wag- 
ner's Tannhduser, The Soldiers' Chorus in 
Gounod's Faust, and The Hallelujah Chorus 
in Handel's Messiah, are representative of 
the best choral music. 

In most communities to-day, choral singing 
is loved and appreciated. Whether it be the 
volunteer church choir, the high-school glee 
club, the choral society of a business organi- 
zation, or the more formal organization of 
trained singers who give professional concerts, 
the effect of many voices singing in harmony is 
uplifting and refreshing. 

Most choral music is written for four parts. 
In mixed choruses these are soprano, alto, tenor, 
and bass. Male choruses have first and second 
tenor and first and second bass parts. First 
and second soprano and first and second alto 
are written for female voices and boys' choruses. 
An a capella chorus is one that sings without 
instrumental accompaniment. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 

Cantata Music Opera Oratorio 




' HOSEN', formerly known as KOREA, 
but since igto a Japanese province, occupies 
the mountainous peninsula southeast of Man- 
churia, between the Japan and Yellow seas. 

Having an area of about 86,000 square miles, 
Chosen is a little larger than the state of 
Utah. Wooded mountains cover the north 
half of the peninsula, and a high, narrow range 
rises precipitously from the sea along the entire 
length of the east coast. West of this range, 
the treeless, gray foothills flatten out into 
fertile plains, the chief agricultural section of 
the peninsula. The steep eastern coast is pene- 
trated by few harbors, but the south and west 
coasts are fringed with bays and clusters of 
islands and are washed by dangerous tides. 
The largest island is Quelp'aert, off the south 
coast. The most important harbors are the 
picturesque ports of Won-san (Korean Gcn- 
san), Lazareff, and Fusan (Pusan). The largest 
river is the Oryoko (Yalu), rising in Pei-shan, 
an extinct volcano, and flowing south into the 
Yellow Sea, forming the northwest boundary 
of the country. Seagoing junks ascend the 
stream for a distance of thirty miles, and 
smaller boats 145 miles farther. The Daido 
(Tai-dong), Kan (Han), Rakuto (Nak-dong), 
and Mok-po are other large rivers, navigable 
for many miles. Most of the rivers and cities 
have been renamed by the Japanese, but the 
more familiar Korean names are still commonly 
used. On the whole, the country lacks the 
dainty picturesqueness of flowered Japan 
and the fantastic beauty and buzzing, palpi- 
tating life of China. 

The climate is pleasant nine months of the 
year, resembling that of the opposite coast of 
China. In the central and northern parts, 
winters are somewhat severe, and snow covers 


the ground from December until February. 
The winters of the south are delightful, like 
those of Southern Japan. The temperature 
ranges from 5 in the winter to 90 in July. 
The average rainfall is thirty-six inches, most 
of it falling during the summer months. 

The People. The natives of Chosen are a 
mixed race, combining the characteristics of 
the Chinese, Japanese, and Malayan people. 


They excel the Japanese and Chinese in stature 
and physique, and are more regular of feature 
and lighter of skin than the Mongolians. In 
1925 the population numbered over 19,- 
500,000. A small proportion were Japanese, 
and the Japanese are increasing in number 
here; there are many Chinese, and about 1,000 
Americans and Europeans. The Koreans are 
rapidly adopting European customs of living. 
There are many religions among the Ko- 




reans, including Confucianism, Buddhism, 
spiritualism, fetish, and nature worship. An- 
cestor worship is universal, and plays an im- 
portant part in the life and morals of the 
natives, who are more superstitious than re- 

In no other Asiatic country has the growth 
of Christianity been so rapid and of such in- 
fluence upon the national life. Although there 
were frequent persecutions before 1885, the 
number of converts continually 
increased, and in that year re- 
ligious freedom was guaranteed. 
The Y. M. C. A., established at 
Keijo (Seoul) in 1907, is aided by 
the government. 

The present government has 
established a school system, em- 
bracing common, industrial, and 
special schools, and girls are now 
educated equally with boys. 
Many of the old classical Chinese 
schools for boys still exist, but the 
system is being rapidly Western- 
ized. There are also several hun- 
dred religious schools established 
by Christian missionaries 

Industry and Commerce. The 
soil of Chosen being fertile and its 
summers warm, about three- 
fourths of the population are en- 
gaged in agriculture. Japan, with 
an eye to industrial improve- 
ment, has introduced modern 
methods of cultivation and irri- 
gation to supplant the primitive 
customs of the natives. The cul- 
tivation of ginseng has been re- 
vived and become very extensive. 
Rice is still the most important crop, but 
barley, oats, wheat, maize, tobacco, cotton, 
hemp, sweet potatoes, and other vegetables 
are raised extensively. Mulberry trees grow 
in abundance, and the cultivation of the silk- 
worm is important. The seas teem with fish, 
and Japan has recently passed regulations 
protecting and encouraging the fishing industry; 
haddock, halibut, herring, sardines, and sharks 
are caught. Cattle-raising as an industry has 
been introduced, and meat, milk, butter, and 
cheese, heretofore little known, have become 
important products. 

The Japanese government has also at- 
tempted to develop the mineral resources of 
the peninsula, the value of which is estimated 
at $12,000,000 per year. The country possesses 
valuable deposits of gold, copper, coal, and 
iron. Nearly all of the important gold mines 
are controlled by foreigners; the United States 
concession, covering about 800 square miles, 
is the largest. The government also encourages 
manufacturing industries by financial assist- 
ance; the manufacture of paper, sea salt, 


grassctoth, mats, bamboo screens, and pottery 
is important. 

Korean highways are notoriously poor. 
Wheeled vehicles are little used, baggage being 
carried by porters, pack horses, and oxen, while 
the people travel on horseback or in sedan 
chairs. The Japanese government has spent 
$10,000,000 for the improvement of roads in 
Chosen; paved streets were constructed in 
Keijo (Seoul) in 1915. There are three lines 
of street cars in the capital. In 
"I 1924 there were 1,460 miles of 
railroad in the peninsula, con- 
necting with Chinese and the 
Russian Siberian lines. By way 
of the Trans-Siberian system, it 
is possible to reach Moscow from 
Chosen in ten days, and Berlin 
in eleven and a half days. There 
is good steamer and ferry service 
with Japan, and fourteen treaty 
ports are now open for trade, 
which is chiefly carried on with 
Japan, Great Britain, China, and 
the United States. 

Government. Chosen is con- 
trolled by a Japanese governor- 
general, assisted by the secre- 
taries of the several departments 
and the central council, the latter 
consisting chiefly of Koreans. 
Provinces, districts, and villages 
are largely administered by Ko- 
reans, and financial aid and ad- 
vice are furnished by the central 
government through Japanese 
clerks. Courts, prisons, customs, 
lands, and railroads are all con- 
trolled by the central govern- 
ment at Tokyo. 

History. Korea is believed to have been 
founded in 1122 B.C. After many centuries of 
independent life, it was annexed to the Chinese 
Empire in 108 B.C. About a century later, the 
peninsula was divided into three small king- 
doms, the one called Kori absorbing the others 
in A.D. 960, and for three hundred years Kori, 
or Korea, existed as an independent kingdom. 
During this time Buddhism gained a very 
strong hold upon the country. A revolution in 
1392 overthrew Buddhism and established 
the Ming dynasty. The ancient name Chosen, 
meaning morning freshness, was then adopted. 
Two centuries later, the country was invaded 
by the Japanese, who were finally expelled 
by the Chinese. For this military assistance, 
Korea again became tributary to China. At 
the close of the Chinese- Japanese War, in 1895, 
independence was regained, and the country 
was then called Tai Han. 

The Japanese, however, gradually extended 
their influence over the country, contesting it 
with Russia. The Russians secured a large 




Photo U4U 

Looking down on a portion of the city of Seoul, one sees a monotony of low, corrugated roofs which cover the 

one-story structures. 

timber concession on the lower Oryoku (Yalu) 
River, which Japan regarded as an attempt 
to secure Korean territory. Japanese troops 
were sent to Korea, and on February 23, igo4, 
the emperor of Korea signed a treaty with 
Japan which strengthened Japanese influence 
and practically ended Korean independence. 
By the Treaty of Portsmouth, September 
5, 1905, which concluded the Russo-Japanese 
War, Russia formally recognized Japanese pre- 
dominance in Korea. A Japanese resident-gen- 
eral was installed, who gradually assumed the 
administration of the country. The murder of 
Prince I to, the resident-general, hastened the 
final absorption of Korea into the Japanese 
Empire, and on August 23, 1910, the country 
was formally annexed to Japan. The emperor 
was deposed, and a governor-general from 
Japan was established in office. The title of 
the country again became Chosen. 

The Cities. Aside from the former capital, 
there are no cities of any note in Chosen. 
Among the largest towns are Fusan, Taikyu-fu, 
and Pingyang. 

Seoul, :>eh ool', or sah' ool, renamed Keijo by the 
Japanese in igio, was the quaint capital of Chosen for 
the past six hundred years It is about nineteen miles 
from Chemulpo, its port on the Yellow Sea. and about 

three miles north of the Han (or Kan) River. A wall 
eleven miles in length and pierced by eight gates 
surrounds this old city Seoul is a city of strange con- 
trasts, typical of those Oriental municipalities into 
which modern innovations are slowly making their 
way Electric lights, an electric car line which ex- 
lends to three points outside the uty, a telegraph 
station, and a telephone system represent the new era, 
but the shabby, low dwelling houses of mud and 
stone, and the narrow, crooked streets of old Seoul 
.ire still in evidence. 

A group of former royal palaces surrounded by 
attractive lawns and gardens, a Roman Catholic 
cathedral, and a temple to Confucius are the buildings 
of chief interest. The city is connected by railway 
with Chemulpo, Fusan, and Wiju It contains a 
government school for English students, two hospitals 
operated by American missionaries, and one large 
Japanese hospital under government control. Two 
Japanese and three Chosen newspapers are published 
here, besides an English daily owned by the govern- 
ment Population in 1925, 297,465. 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol- 
umes will Rive additional information on topics connected 
with Chosen- 
Chinese- Japanese War Rice 
Ginseng Russo-Japanese War 
Japan (History) Yalu River 

CHOW, a very handsome Chinese dog. 
It carries its ears erect and its bushy tail curled 
gracefully over its back. The hair is long and 




of one color, either black, red, yellow, blue, or 
white. The head is broad and flat. A chow 
weighs from forty-five to fifty-five pounds, and 
is very intelligent. M.J.H. 

CHOWAN, cho wahn', RIVER. See NORTH 
CAROLINA (Rivers and Lakes). 

CHOW DYNASTY, representing a period 
in Chinese history, famed as furnishing the 
first authentic date in the history of the country 
(August 29, 776 B.C.). See CHINA (History). 

CHRIST, meaning an anointed one, a title 
of Jesus of Nazareth. See JESUS CHRIST. 

(The Cities). 

CHRISTENING, kris' en ing. See BAPTISM, 

CHRISTIAN, kris' chan, the name borne by 
several Danish monarchs, the first of whom 
reigned as king over united Denmark and Nor- 
way from 1448 to 1481. Of this group of 
sovereigns, Christian VIII, IX, and X have 
ruled over Denmark alone, since 1863. 

Christian IX (1818-1906), who came to the throne 
in 1863, on the death of Frederick VII, was often 
called the "father of the royal families of Europe." 
His eldest daughter, Alexandra, became the wife of 
Edward VII of England; his second daughter, Dag- 
mar, was the mother of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, 
his son, George, became king of Greece in 1863, after 
the revolution which deposed Otto II; and his grand- 
son, the son of George, was Constantine I, until IQI? 
and again, 1920-1922, king of that country; Chris- 
tian's grandson, Charles, was chosen king of Norway, 
as Haakon VII, in 1905, when Norway separated from 
Sweden. During the reign of Christian, Schleswig 
and Holstein were wrested from Denmark by Austria 
and Prussia (see SCHLES WIG-HOLSTEIN) . In the latter 
part of his reign, a liberal government was estab- 
lished in the kingdom. He was a man of high charac- 
ter, winning not only the affection of his subjects but 
the respect of all the other rulers of Europe. On his 
death his son, Frederick VIII (which see), succeeded 
him, and ruled for six years. 

Christian X (1870- ), son of Frederick VIII, 
was crowned in May, 1912. He came to the throne 
with considerable experience in the affairs of govern- 
ment, for during his father's numerous absences he 
was frequently called upon to act as king. His first 
speech, in which he promised his people to guard 
their liberty and happiness, was an auspicious be- 
ginning of his reign, and he has since proved himself a 
capable and liberal-spirited ruler. 

(The Land and Rivers). 


CHRISTIAN CHURCH, one of the names 
applied to the Disciples of Christ (which see). 

PLE'S SOCIETY OF, an organization of the young 
people of evangelical Protestant churches for 
Christian service and the promotion of the 
spiritual life, founded by Rev. Francis E. 
Clark (which see), at Portland, Me., in 1881. 
The idea originated with Dr. Clark's experience 

in his own Church, the Congregational, where 
he had successfully brought the young people 
together for a weekly meeting for prayer and 
consecration, to which literary and social 
work had been added. The results were so 
encouraging that other churches soon took it 
up, and the movement spread rapidly through- 
out the United States and Canada. Crossing 
the ocean, it was taken up by England and all 
its colonies, and by China, Japan, India, 
and all countries where Christian missions 
were established. 

The society has for its motto "For Christ 
and the Church," and it has done splendid 
work in employing the activities of the young 
people of the churches in Christian service. 
The organization is interdenominational, each 
society being closely affiliated with its own 
church. The United Societies of Christian 
Endeavor was organized in 1885. At a later 
biennial convention, the name was changed to 
International Society of Christian Endeavor, 
embracing all the societies in North America. 
In 1905 a World's Christian Endeavor Union 
was formed, which holds a world's convention 
every four years. There are over 80,000 local 
chapters, with more than 4,000,000 members 

The Methodist Episcopal denomination is 
the only one that officially has no part in the 
Christian Endeavor work, as the young people's 
society of that church, known as the Epworth 
League, is a distinct organization (see EP- 
WORTH LEAGUE). The Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety is recognized by all the other branches 
of Methodism, and by all the other evangelical 
denominations in their denominational unions 
or departments of young people's work Chris- 
tian Endeavor societies in the Baptist Church 
have the same rights and privileges as the 
branch societies in the Baptist Young People's 
Union (which see). C.C.H. 

CHRISTIAN ERA, the period of time be- 
ginning with the birth of Christ, extending 
to the present date, and to continue indefinitely 
In the sixth century, a monk named Dionysius 
introduced the custom of reckoning the years 
from the birth of Christ; this method is now 
employed almost universally in Christian coun- 
tries, although the practice did not become 
general until the fifteenth century. The year 
was often taken to begin on December 25, and 
for a while on various dates between December 
25 and March 25. But now January i marks 
the beginning of the year in almost all coun- 
tries. It is believed that Dionysius made a 
mistake of about four years in his reckoning, 
and that Christ was born about four years 
before the Christian Era. See CHRONOLOGY 

CHRISTIANIA, kris tyah' ne ah, until 1925 
the name of the capital city of Norway. 
See OSLO. 

CHRISTIANITY, the religion established by 
Jesus Christ. The followers of Jesus were first 




called Christians, or followers of Christ, at 
Antioch in Syria, about A.D. 65. The funda- 
mental doctrines of Christianity are set forth 
in the Apostles' Creed (which see). They are 
as follows: 

1. Belief in God as the Father. 

2. Belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God. 

3. Belief that Christ arose from the dead and that 
He is and forever will be the Judge of both the living 
and the dead. 

4 Belief in the Holy Spirit and the resurrection of 
the body. 

Christianity presupposes belief in the immor- 
tality of the soul. It is considered to be of 
supernatural origin, a religion instituted by 
divine revelation. For this reason, the follow- 
ers of Christianity believe it to be the only 
true religion, and that it is their duty to per- 
suade all men to accept it. This belief lies at 
the foundation of the missionary movement 
of the Christian Church. 

Christianity had its birth in old Palestine, 
whence it spread to Asia Minor, Southern 
Europe, and the countries in Northern Africa. 
It is the accepted religion of most of the coun- 
tries of Europe except Russia, of all the 
countries of North and South America, Aus- 
tralia, and the Union of South Africa. There 
is not a country in which Christianity is not 
known, and Christian missionaries have estab- 
lished stations among practically all people 
outside of Christian nations. Its followers out- 
number those of any other religion. 

Related Subjects. For a detailed list of topics connected 
with Christianity, see the Related Subjects division at the 
end of the article RELIGION 


CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, the religion founded 
by Mary Baker Eddy and represented by the 
Church of Christ, Scientist, including the 
First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, 
Massachusetts, and the branches of this 
"Mother Church" in all countries. 

In her book entitled Retrospection and 
Introspection, Mrs. Eddy related the origin 
of Christian Science as follows: 

During twenty years prior to my discovery, I had 
been trying to trace all physical effects to a mental 
cause, and in the latter part of i8(>0 1 gamed the 
scientific certainty that all causation was Mind, and 
every effect a mental phenomenon My immediate 
recovery from the effects of an injury caused by an 
accident, an injury that neither medicine nor surgery 
could reach, was the falling apple that led me to the 
discovery how to be well myself, and how to make 
others so 

The teachings of Christian Science are 
briefly but completely stated in Mrs. Eddy's 
principal book, Science and Health, with Key 
to the Scriptures. Known as the Christian 
Science textbook, this work is adapted for 
inquirers as well as students, and is read in 
connection with the Bible in the Sunday serv- 

ices and Wednesday evening meetings of this 
denomination. All of Mrs. Eddy's writings are 
to be found in many public libraries, and in the 
public reading rooms which are maintained by 
all Christian Science churches. 

The Church of Christ, Scientist, founded in 
1879 and reorganized in 1892, is designed 
"to commemorate the word and works of 
our Master" and to "reinstate primitive 
Christianity and its lost element of healing." 
Healing, in the broadest sense of this term, is 
regarded as the purpose of the Church, while 
healing the sick by mental and spiritual 
practice is emphasized as an essential aspect 
of Christian Science. The growth of the 
Christian Science denomination has resulted 
largely therefrom. 

The distinctive feature of Christian Science 
theology is its teaching that "all reality is in 
God and His Creation, harmonious and 
eternal. That which He creates is good, and 
He makes all that is made. Therefore, the 
only reality of sin, sickness, or death is the 
fact that unrealities seem real to human, err- 
ing belief, until God strips off their disguise." 
They are not true, in the belief of Christian 
Scientists, because they are not of God. 
Christian Scientists believe "all inharmony 
of mortal mind or body is illusion, possessing 
neither reality nor identity, though seeming 
to be real and identical." The practice of 
Christian Science follows the proposition that 
"there is a law of God applicable to healing, 
and it is a spiritual law instead of material." 

The Christian Science denomination has 
its headquarters in Boston, where its Pub- 
lishing Society issues the Christian Science 
Journal (a monthly, published in English and 
containing directories of churches and prac- 
titioners), the Christian Science Sentinel (a 
weekly, in English), Der Her old der Christian 
Science (monthly, in English and German), 
Le Heraut de Christian Science (a monthly, 
in English and French), the Christian Science 
Quarterly Bible Lessons (containing the Les- 
son-Sermons for Christian Science services 
and study, and published in many languages), 
and the Christian Science Monitor (an inter- 
national daily newspaper). 

There are about 2,000 churches of this 
denomination in the United States, and more 
than 350 in other countries, of which the 
majority are in Canada, England, and Ger- 
many. C.P.S. 

Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), the discoverer of 
Christian Science and the founder of the Christian 
Science Church. She was born at Bow, near Concord, 
N. H., and was educated in the public schools, at 
Sanbornton (N.H.) Academy, and by private teachers. 
She was of a religious nature, and at an early age was 
admitted to membership in the Congregational 
Church, in spite of her inability to subscribe to some 
of its doctrines. This membership was retained until 
she founded her own Church. 




QJ C/1 

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In 1843 she married George W Glover, who took 
her to Charleston, S. C. He died about a year later, 
and she returned to the home of her parents prac- 
tically without means; as a matter of conviction, she 
had liberated the slaves her husband had held. Here 
a son, George W. Glover, was born. As she was in 
very delicate health and dependent upon her family, 
her position was difficult. She was always a devout 
student of the Bible, and in her distress of body and 
mind she constantly turned to it for relief and guid- 
ance, and in i860, while suffering from a serious acci- 
dent, she gained the perception of the meaning of the 
Scriptures which'brought about her own healing and 
gave rise to the religion she founded Of this experi- 
ence she afterward published an account, which is 
found in her work, Miscellaneous Writing* 

After nearly a decade of work in pondering her 
discovery, perfecting its statement, and proving its 
worth to her fullest satisfaction, she produced in 1875 
her fundamental contribution to the religious and 
therapeutic thought of the world in Science and 
Health, with Key to the Scriptures, which is the "text- 
book" of Christian Science. Jt has gone through nu- 
merous editions. 

In 1877 she married Dr. Asa G. Eddy, who was 
associated with her in the Christian Science move- 
ment. In 1879 she organized the Church of Christ, 
Scientist, which in 1892 was reorganized as The First 
Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass. Of 
The First Church, known also as The Mother Church, 
she was pastor for many years. (Illustration on 
opposite page ) 

In 1881 she opened in Boston the Massachusetts 
Metaphysical College, the only institution of its kind 
having a charter from the Commonwealth. For a 
number of years, Mrs. Eddy lived in comparative 
retirement at Concord, N. H. In 1908 she went to a 
suburb of Boston, where, revered by her followers, 
she remained in charge of her large and growing 
movement almost to the day of her death, December 

Her Books. In addition to Science and Health and 
Miscellaneous Writings, referred to above, Mrs. Eddy 
wrote a Church Manual, Unity of Good and Other 
Writings, and Christian Healing and Other Writings, 
and numerous pamphlets. 


In all Christian coun- 
tries, Christmas is celebrated as the anniver- 
sary of the birth of Christ, ''the Prince of 
Peace," "the King of Kings." That day, by 
common consent December 25, is marked by 
special religious services in various churches, 
by charitable deeds, the exchange of gifts, and 
by merrymaking and rejoicing. It is on that 
day, as Longfellow wrote, that we hear Christ- 
mas bells 

Their old familiar carols play, 
\nd wild and sweet 
The words repeat 
Of peace on earth, good- will to men! 

The time when the Christmas festival was 
first observed is not definitely known. It is 
spoken of in the beginning of the third century 
by Clement of Alexandria, and Chrysostom 
speaks of it in the latter part of the fourth 
century as a custom of long standing. Other 
dates were often celebrated as the day of the 
Nativity, but finally, December 25 was uni- 
versally adopted; there is no evidence that 
the date is absolutely correct. But exactness 
on those points is now not so important as 
the "spirit of Christmas," the spirit of giving, 
of helping a broad, all-embracing love for our 
fellow men. Margaret E. Sangster in the poem 
Christmas-tide puts the sentiment in verse: 

At Christmas-tide the open hand 
Scatters its bounty o'er sea and land, 
And none arc left to grieve alone, 
For love is heaven and claims its own. 

The giving of presents and the use of holly, 
mistletoe, Yule logs (see YULE), and the was- 
sail bowl have all descended from the days of 
paganism, but they are things which set the 
day distinctly apart from all other holidays. 
Without the Christmas tree and Santa Claus 
for the little folks, the day would be incomplete 
and lose much of its deeper meaning to families. 
The custom of sending greetings on "Christmas 
cards" started more than fifty years ago. 

In recent years, many cities have adopted 
the beautiful custom of celebrating the festi- 
val as communities. Great Christmas trees, 
glowing with innumerable lights, are set up 
in a central location, such as Madison Square, 
in New York, or the lake front in Chicago, 
and on Christmas Eve the people gather about 
these trees to sing the familiar hymns and carols 
associated with the birth of Christ. 

Origin of the Christmas Tree. Use of the fir 
tree in connection with Christmas celebrations 
is of Germanic or Scandinavian origin. When 
the pagans of northern Europe became Chris- 
tians, they made their sacred evergreen trees a 
part of the Christian festival, and decorated 


Be merry all, be merry all, 
With holly dress the festive hall; 
Prepare the song, the feast, the ball, 
To welcome merry Christmas. 


Song, God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen Old Carol 

The First Christmas Luke 11, 8-21 

The Birds of Bethlehem Gilder 

Christmas Proctor 

The Fir Tree (adapted) Andersen 

Song, Little Town of Bethlehem . Brooks 

Jest 'Fore Christmas Field 

Little Gottlieb Cary 

Scenes from A Christmas Carol. . . . Dickens 
Christmas at the Cratchits' 
Christmas at Scrooge's Nephew's 
Christmas in Old Time ... . Scott 

The Little Christmas Tree Coolidge 

Essay, How the Fir Tree Became the Christmas 


Christmas Everywhere To-night Brooks 

While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks . Dcland 
Song, // Came upon the Midnight Clear 



For little children everywhere 
A joyous beason still we'll make; 
And bring our precious gifts to them, 
Even for the dear child Jesus' sake. 

Song, Silent Night, Holy Night 

Christmas Bells Longfellow 

A Visit from Santa Clans . . .Moore 

Essay, Why the Evergreens Keep Their Leaves 
in Winter 

Old Christmas Howilt 

Christmas Snow Spofford 

Scene from Cricket on the Hearth Dickens 

The Party at Caleb's 

Song, While Shepherds Watt tied Their I'lmks 
by Night 

Why the Chimes Rang Alden 

Christmas Song Held 

Kris Kringle Aldrich 

The Little Match Girl Andersen 

Kris Kringle' s Travels Best 

What Child Is This? Old Carol 

Carol's Dinner Party, from The Birds' 

Christmas Carol Riggs 

Song, Away in a Manger Luther 




the trees with gilt nuts and apples in imitation 
of the stars. 

One legend relates how on a Christmas Eve, 
twelve centuries ago, the first Christmas tree 
was miraculously revealed. Winfred, an 
Englishman who had gone to Germany to 
spread the teachings of Jesus, found a group 
of worshipers gathered at the Oak of Geismar 
about to sacrifice little Prince Asulf to the 
god Thor. Winfred averted the death blow 
and cut down the "blood" oak. As it fell, a 
young fir tree appeared, which the missionary 
declared was the tree of life or Christ, of whose 
birth he then told the people. 

Many fine stories have been woven about 
the Christmas spirit and Christmas merry- 
making. Dickens' Christmas Carol, the story 
of Scrooge and "Marley's Ghost," is one 
widely read and loved. See CAROL, for one of 
the most famous Christmas carols ever written. 

A Christmas Carol, one of the most beautiful and 
inspiring of all Christmas stones It was written by 
Charles Dickens, and published in 184$, and the 
15,000 copies that were speedily sold brought the 
author about ${,500 A Christmas Carol is the story 
of u "clutching, covetous old sinner" by the name of 
Scrooge Uow the Ghosts of the Christmas Past, 
Present, and Future brought about his regeneration 
is told in a series of pictures that have all the humor, 
the pathos, and the re.ihsm that arc a part of the 
author's genius Tiny Tun, the crippled child of 
Scrooge's brow-beaten clerk, is one of Dickens' well- 
loved creations The story is one that children and 
their elders read and re-re,td with equal delight 
Thackeray called it a national benefit, and declared 
no better charity sermon had ever been preached 


CHRIST OF THE ANDES, a remarkable 
statue. See ARGENTINA 


(1873- ), an American painter and il- 
lustrator with a dashing but not exaggerated 
style, creator of a picturesque and romantic 
type of society woman. He was born in Morgan 
County, Ohio, and studied at the National 
Academy and the Art Students' League in 
New York. During the Spanish- American 
War he went to Cuba with Roosevelt's "Rough 
Riders," and the illustrations he made there, 
which were published in Scribner's and Har- 
per's magazines and in Collier's Weekly, aroused 
the first interest in his work. A portrait of 
Colonel Roosevelt gained him special promi- 
nence later, and he also produced portraits 
of numerous prominent men, among them that 
of President Harding, for the steamship Le- 
viathan. However, he is best known through 
his black-and-white illustrations of serial 
stories in magazines and for his illustration 
of several of James Whitcomb Riley's books. 
Christy pictures are favorites as colored 
prints on magazine covers. 

abur a' shun. See ABERRATION, subhead. 

CHROMATIC SCALE, in music, the scale 
produced by dividing the whole tones of the 
natural, or diatonic, scale into half-tones. 


The chromatic half-tone, or semitone, is the 
interval between a note and that note raised 
by a sharp or lowered by a flat. The chromatic 
scale, with the two half-tones already in the 
diatonic scale, is an octave divided into twelve 
semitones. Composers make use of the chro- 
matic tones to produce many beautiful effects 
in music. See Music; SCALE. 

CHRO MATIN, kro' ma tin. See HEREDITY; 

CHROME, krome, a name applied to a num- 
ber of substances used as the basis of paints. 
Chrome yellow is a compound of chromic 
acid and lead. Chrome green, a compound of 
chromium and oxygen, is used by calico print- 
ers and for enamels; it is also the basis of a 
number of green paints and dyes which are not 
poisonous. Chrome red is a compound of 
chromium and lead. All chrome colors are 
noted for their clearness and brilliancy. 


CHROMIC, kro' mik, IRON ORE. See 

IRON ORE, a mineral, the chief ore from 
which chromium is extracted (see CHROMIUM). 
It is of black or brownish-black color, with a 
sub-metallic luster, and resembles magnetite 
or magnetic iron ore in appearance. It is 
usually associated with serpentine. Chromite 
is largely used in the preparation of paints, 
in calico-printing, or the dyeing of cotton goods, 
and in the preparation of chromium and its 
compounds. It is found in New Caledonia, 
Greece, Great Britain, Asiatic Turkey, Japan, 
Canada, and Cuba. Small quantities are 
mined in California. A.N.W. 

Chemical Formula. The formula for chromite is 
FeCr2O4, that is, a molecule contains one atom of 
iron, two atoms of chromium, and four atoms of 

CHROMIUM, kro' mi urn, a very hard 
steel-gray metal, obtained chiefly from the ore 
chromite (which see). Chromium is not used 
in pure form, but is one of the most valuable 
of plating materials because of its hardness, 
resistance to high temperatures, and imper- 
viousness to most acids and to salt spray. 
It can be plated on iron, steel, copper, brass, and 
other metals, and the resulting product is reck- 
oned the hardest substance known, next to the 
diamond. Anv metal coated with chromium 




will scratch glass and the hardest steel plate. 
Because automobile radiators, lamps, pistons, 
valves, shafts, and bearings plated with 
chromium are indefinitely protected from rust, 
tarnish, and wear, chromium is used exten- 
sively in the automobile industry. The United 
States government uses chromium-plated steel 
engravings for printing money and postage 
stamps, and in the textile industry steel plated 
with chromium is coming into use in the print- 
ing of delicate fabrics. 

There are various steel alloys containing 
chromium (see ALLOY). Chromium steel is 
especially serviceable in the manufacture of 
airplane engines, safes, armor plate, and high- 
speed tools. A stainless steel valued as a 
material for knife blades, which is resistant 
to acids found in foods, is produced by alloying 
steel with about fifteen per cent of chromium; 
rust-proof iron contains the same amount. 

The compounds of the metal are utilized 
in the arts and industry. Chrome yellow, a 
compound of chromium and lead, is an im- 
portant basis of yellow paint. Chrome green, 
or ultramarine, a compound of the metal and 
oxygen, is used for painting china and coloring 
bank notes. Potassium bichromate is em- 
ployed in dyeing, in photography, and in the 
production of various pigments. The symbol 
for chromium is Cr. (see CHEMISTRY). T.B.J. 

CHROMOSOME, kro' mo sohm. See EVO- 
LUTION (The Factors of Evolution); BOTANY 
(Contribution to Human Welfare); CELL; 

CHROMOSPHERE, kro 1 mo sfeer. See 
SUN (The Sun's Surface). 

CHRONICLES, kron' i Viz, BOOKS or, two 
books of the Old Testament which follow the 
books of Kings. The name in Hebrew means 
Acts of the Days. In the Hebrew Scriptures, 
Chronicles consists of only one book. The 
division was made when the Septuagint (which 
see) was written. Chronicles differs from Kings 
in giving more fully the religious side of the 
history of Israel during the period covered, 
and in giving the history of the kingdom of 
Judah to the exclusion of that of Israel after 
the kingdoms were divided. It is thought that 
these books were written by the priests. 

CHRONOLOGY, kro noV o jie, the science of 
dividing time into periods and of giving to 
historic events their proper dates. The unit 
of time in chronology is the year. When the 
date of an event is given, we mean that such 
an event happened so many years after or 
before some great point in history, which is 
regarded as the beginning of an era. 

We say that Columbus discovered America 
in A.D. 1492, meaning that he made his great 
discovery 1,492 years after the birth of Christ; 
A.D. is the abbreviation for the Latin expression 
Anno Domini, meaning in the year of Our Lord, 
and the birth of Christ is the beginning of 

the Christian Era. Dates of events occurring 
before the birth of Christ are written with 
the letters B.C.; as, Julius Caesar invaded 
Britain in 55 B.C. This system of fixing dates 
is the one now commonly employed through- 
out the enlightened parts of the world. 

The Greeks reckoned time by the four-year 
intervals between the Olympic Games, which 
were known as Olympiads. They began their 
era from a date which corresponds to 776 B.C. 
The Roman era begins with the founding of the 
city of Rome, 753 B.C. being the date generally 
accepted. Another important era is the Mo- 
hammedan, dating from the Hegira, Moham- 
med's flight from Mecca, in A.D. 622. The 
American and European year 1935 is therefore 
the Mohammedan year 1313. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol 
umes to the following articles: 

Calendar (Hebrew Calendar) Hegira 

Christian Era Year 

CHRONOMETER, kro nom' e tur, in a gen- 
eral sense, is any instrument that measures and 
records time. Thus, a clock, a watch, a sun- 
dial, or any other device that does this is a 
chronometer. In a specific sense, a chronom- 
eter is an instrument made for very accurate 
and minute measurements of time The one 
most widely known is the marine chronometer, 
which determines time in connection with find- 
ing longitude at sea. For this purpose, it is 
set at the time of some first, or prime, merid- 
ian. Greenwich time is used by American and 
British ships; that of Paris, by the French; 
and that of Berlin, by the Germans. The 
mechanism of these instruments is very delicate 
and easily affected by outside influences; they 
must be kept away from the magnetic in- 
fluence of compasses and from the vibrations 
of the ship. These chronometers are hung in 
their cases on gimbals, so they may alwavs be 
in a horizontal position. A pocket chronom- 
eter, which is used for railroad and racing 
purposes, looks like an ordinary watch, but 
is somewhat larger. It registers very small 
fractions of time. See WATCH. 

CHRONOS, kro' nohs, in mythology, the 
father of Hades (which see). 

CHRYSALID, kris' a lid, a term having the 
same meaning as chrysalis (which see). See, 
also, INSECT (The Developing Insect). 

CHRYSALIS, kris' a Us, the resting state 
of a butterfly, when it has ceased to be a 
caterpillar but has not yet developed into a 
flying insect. The caterpillar is the larva of the 
butterfly; the chrysalis is the pupa. When the 
larva attains full growth, it encases itself in a 
hard, smooth skin, becoming a chrysalis (or 
chrysalid). In this form it remains attached to 
a plant or other object by a silken button at 
the end of the abdomen, or by a loop of silk 
passed around the middle of the body. The 
butterfly pupa looks like a wingless, legless, 




lifeless object, but during this stage, antennae, 
wings, and legs develop beneath the skin of 
the pupa, and at the proper time the hard 


(a) Cocoon of sphinx moth, (b) chrysalis of monarch 

butterfly; (c) pupa of mosquito The term chrysalis 

is usually limited to the pupa of a butterfly. 

covering breaks open, and the perfect insect 
emerges. The pupal stage of most moths is 
passed in a silken case called a cocoon, wj.s. 

Derivation. Chrysalis is derived from the Greek 
word for gold The name was given because some of 
the chrysalids shine with a golden luster 

Related Subjects. The reader 
umes to the following articles 

. referred in these vol- 





CHRYSANTHEMUM, kris an' the mum. 
The storv of this stately, free-blooming autumn 
flower, the national flower and imperial emblem 


of Japan, is most interesting. In its natural 
state, it is much like the aster -coarse-leaved, 
with rather common-looking flowers, the ox- 

eye daisy and the corn marigold being two 
species. But as a result of care, cultivation, 
hybridization, and selection, the chrysanthe- 
mums of the gardens and hothouses to-day 
are gorgeous offspring of Chinese and Japanese 
varieties, with leaves pale green or dusty silver, 
and large, globelike, ragged-blossomed flowers 
of many forms and colors. Every year when 
the gray days come and other flowers have 
faded, in garden spots or florists' windows 
or under the glass of greenhouses, the chrys- 
anthemum, the "golden flower," affords' a 
wealth of brilliant hues. 

In the Imperial Gardens of Japan originated 
the custom of ''chrysanthemum shows." Now 
each year in many countries, for several weeks 
at a time, rich and poor alike can feast on 
the sight of chrysanthemums white or yellow, 
pink or purplish-rose and red, quilled or twisted, 
solid or shaggy, single, double, or semi-double 
chrysanthemums in true pompon or button 
form and size, dozens of blossoms from one 
stem, or one wonderful, showy, eight-inch 
head topping one straight, sturdy stem. B.M.D. 

Feast of Chrysanthemums, a festival celebrated by 
the Japanese in October, marked by magnificent dis- 
plays of the Japanese imperial emblem The feast is 
called kiku-no-sekku, and has practically become a 
public holiday, with streets filled with gay crowds on 
their way to the flower shows The blessing of 
longevity is supposed to be conferred on this day by 
sprinkling chrysanthemum leaves over tables laid 
for tea 

Classification. The chrysanthemums constitute 
the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Compositac 

CHRYSOSTOM, kris' os turn, JOHN, Saint 
(about 345-407), one of the most beloved and 
celebrated of the early Church fathers, born 
at Antioch, Syria. He studied rhetoric with 
the famous orator Libanius, and earned the 
name Chrysostom, meaning the golden- 
mouthed. Through the influence of his pious 
mother he determined to consecrate his life 
to God in the deserts of Syria, but after six 
years he became ill and returned to Antioch. 
He was later ordained deacon and presbyter, 
and in 398 went to Constantinople, where he 
was called John the Almoner, due to his zeal 
for charity. He preached so much against 
worldliness that the emperor banished him to 
the northeast shore of the Black Sea. Obliged 
to make most of the journey on foot, bare- 
headed, in the burning sun, he died on the way. 
His festival is observed on January 27 in 
Roman churches. 

[The Homilies he wrote on parts of the Scripture 
are the best in the ancient Christian literature ] 



ALASKA (Animal and Plant Life). 




CHURCH. When Jesus Christ was on earth, 
He gathered about Him a body of followers 
who accepted His teachings and spread them 
after the Resurrection. Within a few years, 
this organization became known as the Church. 
The name comes from a Greek word meaning 
dedicated to the Lord. The Scotch kirk and the 
German Kirche come from the same word and 
possess the same meaning. In the Book of 
Revelation (which see) the Church is spoken 
of as the bride of Christ, meaning all who 
have become His followers. This makes the 
Church a spiritual body, and this is what the 
word means in its broadest sense. 

During the time of the Apostles, the name 
was applied to different groups of Christians, 
and some of Saint Paul's Epistles are addressed 
to these churches. In Revelation, also, the 
word is used in the same way, where the 
angel bids John write to the seven churches 
in Asia Minor. A third meaning of the word 
is a body of Christians having the same creed, 
as the Presbyterian Church, the Baptist 
Church, the Roman Catholic Church. In 
this sense the meaning is the same as denomi- 

Finally, the name, as a common noun, is 
given to the building in which a group of people 
of the same faith worship. 

Related Subjects. For the history of the Christian 
Church down to the end of the Reformation, see the articles 
the Reformation, the Protestant body divided into numer- 
ous branches, because of differences in regard to doctrine 
and worship. The important divisions of the Protestant 
group are treated in this work under their respective titles. 



STON (1871- ), an 
American author who 
has written a series of 
historical novels and 
several noteworthy 
books dealing with live 
social and political is- 
8>ues in modern Ameri- 
can life. He was born 
in Saint Louis, Mo., 
and was graduated in 
1894 from the Annap- 
olis Naval Academy. 
Churchill's novel, The 
Celebrity, appeared in 
1898, the first of about 
a dozen successful 
stories. His literary 
career he varied by 
taking an active part in the politics of his home 
state, New Hampshire. In 1903 and 1905 he 
was elected to the state legislature, and in 

Photo Brown Brm 

American author. 

1912 was the unsuccessful candidate of the 
Progressive party for governor. 

His Writings. The Celebrity was followed by three 
related historical novels that became very popular 
Richard Carvel, The Crisis, and The Crossing, tales of 
colonial and pioneer days. In 1906 came possibly 
the author's best achievement, Coniston, a finely 
written story of New England local politics. This 
was followed by Mr. Crewe's Career, another political 
novel, A Modern Chronicle, The Inside of the Cup, A 
Far Country, The Dwelling Place of Light, The 
Traveller in War-Time, and Dr. Jonathan (a play). 
Churchill's books are brightened by delightful humor, 
and he knows how to arouse and hold the reader's 
interest. All of his novels show the results of sound, 
careful workmanship, and are uniformly clean and 

(1874- )> one of the best-known of the 
modern group of Eng- 
lish statesmen, who, 
though he began his 
Parliamentary career 
as a Conservative, 
rose to distinction in 
the House of Com- 
mons as a Liberal. He 
entered the army in 
1895, saw service in 
India and in Egypt, 
winning a medal for 
gallant conduct in the 
Battle of Khartum, 
and during the South 
African War was cor- 
respondent for a Lon- En S lish author, soldier, and 
don paper. Elected to Desman. 

Parliament in 1900, he allied himself with the 
Liberals, and in 1006, during the Campbell- 
Bannerman Ministry, became Parliamentary 
Secretary for the Colonies. From igo8 to 
1910 he was President of the Board of Trade, 
in IQIO became Home Secretary, and in IQII 
was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty 
in the Asquith Ministry, being one of the 
youngest men who ever held this office. 

Though Churchill was an advocate of a 
strong navy, in 1913 he suggested to Germany 
the plan of a "naval holiday/' each nation to 
cease adding to its navy for one year. The 
next year saw nearly all Europe involved in 
the greatest conflict of modern times, the 
World War. Churchill's conduct of naval 
affairs in the war, especially in connection with 
the campaign in the Dardanelles, caused 
much dissatisfaction, , and when the Cabinet 
was reorganized in 1915 he was relieved of 
the Navy portfolio. But that his ability 
might not be lost to the Cabinet, he was 
appointed to the office of Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster. In November of the 
same year, he resigned and joined the army in 
France, but retained his seat in Parliament. 
In 1918 he became Secretary of State for 

Photo lirown Hro 




War and Air, and in 1921 Secretary of State 
for the Colonies. With the downfall of his 
party he was for a brief time in retirement, 
but in 1924 he was returned to the Parliament 
and became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
the Baldwin Cabinet. See GREAT BRITAIN 
(History) ; BALDWIN, STANLEY. 

CHURCHILL RIVER, in Western Canada, 
with the exception of the Nelson and its 
tributaries, the greatest of the rivers which 
flow eastward into Hudson Bay. It is nearly 
1,000 miles long, and its drainage basin, which 
is not sharply defined, includes about 115,000 
square miles. One of its northern branches 
rises in Lake La Loche, in Saskatchewan, 
about ten miles from the Alberta boundary. 
About 300 miles eastward on its course it 
receives Reindeer River, which gives the 
Churchill a direct connection with the Mac- 
kenzie system, the greatest river system in the 
Dominion of Canada. 

Throughout its course the Churchill flows 
through many large and small lakes; in fact, it 
may be called a chain of lakes connected by 
narrow, rapid channels. For the most part the 
lakes and rivers are navigable for canoes, but 
there are many places \\here rapids and water- 
falls make short por.ages necessary. In the 
early days of the Northwest, long before the 
coming of a railway, the Churchill was an 
important trade route. Along its banks fur- 
bearing animals are still trapped in large 
numbers, and its waters abound in fish Fort 
Churchill, at the mouth of the river, is the best 
natural harbor on Hudson Bay. The river was 
named for John Churchill, first Duke of Marl- 
borough, who was the third governor of the 
Hudson's Bay Company (see MARYBOROUGH, 


CHURCH OF ENGLAND, the Church es- 
tablished by law as the national church of the 
English people. Saint Chrysostom and Jerome 
are the first to mention anything about the 
early British church, three bishops of which 
attended the Council of Aries, 314 A.D., over 
200 years before the coming of Augustine (A.D. 
506)". From this on until the reign of Henry 
VllI, the spiritual guidance of the Pope was 
universally acknowledged. Henry took ad- 
vantage of his quarrel with the Pope to with- 
draw any allegiance formerly given, announcing 
that the' king of England always had been the 
head of the church in England. Parliament in 
1534 sustained the king and made the Church 
in England independent of the Pope, restoring 
it to its ancient position. See HENRY (VIII, 
England) and Related Subjects there given. 

A few years before this, Martin Luther, m 
Germany, had started the revolt against the 
Roman Catholic Church known as the Refor- 
mation, and his ideas had begun to find favor 

with a large number of the English people. 
Protestantism, however, with a meaning some- 
what different from that given it in America, 
was not established in England without a se- 
vere struggle that lasted through the reigns of 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth. In the 
Elizabethan period, the English Church was 
definitely committed to an independent exist- 
ence, and the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion 
were put in their present form. See THIRTY- 

The Church of England claims to teach and 
uphold the doctrines of the Apostles, and to be 
a branch of the one universal Church of Christ. 
Its doctrines are stated in the Thirty-nine 
Articles, the Book of Common Prayer, and the 
books of homilies. The Church has possession 
of the edifices, lands, and other property 
granted it in former times, and is protected 
by law in the possession of these endowments. 
In civil matters it is under the jurisdiction of 
Parliament. Convocations of the clergy are 
called for the discussion of religious matters, 
and these often exercise considerable influence. 
A wide range of belief in matters of doctrine 
and forms of worship prevails at the present 
time in the Church, which is divided into three 
groups the High Church, Low Church, and 
Broad Church parties. The first group repre- 
sents those who are nearest the Roman Catho- 
lic Church in doctrine and ritual; the second 
group, those who favor greater simplicity and 
are, in general, opposed to that which savors 
of the Roman worship; the third comprises 
the large group that is between the two ex- 

The Anglo-Catholics, as the High Church 
adherents are usually known, have long tried 
to restore the ancient ritual, which in part is 
like that of the Roman Church. A bill to 
endorse a revised Book of Common Prayer, 
designed to meet some of their aspirations, was 
introduced into Parliament in 1927. It was 
accepted by the Lords, but was rejected in the 
House of Commons, in December of that year. 
A second measure, offering a compromise, was 
rejected in June, 1028, and the following Oc- 
tober a synod of bishops was called in London 
to consider the matter. This body decided to 
accept the decision of the House of Commons 
as final. A year later, however, the convoca- 
tions of York and Canterbury voted to author- 
ize the use of the Prayer Book as revised, but 
made its use optional with any bishop, not 

In regard to organization, the country is 
divided into two provinces, Canterbury and 
York. These are governed by archbishops, the 
archbishop of Canterbury having jurisdiction 
over England as a whole. The provinces are 
divided into dioceses, over which are bishops. 
Next to the bishops, in order of rank, are the 
archdeacons and deacons, followed by canons, 



prebendaries, rectors, vicars, and curates. The 
English clergy are supported neither by the 
State nor entirely by voluntary contributions 
of the Church members, but chiefly by endow- 
ments and bequests given by persons of means 
and liberality. The Church is exceedingly 
active in both foreign and home missionary 

The American Protestant Episcopal Church 
was once a branch of the Church of England. 
The High Church party has made several in- 
effectual attempts to rename it the American 
Catholic Church. 

Related Subjects. A broader understanding of the his- 
tory of the Church of England will result from reading the 
following articles 

Archbishop Luther, Martin 

Augustine, Saint Oxford Movement 

Canterbury Reformation 

Catharine of Aragon Thirty-nine Articles 

Episcopal Church York 





CHURN, a closed vessel in which butter is 
made. Whatever the type, every churn 
is based on the principle that rapid stirring 
of milk or cream causes the fat particles to 
separate from the liquid and gather into 
lumps. The earliest churns of which we have 
any record were made of goat skins, used with 
the hair side out. In these, milk was agitated 
by swinging or beating until the butter was 
produced. In many farm homes, the old-fash- 
ioned vertical-dasher churn is still used. It is a 
wooden cylinder tapering to the top, where it 
is fitted with a cover. Through the cover 
passes a handle, to which is attached a wooden 
dasher. This consists of two pieces of wood 
crossing each other and perforated with a 
number of small holes. In another common 
type of hand churn, the dasher is revolved in 
the receptacle. 

Barrel churns are also in common use. These 
are operated by a crank that gives the churn 
itself a rotary motion, end over end. No 
dasher is needed. The butter is thrown upon 
the sides of the barrel, and the churner may 
watch the process through a small glass window 
in the cover. In still another kind of churn, 
the liquid is agitated by a back-and-forth 
motion of the vessel, which swings from side 
to side like a cradle. Churns should be made 
of hard, well-seasoned wood, as soft wood 
tends to give the butter a disagreeable taste. 

In creameries, where factory equipment 
takes the place of hand churns, power-driven 
machines are used, in which the butter is 
worked after the buttermilk is drawn off. 

Some of these machines have the butter- 
working apparatus a part of the mechanism, 
and in others it is adjusted separately, after the 
removal of the buttermilk. Combination 
churns and cream separators are also em- 
ployed in some creameries. F.W.D. 

[See illustrations, in article BUTTER.] 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Butter Creamery 

Cattle Dairy and Dairying 

CHURUBUSCO, dwo roo boos' ko, BATTLE 

CHYLE, kile , a form of lymph which differs 
from ordinary lymph in containing globules 
of digested fat held in suspension. These fat 
particles give it a milky appearance. Chyle 
is found in the lacteals, or lymphatics of the 
small intestine; in the lymphatics which lead 
from the small intestine; and in the thoracic 
duct. The fat of chyle is furnished by chyme, 
which pours into the small intestine from the 
stomach. K.A.E. 

Related Subjects. The following articles should he read 
in this connection. 
Chyme Digestion Lacti-als Lymph 

CHYME, kimc. When food enters the 
stomach, the walls of that organ contract in 
such a way as to impart a sort of churning 
motion to it. This process continues until 
every portion of the food has been brought 
into contact with the gastric juice (see STOM- 
ACH), which reduces the food to a pulp called 
chyme. Chyme is a thick grayish-white mass 
of half- fluid consistency. It passes through the 
pylorus into the small intestine, where, under 
the action of intestinal juice, bile, and pan- 
creatic juice, digestion is completed. K.A.E. 


CIBOLA, sc' bo I ah, SEVEN CITIES OF, were 
Indian villages in the region of the Southwest 
now comprising New Mexico. Legendary tales 
of their wealth of turquoise-studded doors 
and streets of goldsmiths making ornaments 
of gold inflamed the greed of the Spanish 
conquerors. Fra Marcos, a Franciscan priest, 
and a Moor, Estevanico, were the first to see 
Cibola. (The name is believed to be the 
Spanish form of Shiwina, the Indian name for 
the Zuni range.) Estevanico was murdered 
by the Indians, and Fra Marcos, after seeing, 
from afar, the first of these storied cities, 
Hawikuh, returned to the city of New Mexico. 
His tales further excited the Spaniards, and 
an expedition set out under Coronado. Hawi- 
kuh was taken by force, and the conquerors 
found food which they sorely needed but 
no treasure. All but one of these seven Zuni 
cities which proved such an empty lure have 
been found and excavated by archaeologists 
in recent years. See ZUNI. 

CICADA, sie M dah. The cicadas are a 
family of insects belonging to the same sub- 




order as scale insects and plant lice. The most 
interesting species, often miscalled seventeen- 
year locust (see LOCUST), has a life history 
extending over a period of seventeen years. 
Vernon L. Kellogg says: "That a single one 
of the 300,000 and more known species of 
insects should have a period of development 
from egg to adult of more than sixteen years, 
while this period in all other insects varies 
from a few days to not more than three years, 
is perhaps the most striking exceptional fact 
in all insect biology." The black and green 
harvest fly, or dog-day locust, is a two-year 
cicada. Most cicadas are found in the tropics 
and subtropics, but there are a few species 
distributed through the temperate regions; 
those mentioned above are native to North 
America. Only one cicada is known in Eng- 

The males of cicadas, which live only a few 
days, make a peculiar rattling sound with 
three drumlike membranes that are attached 
to the sides of the body and are operated by 
special muscles. This sound is supposed to 
be the mate call. On hot summer days, the 
shrill, monotonous call of the cicadas may be 
heard in the trees through the daylight hours, 
but the sounds cease at nightfall. The females, 
which are " voiceless," lay their eggs in the 
twigs of trees or shrubs, in small holes or 
slits which they cut with the sawlike ovi- 
positor. The damage which they thus do to 
orchards is often 
considerable, for F" 7 
the cutting of holes ' 
weakens the twigs, 
and they some- 
times break off. 
The young drop to 
the ground when 
hatched, and spend 
the time until ma- 
turity (whether 
two or seventeen , 
years) several ! 
inches or even feet i 
below the ground. 
Here they subsist 
by feeding on hu- 
mus and sucking 
the juice of tree 
roots. Finally the ^ 
nymph crawls out 
upon the trunk of a 
tree or a spear of 
grass, its skin splits open along the back, and 
the full-grown insect emerges. At first the 
wings are merely watery sacs, but in a very 
short time they expand to their full size. 

The adult periodical cicada ("seventeen-year 
locust") is a black, stout-bodied insect about 
an inch and a quarter long, being somewhat 
shorter than the harvest fly. It has orange- 


colored eyes, legs, and wing veins. There are 
about seventeen broods of this cicada, and the 
appearance of these broods in various parts 
of the United States at different times has 
been recorded by the United States Bureau 
of Entomology. Information concerning the 
appearance of a brood and directions for 
combating the insects may be had on appli- 
cation to the Bureau. The cicadas are not 
nearly so harmful to agriculture as the aphides 
and scale insects. In the Southern states, the 
periodical cicada has a life cycle of thirteen 
years. wj.s. 

Classification. Cicadas constitute the family Cica- 
didae in the order Hemiptcra (which see). The peri- 
odical cicada is Cicada septendecim. It is not related 
to true locusts. 

CICELY, sis' e le y or sise' lie, SWEET, also 
known as SWEET CHERVIL, a perennial herb 
of the parsley family. Its sweetly fragrant 
leaves, reminiscent of anise, are a familiar 
seasoning for soups and salads in Europe, 
but are little known in America except among 
the foreign element. Roots and seeds are also 
used for flavoring. Bees find the smell of sweet 
cicely very attractive, and are sometimes in- 
duced to enter empty hives after these have 
been rubbed with the leaves. The plant is 
native to Southern Europe and Asia, where it 
grows along river banks, but it is successfully 
raised in cottage gardens in England. It grows 
to a height of about three feet, and has downy 
gray leaves and small white flowers. The 
Scotch peasants call the herb myrrh. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. Sweet cicely belongs to the fam- 
ily Aptaceae Cor Umbelliferae) Its botanical name 
is Myrrhis odor at a. 

CICERO, sis f e ro, ILL. See ILLINOIS (back 
of map) . 

an illustrious Roman orator and statesman 
who lived in the stirring times of the declin- 
ing republic, universally acknowledged to be 
"the most eloquent of the sons of Romulus." 
Born at Arpinum, of an ancient family of 
the order of knights, he was early sent to Rome 
to be educated. He completed his regular 
schooling with courses in law and philosophy, 
and also received a thorough training in the 
art of oratory. At the age of twenty-six, he 
began his public career as a pleader in the law 
courts; after a period of travel, in which he 
visited the great centers of learning in Asia 
Minor and Athens, he returned to Rome and 
soon rose to first rank among the great orators 
at the Roman bar. 

Cicero was elected quaestor for the year 75 
B.C. and was assigned to Sicily, where he so 
pleased the people by the just performance 
of his duties that in 70 B.C. they called upon 
him to conduct their suit against the robber- 
governor of the island, the infamous Verres. 




Though Verres employed the celebrated Hor- 
tensius to plead his cause, Cicero's first speech 
against him was such a triumph of oratory 
that he fled into voluntary exile. Cicero then 
rose rapidly in power 
and public esteem, 
gaining the consulship 
in 63 B.C., through 
successive steps. It 
was during his term as 
consul that he exposed 
the wicked conspiracy 
of Catiline (which 
see), and drove the 
traitor in shame from 
the Senate by his mas- 
terpiece of oratory 
known as The First 
Oration Against Cati- 

Cicero, then at the 
height of his power, CICERO 

was hailed as the 

"father of his country'* and the "savior of the 
state," but there was to be a turn in the tide 
of his fortunes. Soon after he completed his 
term of office, his enemies charged him with 
having executed the leaders in the conspiracy 
of Catiline without giving them a legal trial, 
and Publius Clodius, the tribune of the people, 
raised such a storm of popular indignation 
that Cicero was forced to go into exile, choos- 
ing Thessalonica as his place of refuge (58 B.C.). 

Sixteen months later, he was recalled to 
Rome. Events were moving rapidly forward 
toward the great struggle for the control of 
the Roman world, with Caesar and Pompey 
the leading men in the state. When Cicero 
returned from a year's administration of the 
province of Cilicia (50 B.C.), he found Italy 
on the verge of civil war. He gave Pompey 
his half-hearted support, and after the latter's 
crushing defeat at Pharsalia, fled to Brundisium 
to await the decision of Caesar concerning 
him. That great leader forgave him and 
treated him with great kindness, and after 
Caesar's assassination Cicero composed a series 
of orations against Mark Antony. These, the 
celebrated Philippics, were the cause of his 
downfall. When Antony, Lepidus, and Octa- 
vius (later the Emperor Augustus) in 43 B.C. 
formed the Second Triumvirate, Cicero's name 
appeared on the list of those condemned to 
death, and while attempting to escape from 
his villa at Tusculum, he was beheaded by a 
band of Antony's soldiers. 

His Works Are Read To- Day. Cicero ranks among 
the greatest of the ancient writers, and his orations 
are unsurpassed in Roman literature for beauty of 
language and eloquence and grace of style. The four 
Orations Against Catiline are familiar to the high- 
school student of Latin. Among other writings are 

the fourteen Philippics against Antony, the essays 
on Friendship and Old Age, and numerous charming 
letters that give a wonderful picture of the age in 
which he lived. 

Related Subjects. For further investigation into the 
historical setting of Cicero's life, see the following articles 
in these volumes: 

Antony, Mark Consul 

Augustus Pompey 

Catiline Quaestor 

Caesar, Cams Julius Triumvirate 

CICONIANS, si ko r ni anz. See ODYSSEY 
(The Story). 

CID, sid y THE, the name applied in song and 
story to the great national hero of Spain, who 
lived in the latter part of the eleventh cen- 
tury. His real name was RODRIGO, or RUY 
DIAZ; "the Cid" comes from the Arabic El 
Seid, meaning the lord. He first appears in 
history in the reign of Ferdinand I, and under 
the successors of that monarch, he won dis- 
tinction as a great warrior. Banished from 
the realm of Alphonso of Castile, he began the 
adventurous career of a soldier of fortune, and 
for years battled for the Arabian kings of 
Saragossa in Northeastern Spain, fighting their 
Mohammedan and Christian enemies alike. 
In 1094 he made himself master of the city 
of Valencia. After five years of supremacy, 
during which he assailed many a neighboring 
fortress, he died of grief on learning of the 
defeat of an army which he had sent against 
his Moorish enemies. 

The Cid of romance and song, the type of 
all the manly virtues, is quite a different person 
from the adventurous Rodrigo of history. The 
greatest of the early literary works uhich 
celebrate his exploits is The Poem of the Cid 
written about 1200, one of the best epics of 
medieval times. Nearly 200 ballads and in- 
numerable stories and dramas have also been 
founded on legends concerning him, and he is 
the hero of a famous tragedy, The Cid, by the 
French dramatist Corneille. 

CIDER, si' dur, commonly the sweet or fer- 
mented juice of apples, although sometimes 
made of pears or of oranges. Late apples pro- 
duce the best cider, and red ones are better 
than the green or yellow. The apples are 
crushed until reduced to a pulp. The juice is 
run into casks or barrels, and exposed to the 
air until it ferments, and a clear amber or 
light-brown liquor, or "hard cider/' is produced. 
If sweet cider is boiled and bottled, it will 
keep fresh a long time. Sweet cider contains 
no alcohol and is therefore not intoxicating. 
But the longer it stands in the barrel, the more 
it will ferment and the more alcohol will be 
produced. The accumulation of alcohol in 
"hard" cider makes it very intoxicating. It 
may contain as much as eight per cent of 
alcohol as much as a strong wine. Cider 
brandy, or applejack, is distilled from fer- 


men ted cider. Apple butter is made by stewing 
apples in fresh cider. Cider vinegar is made 
by allowing cider to remain exposed to the 
air until the alcohol is changed into acetic 

CIENFUEGOS, syen fwa' gohs. See CUBA 
(Principal Cities). 


CIGARETTE, sig a ret', for many years 
called a "coffin nail" by reformers, in an 
attempt to discourage its use, is a small, pencil- 
shaped roll of tobacco in a covering of paper, 
used for smoking. By many authorities, cig- 
arette-smoking has been regarded as the most 
injurious form in which tobacco can be em- 
ployed, and particularly harmful to young 
persons. Probably no habit which has fastened 
itself upon a nation was so persistently assailed 
as that of cigarette-smoking, but the objectors 
fought a losing battle, for the sale of cigarettes 
within a score of years rose annually from a few 
million to more than eighty billion. Whereas, 
formerly, cigarette-smoking was confined to 
males, within the last decade the habit has 
made astonishing advancement among women 
in all grades of the social scale. See TOBACCO. 

Those who oppose the use of cigarettes de- 
clare that the smoke in the mouth mixes with 
saliva, to which it imparts certain poisonous 
properties arising from combustion of paper 
and tobacco, which prevent the natural as- 
similation of food. Nervousness, loss of sleep, 
and often serious affections of the heart and 
throat, and disorders of the stomach are among 
the evil results charged against excessive 

More than thirty states of the American 
Union prohibit the sale of cigarettes to minors; 
for many years prior to 1027, Kansas did not 
permit their sale to any person, regardless of 

CILIA, sil f e ah. If we could examine with a 
microscope the small air passages in our lungs 
when they are in action, we would see that the 
inner surface is covered with tiny hairlike 
bodies that are constantly in motion, and that 
their movement resembles that of a field of 
grain when the wind blows upon it. These 
tiny bodies are cilia. Cilia are found in the 
nasal passages, where they aid in the, expulsion 
of mucus and dust; in the internal ear, Eusta- 
chian tube, in the larynx, and in all the small 
air passages in the lungs. K.A.E. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Lungs Trachea Vorticella 

CILIARY MUSCLE, sil' i a rie mus' V. See 

CIMABUE, che mah boo' a//, GIOVANNI ( ?- 
1302) a native of Florence, one of the greatest 
painters of his age, and gifted also in mosaic 
work. There is little reliable information con- 


cerning his family, and all that is known of 
him is found in contemporary writings. He 
did work not only in Florence, but in Rome 
and in Pisa. In the latter city, he was chief 
among the makers of the mosaics which are in 
the apse of the cathedral; also he painted an 
altarpiece for the cathedral. Probably his most 
famous painting was a Madonna, which adorns 
a church in Florence; however, modern critics 
are somewhat in doubt as to the authenticity 
of this work, some ascribing it to a painter 
less known, by the name of Duccio. Among 
the paintings positively known to be those of 
Cimabue are The Madonna of Santa Trinita, 
in the Academy of Florence; the Crucifix of 
Santa Croce, and frescoes in the Church of 
Saint Francis of Assisi. He also executed a 
mosaic figure of Saint John, a notable piece 
in the cathedral of Pisa. Before Giotto, Cima- 
bue was the acknowledged head of the Floren- 
tine school of painters. 

CIMBRI, sim' bri, a warlike people of the 
Teutonic race, who, with the Teutons, formed 
the vanguard of the great German migration 
that so profoundly affected Roman history. In 
the year 113 B.C. the Cimbri began a southward 
movement through the forests of Germany, 
meeting a Roman army near Noreia, in modern 
Carinthia, and winning there a great victory. 
After several years of wandering, during which 
they defeated two Roman armies, they ap- 
peared in Gaul, and were joined there by the 
tribe of Teutons. This great host then began 
a southward movement toward Italy, dividing 
into two sections. The Cimbri planned to cross 
the Eastern Alps and to join the Teutons in 
the Po Valley; the latter were to make their 
way through the Western Alps. 

The Romans, terrified at the danger which 
threatened their city, had placed their great 
general Marius at the head of their legions 
to check the invading hordes of barbarians. 
Marius hurried to Southern Gaul, where he 
totally routed the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae 
(Aix), in 102 B.C. He then recrossed the Alps 
to intercept the Cimbri, who were pouring into 
Northeastern Italy, and in a terrible battle 
near Vercelli (101 B.C.), annihilated them. 
Over 100,000 were slain, and 60,000 were taken 
captive and sold as slaves. The Cimbri were 
the first Teutonic invaders of Italy; many 
other such onslaughts followed. See MARIUS, 
CAIUS. c.w. 

CIMMERIANS, the name of two peoples in 
legend and history. The legendary Cimmerians 
were a mythical race mentioned in Homer, who 
were described as living on the shores of the 
ocean, in an indefinite Far West. The later 
historical Cimmerians lived along the northern 
shore of the Black Sea. They flourished in 
the seventh century. 

CIMON, si' mon ( ? -449 B.C.), a famous 
general and statesman of ancient Athens, the 





son of Miltiades, hero of the Battle of Mara- 
thon. He distinguished himself at the great 
naval battle at Salamis (480 B.C.), during the 
second invasion of the Persians, and rose to 
the chief command of the Athenian fleet. In 
466 B.C., at the mouth of the River Eurym- 
edon, he defeated the Persians both on land 
and on sea, destroying 200 of their fleet of 
350 vessels. Cimon soon became the most 
influential man in Athens, but his policy of 
seeking the friendship of Sparta aroused the 
opposition of the democratic party, led by 
Pericles, and in 461 B.C. he was ostracized. 
After his recall from exile, he again led the 
Athenian fleets against the Persians, and died 
while besieging the Persian garrison of Citium 
in Cyprus. See OSTRACISM. 

CIMRI, sim' re. See WALES (History). 

the name of a valuable genus of South American 
woody plants, from the bark of which the drugs 
quinine and cinchona are obtained. The latter 
has much the same effects as quinine (which 
see), but is not so powerful. Peruvian bark 
and Jesuits 1 bark are some of the descriptive 
names used for the drug-producing barks. The 
plants producing them are trees or large shrubs 
of the madder family. They are evergreen, 
with simple, opposite leaves and white, rose- 
colored, or purplish, fragrant, lilac-like flowers. 
The bark is taken off in strips, longitudinally. 
At one time the cinchona trees were cut down 
to obtain the bark, but less wasteful methods 

are now used to obtain an increased yield. 
Cinchona plants were first found in Peru and 
Ecuador, but their culture has been extended 


Appearance of tree, or plant; leaves; blossoms, and 
detail of blossom. 

to India and other parts of the Orient. See 
ECUADOR; PERU (History). B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The cinchona genus belongs to 
the family Rubiaccae The principal species yielding 
quinine is Cinchona ojfitinalis 



sin' ko nin See ALKA- 


CINCINNATI, sin sin not' f, OHIO, the 
second city in the state in size (after Cleveland), 
and the county seat of Hamilton County, is 
the largest city in the United States near the 
center of population. It has been called the 

"most northern southern city and the most 
southern northern city," a phrase that aptly 
describes its location in the southwestern 
corner of Ohio. Cincinnati lies on the north 
bank of the Ohio River, midway between its 




source at Pittsburgh and its mouth at Cairo, 
111., and between the Big and the Little Miami 
rivers, both of which flow into the larger 
stream. The mouth of the Licking River is 
opposite the city, on the Kentucky side of the 
Ohio. The city of 
Louisville is south- 
west no miles by 
rail and 130 miles 
by water. Chicago 
is about 300 miles 
northwest, and 
Columbus, the 
state capital, is 1 20 
miles northeast. 

Cincinnati is a 
center of rail, 
water, and motor 
routes. It is served 
by nine railroads, 
operating nineteen 
trunk lines, and is 
the only city in the 
country, if not in 
the world, owning 
a steam railway 
the Cincinnati 
Southern Two na- 
tional motor high- 
ways intersect in 
Cincinnati the 
Atlantic and Pa- 
cific and the Dixie 
and three others 
pass through the 
city. As a result of 
extensive dam and 
lock construction 
on the Ohio, that river is navigable from Pitts- 
burgh to the Mississippi River, and Cincinnati 
thus has a position on an inland waterway 
route 15,000 miles long, with an outlet on the 
sea. The advantages of location have helped 
to make it one of the great industrial centers 
of the Middle West. 

Population, IQ28, 413,700 (Federal estimate). 
About eighty-six per cent of the inhabitants are 

General Description. Rising from the Ohio 
on two terraces to meet the encircling hills in 
the background, Cincinnati occupies a site of 
extraordinary beauty. On the highlands, 400 
to 460 feet in elevation, are the city's choicest 
residential sections Mount Auburn, Fairview 
Heights, College Hill, Price Hill, Walnut HiUs, 
Avondale, and others. With their woods and 
picturesque ravines, the highlands provide a 
delightful setting for the beautiful homes 
scattered over this region, and the hill summits 
command fine views of the winding river and 
rolling landscapes about the city and on the 
Kentucky side. A great watch 'factory occu- 
pies a site on one of the hills. 


The wholesale and manufacturing sections 
of Cincinnati cover the lower terrace, some 
sixty-five feet above low water, while the 
closely built business district occupies most of 
the second plateau, which is 100 to 150 feet 
above low water. 
The area of the city 
is about seventy- 
two square miles. 

Among the 
neighboring sub- 
urbs included in 
the metropolitan 
area, which has a 
population of 750,- 
ooo, are the Ohio 
towns of Norwood, 
Bond Hill, Elm- 
wood, Carthage, 
Westwood, Madi- 
sonville, and Oak- 
ley; across the riv- 
er in Kentucky are 
Dayton, Bellevue, 
Ludlow, Coving- 
ton, Newport, Fort 
Thomas, South- 
gate, and Latonia 
(with its noted race 
track). All are 
cities of consider- 
able size in them- 
selves, and are 
easily reached by 
electric railway 
and the motorbus. 
The Ohio River is 
spanned by five 
bridges, one exclusively for railway traffic, two 
for highway, and two for both. The Cincinnati 
Suspension Bridge, with a span of 1,057 feet, is 
said to be the first bridge of its kind built in the 
United States (1883); the Cincinnati Southern 
bridge has one of the largest truss spans in the 

Six miles distant, in the highlands of Ken- 
tucky, is Fort Thomas, one of the most im- 
portant military posts in the United States. 
On Mount Lookout, six miles from the center 
of the city, is located the Observatory of the 
University of Cincinnati. A short distance 
below Cincinnati, on the Ohio, stands the tomb 
of former President William Henry Harrison, 
the first Chief Executive from Ohio. 

Parks and Recreation Centers. The different 
sections of the city park system, comprising 
2,661 acres, are connected by a chain of 
boulevards and parkways. Of comparatively 
recent construction is the Parkway Boulevard, 
a spacious thoroughfare built over the roadbed 
of the old Miami Canal, providing a traffic lane 
through the center of the city. Beautification 
of the parks and boulevards, playgrounds, 




bridges, and transit facilities is under the 
supervision of a city-planning commission. 
Of the seventy-seven parks, Eden Park, on the 
east side, near the Ohio River, is one of the 
finest. The Art Museum and Art Academy are 
located within its grounds, and adjoining it, 
on Mount Adams, is the Rookwood Pottery 
establishment. The park contains two beauti- 
ful reservoirs and a tall water tower which 
affords delightful views of the country round- 
about. Much admired, too, is its medieval 
entrance, Elsinore Gateway. Burnet Woods 
Park, in the Highland section to the north, 
includes the grounds of the University of 
Cincinnati. In Lytle Park, a chief point of 
interest is a statue of Lincoln by Barnard, the 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Taft. A con- 
spicuous structure in the heart of the city is 
the Tyler-Davidson Fountain, on Fountain 
Square, between Vine and Walnut streets. 

The Central Parkway has been opened from 
the heart of Cincinnati to Ludlow Avenue, 
and is one of the most outstanding accomplish- 
ments for the promotion of the city for many 
years. It was completed and turned over to 
the city government and the people by the 
Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners in 
1928. It cost $4,250,000. 

Other parks and recreation centers include 
Ault, Lincoln, Washington, Mount Storm, 
Alma, and Mount Echo parks, the Mount Airy 
Forest project (1,132 acres), the Zoological 
Garden, with one of the largest collections of 
wild-animal life in America, and scores of 
playgrounds and athletic fields. The Cincin- 
nati "Reds" have a fine baseball park in the city. 
Institutions. Cincinnati is recognized as a 
leading educational center. Its municipally 
owned university is famous (see subhead, be- 
low). Among other important institutions of 
higher learning are Saint Xavier College, Lane 
Theological Seminary, Ohio Mechanics Insti- 
tute, Hebrew Union College (the principal one 
in the United States for the education of rabbis), 
and two conservatories of music of national 
repute. The Symphony Orchestra is also 
nationally famous. Among the benevolent 
institutions are the General and Children's 
hospitals. The former is one of the largest 
municipal hospitals in America, having twenty- 
four buildings on a tract of sixty-five acres. 

Transportation. Because of its various 
trunk lines leading southward, Cincinnati is 
called "the gateway to the South." The 
principal lines connecting with the Southern 
states east of the Mississippi are the Southern 
Railway, the Louisville & Nashville, and the 
Illinois Central. Other trunk lines radiating 
from the city include the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
the Norfolk & Western, the Baltimore & Ohio, 
the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Big Four. 
The municipally owned Cincinnati Southern 
Railway, extending from Cincinnati to Chatta- 

nooga, a distance of 338 miles, is leased by the 
Southern Railway. The city also has numerous 
mterurban and motorbus lines. The Ohio 
River is used for heavy freight like coal, lum- 
ber, and iron, and packet service is maintained 
between Cincinnati and Louisville and other 
river points. The great movable Fern Bank 
Dam, twelve miles down the Ohio, facilitates 
commerce. Near the city are the Lunken and 
Watson airports; Cincinnati is a station in the 
air-mail service. 

The new Union Station will be located in 
the western part of the city. It will not only 
include a passenger terminal, but freight and 
transfer terminals, as well. The total cost 
will be not far from $75,000,000. 

Commerce and Industry. The immediate 
trading area of the city extends north and east 
for thirty miles, westward over a fifty-mile 
radius, and southward for ninety miles. With- 
in a radius of 800 miles are over three-fourths 
of the country's inhabitants. Profiting by its 
facilities for receiving and shipping raw mate- 
rials and manufactured goods, and its strategic 
position with respect to markets, Cincinnati 
has enjoyed long-continued industrial pros- 
perity. Over 3,000 industrial plants in the 
city and suburbs produce goods having an 
annual value of nearly a billion dollars. Ac- 
cording to the United States census of manu- 
factures, Cincinnati proper ranks fifteenth 
among all American cities in value of products, 
and of 333 major types of industry listed in 
the census report, it is represented by about 
one-third. The most important products in- 
clude soap, machinery and other metal prod- 
ucts, clothing, shoes, radio sets, synthetic 
plastics, engineering specialties, furniture, play- 
ing cards, and printing inks. Printing and pub- 
lishing, including music publishing, is also well 
represented, and theexquisite Rookwood pottery 
produced at Mount Adams is nationally famous. 
The city was once important as a center for 
the manufacture of iron and its various 
products. This industry has languished, but 
manufacturers of many articles of iron and 
steel consume iron that is manufactured else- 
where. Slaughtering and meat-packing is 
now less important than formerly. 

The city is a leading soft-coal center, han- 
dling over 650,000 carloads annually, and is also 
an important lumber market. It ranks, too, 
among the first five American centers recog- 
nized by foreign buyers. It is a prominent 
banking and insurance center; the Union 
Central Life Insurance Company has erected 
here a building thirty-four stories high, one of 
the tallest buildings west of New York. 

The Lunken airport, in the eastern part of 
the city, comprises 700 acres, has a 3,8oo-foot 
runway, and is only five miles from the city 
postofnce. Watson airport, formerly Grisard, 
at Blue Ash, comprises 100 acres. 





History. When the site occupied by Cincin- 
nati was first visited by white men, it was 
thickly dotted with the ancient work of the 
Mound Builders. The first permanent settle- 
ment was made in 1788, by a party of pioneers 
who came down the Ohio River, and was called 
Losantiville, a name taken from the Latin and 
French, and meaning "City opposite the mouth 
of the Licking." In 1790, General Arthur 
Saint Clair assumed command of Fort Wash- 
ington, erected in the previous year. He 

IN 1787 

When Cincinnati was Fort Washington. 
changed the name of the village to Cincinnati, 
in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, an 
organization composed of former officers of the 
Revolutionary War, of which he was one (see 
place was chartered as a village, and it was 
incorporated as a city in 1819, when the 
population was 7,500. 

Several times the city has been visited by 
floods, the overflow of "1832, when the lower 
part of the city was submerged, being the most 
destructive. During the War of Secession, 
the city was a harbor for slaves seeking refuge 

in Canada. It was in Cincinnati that Harriet 
Beecher Stowe gathered material and wrote 
Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

Cincinnati adopted the city-manager plan of 
government in 1926. The city manager is 
selected by the council, and he receives a 
salary of $25,000 per year. W.P.B. 

Cincinnati, University of, the first municipally 
owned university to be founded in the United States. 
In 1858 Charles McMicken left a fund of $1,000,000 
for the founding of a city college in Cincinnati, but as 
the will was not held valid by the state of Louisiana, 
in which a part of the estate was located, the uni- 
versity was not established until 1870, when the 
legislature passed a special bill for its organization. 
The institution was opened for instruction in 1873, 
and it now occupies several handsome buildings in 
Burnet Woods Park, on a campus of forty-three acres. 
Except for small fees, the university admits students 
who reside in the city without payment of tuition. 
There are about 550 instructors, and more than 8,600 
students are enrolled. The institution is supported 
by the cily by public taxes, by the income from the 
original endowment, and by voluntary gifts. 

In several ways the city and the university are 
directly related. In 1912 a. Bureau of City Tests was 
established in the college of engineering, in connection 
with the engineer's office of the city Department of 
Public Service. The bureau makes all the tests of 
materials and supplies required by this and other city 
departments, and a technical chemist is employed to 
direct the work. A Municipal Reference Library, 
with quarters in the city hall, was organized in 1913, 
under the department of political science of the college 
of liberal arts. The library contains material relating 
to all phases of city government and municipal ac- 
tivities, and is open not only to the members of the 
city council and the administrative officers of the city, 
but to the student body and to the general public. 




Another valuable feature of the university adminis- 
tration is the cooperative system of education in the 
college of engineering and commerce, whereby stu- 
dents alternate their university studies with practice 
work in shops and factories. 

memorial society, organized by officers of the 
Revolutionary army, American and foreign 
allies, to perpetu- 
ate the remem- 
brance of the 
war and the mu- 
tual friendships 
"formed under 
pressure of com- 
mon danger." It 
was organized in 
1783, while the 
Continental army 
was at Fishkill, 
on the Hudson 
River. Like Cin- 
cinnatus (which 
see), they had 
left the plow to 
serve their coun- 
try and were re- 
turning to it 
when the need 
was over, so they 
selected the name 

in his honor. All Continental officers 
had served three years, or who had been 
honorably discharged, were accorded mem- 
bership, and also the male de- 
scendants of such officers. 

The society had thirteen 
branches, one in each of the 
original states. The first meet- 
ing was held at Philadelphia 


of membership through heredity opposed the 
principle of democracy upon which the re- 
public was organized. An interesting result 
of this feeling was the organization at New 
York, in 1789, of the Tammany Society as 
a body in which equality should govern, not 
right of birth. Continued opposition caused 
the decline of the Cincinnati, and for many 
years after 1830, it was practically out of ex- 
istence. A revival began in 1803, however, and 
by 1902 all of the thirteen old state societies 
were again active. See TAMMANY SOCIETY. 

CINCINNATUS, sin sin a' tus, Lucius 
QUINCTIUS, a virtuous, simple-mannered hero 
of the early days of the Roman republic. He 
was an unyielding patrician, and naturally was 
strongly opposed to all attempts at the equali- 
zation of patrician and plebeian. About 460 
B.C., so the story runs, when the consul Minu- 
cius was surrounded by the Aequians, the Sen- 
ate sent messengers to summon Cincinnatus to 
the dictatorship. Rich though he was, the 
messengers found him plowing his farm. At the 
call he hurried away, rescued the army, 
marched to Rome laden with spoils, and after 
sixteen days of dictatorship quietly returned 
to his plowing. At the age of eighty, he was 
again appointed dictator, to suppress the am- 
bitious plebeian Maelius. See CINCINNATI, 

Cincinnatus of the West. George Washington, like 
Cincinnatus, left comfort and home when his country 
called, and at the end of the war, during which he 
became one of the commanding figures of the world, 
returned modestly to the affairs of 
his Mount Vernon homestead. So 
Lord Byron called him the Cincin- 
natus of the HVv/, and the desig- 
nation caught the popular fancy 

CINDERELLA, sin dur el' ah, 


Stroke 'of midnfeht 1 " In v^t h by ^ f ?7 odm ther. At the prince's ball, from which she escaped on 
the stroke of nudmght, losing the wonderfu slipper. After tireless search the prince discovered that the 
slipper belonged to Cinderella, much to the dismay of her scheming sisters 

in May, 1784, with George Washington as 
president. There was much opposition to 
the society, as it was believed that the idea 

the beautiful, mistreated heroine of a fairy 
tale that has been the delight of children of 
almost every land. The story of the ragged 


little girl who was ridiculed by her proud 
stepmother and jealous sisters as she sat 
amidst the ashes and cinders in the 
chimney corner, and who through a fairy 
godmother finally married the prince of the 
realm because she was the only maiden in 
the land who could wear the wonderful glass 
slipper, is a children's tale of absorbing interest. 
Long before the Christian Era, a version of the 
story of Cinderella was known by the Egyptians, 
and they wrote it in their strange characters for 
their children to read; it was familiar also to 
the Greeks. It may be found among the 
German folklore tales of the sixteenth century, 
and in the delightful collections of fairy stories 
for which we are indebted to the Brothers 
Grimm. The central idea of the story has been 
made the basis of many modern plays because 
it touches a universal chord in the human 

The various English versions are adapta- 
tions of the narrative of Charles Perrault, a 
famous French writer of fairy tales. He called 
his story Cendrillon, and in it used the expres- 
sion pantoufie en vair, meaning a fur slipper. 
The early English translators mistook the term 
en vair for en vcrre (of glass), and so the glass 
slipper of Cinderella is really an erroneous 
feature of the story. However, it has be- 
come so vital a part of this loved tale that 
English readers will always believe that it was 
a glass slipper through which the "cinder-girl" 
became the bride of a prince. 

CINERARIA, sin e ra' ri ah, a genus of 
popular greenhouse herbs or small shrubs 
whose lower leaves have an ashy appearance; 
hence the name, from the Latin word for 
ashes. Although natives of South Africa, a 
number of species are cultivated throughout 
the world for garden purposes, and from these 
an almost endless variety of blossoms of many 
different colors have been produced. Purple, 
red, and purple and white are the prevailing 
colors; in early spring, the crowded sprays of 
dark-eyed asterlike flowers with velvety leaves 
are everywhere seen in park conservatories. 
They are easily grown from seed and make 
beautiful window-garden plants. B.M.H. 

Classification. Cinerarias belong to the family 
Composttae, along with alters, sunflowers, and thistles 

CINNABAR, sin' na bahr, the most impor- 
tant mercury ore. It is a very heavy mineral, 
composed of mercury and sulphur. Although 
usually found in a granular, bright-red earthy 
form, it is sometimes obtained in crystals, and 
is abundant in Spain, California, and China. 
Artificial cinnabar, formed by purifying a 
mixture of sulphur and mercury, is brighter in 
color than the true cinnabar, and is used for 
paint under the name vermilion. See MER- 


Chemical Formula. The formula for cinnabar is 
HgS; that is, a molecule contains one atom each of 
mercury and sulphur. 

CINNAMON, a delightfully fragrant spice, 
used in cookery and known since Biblical times. 
It is the inner bark of the under branches of a 
species of laurel, chiefly found in Ceylon, but 
growing also in Malabar and other tropical 
regions. The tree reaches a height of twenty 
or thirty feet, has oval leaves, pale-yellow 
flowers, and acorn-shaped fruit. Under culti- 
vation it is customary to dwarf the trees by 
cutting back to the buds. The Ceylonese bark 


Leaves, detail of flower, and fruit. 

their trees in April and November. In the proc- 
ess of drying, the bark turns to a soft light- 
brown color and curls up into rolls or quills. 
The smaller quills are placed in the larger ones 
for shipping. Tasters assort them as to quality, 
and they are made into bundles weighing about 
ninety pounds, ready for the market. 

An oil of cinnamon is prepared in Ceylon, 
but the oil of cassia is generally substituted 
for it. Indeed, because of the wide use of 
cinnamon in the countries where it is grown, 
the cassia bark is often substituted for cinna- 
mon, to which it has some resemblance (see 
CASSIA). The leaves, the fruit, and the root 
of the cinnamon plant all yield oil of consider- 
able value. That from the fruit, being highly 
fragrant and thick, was formerly made into 
candles for the sole use of the king of Cey- 
lon. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The cinnamon tree belongs to 
the family Lauraceae. Its botanical name is Cinna- 
momum leylanicum Cassia bark is C. cassia. 




CINQUBFOIL, singk' foil, also called FIVE 
FINGER, and sometimes known as FALSE 
STRAWBERRY, is one of the most troublesome 
of several related species of weeds. It is an 
introduced form, occurring native in Europe, 
but now found throughout Eastern North 
America, extending westward to Kansas. Its 
introduction seems to have accompanied clover- 
seed importation. The plant is not typically 
a "five finger," as there are three leaflets; it is a 
yellow-flowered annual, and is eradicated by 
cultivation. B M.D. 

Classification. The scientific name of the intro- 
duced cinquefoil is Potentilla montspelicnsis. It is a 
member of the family Rosaccac. 


CIPANGO, sih pang' go, an old name for 

CIRCASSIANS, sur kash' anz. The name 
applies particularly to the people of the Trans- 
caucasian Soviet Socialist Republic; they are 
called Tcherkesses by the Russians and Turks, 
but Adighes by themselves. As a people, 
they are remarkable for their warlike char- 
acter, but they possess simplicity of man- 
ner and beauty of form and feature. In these 
respects, they surpass all other tribes in Cau- 
casia. "Circassian belles" are often referred 
to when standards of beauty are discussed, 
and with reason, for this part of the world is 
famous for its handsome women. 

Although the Circassians are said to have 
fine mental qualities, they have no written 
language, but depend on their memories for 
transmitting from one generation to another 
their wisdom and knowledge and memories of 
warlike deeds expressed in verse. This was the 
custom of people in ancient times. They are 
for the most part a sturdy and upright race, 
their great fault being the sale of their daugh- 
ters to the harems of Turkey and Persia. In 
religion the upper classes are Mohammedans, 
but the lower classes practice a curious mix- 
ture of paganism and Christianity. 

CircassU, sur kash 1 ih ah, a name formerly given to 
the northwestern part of the Caucasus, lying between 
the mountains and the Black Sea. It now forms part 
of the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. (See 
RUSSIA). Although an old country, Circassia's chief 
historic interest lies in the struggle to free itself from 
Russian rule, which lasted from 1820, when, by the 
Peace of Adrianople, it was ceded to that country, 
until 1864, when its conquest by Russia was complete. 
After this the defeated people emigrated to Turkey 
in such great numbers that the land was almost 

CIRCE, sur' se, in Greek legend a beautiful 
sorceress, said to have been the daughter of 
Helios and the sea nymph Perse. For the mur- 
der of her husband, she had been banished to 
the island of Aeaea, on the coast of Italy. 
Thither she lured unfortunate travelers, and by 
means of drugs and enchantments changed 

them to animals. While Odysseus (Ulysses) 
and his companions were seeking their way 
home to Ithaca, after the fall of Troy, they 
came to the island of Circe, where all the 
companions fell under the spell and were 
changed to swine. Odysseus himself escaped 
by using the herb given him by Hermes, and 
he compelled Circe to restore his companions 
to human form. The best-known story of 
Circe is to be found in the Odyssey of Homer. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles. 
Helios Mythology Odyssey Ulysses 

CIRCLE. A circle is a curved line in a plane, 

all points of which are equally distant from a 

point within, called the center. 

Parts of a Circle. Circumference. The 

length of the curved line is called the circum- 
ference of the circle. 

Radius. The distance from the center to the 

circle is called the 


Diameter. A 

straight line pass- 
ing through the 

center of a circle 

and terminated 

at both ends by 

the circle is called 

a diameter, a term 

derived from 

a Greek word 

meaning measure 

through. The radius is one-half the diameter. 

Any diameter of a circle divides the circle into 

two equal parts. 

Arc. Any portion of the circle between two 
of its points is called an arc. 

Chord. A straight line joining two points of 
a circle and terminated by these points is called 
a chord. A diameter is the longest chord of a 

The curved line ab is an arc. The straight 
line cd is a chord. The straight line ef is a 
chord; it is the longest chord of the circle, 
being a diameter. 

Relation of Circumference to Diameter and 
Radius. Measure the circumference of a cir- 
cle; then measure its diameter; for example, 
the circumference and diameter of a cylindrical 
drinking glass; of a round dining table; a 
bicycle wheel or wagon wheel; a barrel head, 
and so on. By these measurements you will 
discover an interesting fact, namely, that there 
is always the same relation between the cir- 
cumference and the diameter of a circle. Your 
measurements must be carefully made to get 
this relation. You will see, very roughly at 
first, that the circumference is 3 and some frac- 
tion times as great as the diameter. With 
close work, you will find the relation to be 
about 3^. The fact has been proved that 




the circumference is 3.14159+ times as great 
as the diameter. The decimal has been car- 
ried out very many places, but for most prac- 

Compare the area of a (which is of the 
area bounded by the circle) with the area of the 
square in which it is. The eye tells you it is 

tical uses, 3.1416 is used. We state this fact in 
mathematics in this way : 

Circumference = j 141 6 X diameter 

c = i 1 4 1 6 X d 

Tn the last equation, we use the Greek letter 
IT (pi) to stand for the number 3 1416. We 
always find that mathematicians, when they 
have to use a certain number many times, 
find or invent some symbol for it, and so they 
have chosen the symbol TC to mean 3.1416, or 
the ratio of the circumference to the diam- 
eter of a circle. This relation is very generally 
expressed in terms of radius instead of diam- 
eter, and the desirable formula to remember is 

Circumference = 2 X ir X radius, 

using 2 X radius instead of diameter. It is 
shortened to this form by omitting the times 

Circumference = 2vr 

Many ancient peoples knew in a general 
way of this relation, but for centuries the 
Eastern peoples and the Greeks used it as 3. 
The Jews used the value as 3, without the 
added decimal, as indicated in the description 
of Solomon's Temple in / Kings, VH. Hiram, 
king of Tyre, it is related, made for the Tem- 
ple a circular basin, called a "molten sea," 
which was "10 cubits from the one brim to the 
other"; while a "line of 30 cubits did compass 
it round about." 

Area of Circle. Draw a circle; draw its 
horizontal diameter and its vertical diameter; 
draw a square on the radius, as in the figure 
shown in the next column. 

about | of it. Is it more or less than $ of it? 
It is a little more than I of the square. So we 
see that a+b+c+d, or the whole area, is a 
little more than 4>Q, or 3 and a fraction, 
times as great as the square of the radius. 
With the eye we cannot tell just what this frac- 
tion is, but it has been proved that the "area of a 
circle" (which means the area bounded by the 
circle) is 3.14150-!- times as large as the square 
built on the radius of the circle. It is put into 
a short form as follows : 

Area of a circle =* 3.14 i6Xradi us 1 

Area of circle = TT X r* 

Area of circle = Trr 2 

This can be seen very clearly by making your 
drawing on squared paper, thus: 





Here you may find, by actual count of the 
little squares, how many times as large the 
circle is as the square built on the radius. 

Problems, i. What is the circumference of a cy- 
lindrical iron pipe whose diameter is 10 inches? 

Solution. Circumference irr. 

Circumference in inches = 2X3 1416X5 = 31-41- 

2. If a bicycle wheel has a radius of 14 inches, how 
long is the circumference of the wheel? 

Solution. Circumference = 2irr. 

Circumference in inches = 2Xj. 1416X14 = 87. 0648 

3 What is the circumference of a stack of hay at 
the bottom if the radius is Q feet? 

4. What is the circumference of a circular pond 40 
feet in diameter? 

5 John and Harry set up a circular tent in their 
yard at the foot of a tree. They erected the center 
pole at a point six feet from the tree How many 

square feet of ground did the tent cover? How many 
yards around was the space enclosed by the tent? 
See illustration. 

Solution. The distance from the pole to the tree is 
the radius of a circle. 

Area of circle = 7rXr*. 

Number sq ft covered = 3. 1416X6*= nj 0976. 

The distance around the space enclosed by the tent 
is the circumference of the circle whose radius is 6 feet. 

Circumference = 2 X v X r . 

XT u r A A 

Number of yards around = 

*= 12 5664. 

6. Find the cost of clearing a circular skating pond 
300 feet in diameter, when the snow is 6 inches deep 

on the ice and it costs $.10 a cubic yard to clear it 

7. A cart-wheel, 3 feet in diameter, turns around at 
the rate of 40 miles an hour; how many revolutions 
does it make in i hour? j.w Y. 

BLOOD, subhead. 


CIRCUMSTANTIAL, sur kum stan' shal, 

CIRCUMVENTION, sur kum ven' shun, 

CIRCUS. "Circus day" is a never-to-be- 
forgotten event, especially to the boy or girl 
in the country. First, the billboards with their 
amazing pictures advertise the coming won- 
ders; and then, when at last the day arrives, 
early in the morning, before sunrise even, the 
howling of the animals tells the boy the "circus 
has come to town." So off he hurries to watch 
the absorbing task of unloading. Later in 
the day he hears the bands playing, and sees 
the parade. Still later, he goes to the big 
white tent, where he thrills at the daring deeds 
of the acrobats and bareback riders, or laughs at 
the antics of the clowns. 

Since the time of Phineas T. Barnum (which 
see), the American circus has been a popular 
form of amusement. Originally, it had but 
one ring and about six performers, but it now 
has two or three rings, and employs as many as 
3,000 people, including workmen. In early 
days, it traveled by teams, but now it owns 
its own railroad trains, excepting engines. 
In large cities, the performances are sometimes 
given in covered amphitheaters. 

The Roman Circus. The circus originated 
among the Romans, and first consisted merely 
of horse and chariot races; the name means 
ring, or circle, from the circuit made by the 
racers. Later, wrestling, athletic contests of 
all kinds, and other games were added, and 
large sums of money were spent to bring wild 
animals from different parts of the country to 
be killed in the arena, or center of the circus. 

A nearly oblong building without a roof 
formed the circus of Roman times. The seats 
were ranged on two sides, in tiers similar to the 
arrangement in the modern football stadium. 
Many were of marble, and all were built as 
permanent structures, as are the hippodromes 
of to-day. On the outside, the circus was sur- 
rounded with colonnades, galleries, shops, and 
public places, like the side shows and refresh- 
ment booths of the circus of to-day. 

There were eight or ten circuses at Rome, 
the largest of which was the Circus Maximus, 
1,875 feet long and 625 feet wide, capable of 
seating 260,000 spectators. An illustration 
appears on opposite page. 

CIRRHOSIS, sih ro f sis, a hardening of the 
liver, kidney, or other organs, due to an over- 
growth of fibrous tissue. It is a mild inflam- 




Circus M 


matory disorder \\hich results in decreasing 
the size of the organ through wasting of the 
cells. Cirrhosis of the kidney is known as 
chronic B right's disease (which see). In 
cirrhosis of the liver, that organ is small, hard, 
and knobbed in appearance. Dropsy of the 
abdomen is prominent in cirrhosis of the liver. 
See LIVER. W.A.E. 

CIRRUS, sih f rus, a form of cloud (which 


CITATION, .vj ta f shun. See PROBATE. 

CITHARA, silh' a rah. See ZITHER; LUTE. 



CITIES OF REFUGE, in the story of the 
Children of Israel, six out of forty-eight cities 
given to Canaan in the division of the tribe of 
Levi, \\hich were set apart as places of refuge 
for the "slayer that killed any person un- 
awares and unwittingly" (see Joshua, xx). 
Whoever fled to one of these cities was pro- 
tected temporarily from any avenger who 
might pursue him, and was permitted to plead 
his cause in the hall of judgment. If found 
not guilty of wilful murder, he could live in the 
city until the death of the high priest, when 
he was at liberty to return to his home. If 
adjudged guilty, however, he was returned for 
punishment to the place from which he had 
fled. These cities were Kedesh, Shechem, and 
Hebron, on the west side of the Jordan, and 

Bezcr, Ramoth-Gilead, and Golan, on the east. 
The temples and altars of the gods were 
sacred places of refuge for the ancient Greeks 
and Romans, and for a long period the Chris- 
tian churches provided a similar asylum. See 

CITIZEN, in the broadest sense, is a member 
of a political state, which, in return for alle- 
giance, guarantees its protection to persons 
and property, and ensures the enjoyment of 
certain rights and privileges. 

In theory, a government not only guaran- 
tees its citizens security at home, but ex- 
tends its protection to them while they are 
absent in foreign lands. The security which an 
alien enjoys in a foreign country indicates 
the strength of his home government and the 
prestige in which it is held by the other nations 
of the world. A person takes pride in his 
citizenship; thus Paul said, "I am a citizen of 
no mean country," a modest tribute to the 
honor of being a Roman. Because he was a 
Roman, he was once saved from death. 

A Citizen of the United States. According 
to the Constitution, "All persons born or 
naturalized in the United States, and subjects 
thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside." Women and 
boys and girls are citizens as well as men, 
and Indians who have adopted the dress and 
customs of civilization and have abandoned 
tribal relations are admitted to citizenship. 
This privilege, however, is denied Chinese, 
Japanese, Burmese, and Hawaiians. 



Before 1922, when an American woman mar- 
ried an alien, she forfeited her American citizen- 
ship. Under the Cable Act, of that year, if 
such a woman marries an alien who is him- 
self eligible in due course to become an Amer- 
ican citizen, she does not suffer the loss of 
her own citizenship by reason of such mar- 
riage, but she may choose in a formal manner 
to renounce it. Hereafter an alien woman 
will not automatically become an American 
citizen through marriage to a native-born or 
naturalized American, but must acquire citizen- 
ship, if she wishes, through compliance with 
the naturalization laws, modified in her 
case by omission of the otherwise required 
declaration of intention and by reduction of 
the period of residence from five years to one. 

A Citizen of Canada. Persons born in the 
Dominion are Canadian citizens and British 
subjects, and citizenship is likewise granted to 
a person born put of the realm whose father 
is a British subject either by birth or naturali- 
zation. A person naturalized in Canada is a 
British subject in every other portion of the 
British Empire, and vice versa. Before nat- 
uralization can be granted in Canada, the appli- 
cant must have resided in Canada for not less 
than one year immediately preceding the appli- 
cation, and must have resided either in Canada 
or in some other part of Britain's dominions for 
a period of four years before the application. 
Each of the provinces regulates by law the 
granting of the right to vote. 

Derivation and Application. The term citizen is 
derived from the Latin rt'vu, meaning citizen, from 
which comes also the word city. To the ancient 
Greeks and the Romans, however, citizen did not 
signify a resident of a town, but a member of a free, 
self-governing commonwealth, and it is used in the 
same sense to-day In monarchical nations, however, 
the relation of citizenship to the government is ex- 
pressed by the term subject, though the term is falling 
into disuse, and citizen is applied to a local resident. 

CAMPS. See ARMY (Armies of the World; 
United States). 

CITRANGE, sit' raynj. See BREEDING 
(Plant Breeding). 

CITRATES, sit' rates. See CITRIC ACID. 

CITRIC, sit' rik, ACID, an acid found in 
many common fruits, such as gooseberries and 
red currants, and especially abundant in the 
citrus fruits lemons, oranges, and limes from 
which it takes its name. It is generally pre- 
pared for commercial use from lemon juice. 
It can also be made from glucose (which is 
made from cornstarch) by a special kind of 
fermentation. When pure it is white and odor- 
less, with a pleasant, sour taste. In combina- 
tion with metals, it forms crystalline salts, 
known as citrates, which are used in medicine 
as cooling drinks. Effervescent citrates of mag- 

nesium, used as easily taken and pleasing 
laxatives, are mixtures which, when dissolved 
in water, produce magnesium citrate by chem- 
ical action. Carbonic-acid gas is formed as 
another product of such action, and it is the 
escaping bubbles of this gas which cause the 
effervescence, or "fizzing." Sometimes the term 
is applied erroneously to other effervescent, 
laxative medicines. Crude citric acid is used 
to prevent the formation of colors not wanted 
in calico-printing, as a substitute for lemon 
juice in making beverages, and in the con- 
fectionery trade. T.B.J. 

Chemical Formula. The formula for citric acid is 
C,H4(OH)(COOH) 8 . In this formula two radicals 
are represented, groups of atoms which do not alter 
their position in chemical reactions. OH is an hy- 
droxyl group, an atom of oxygen and one of hydrogen 
associated together as one atom; (CYXW)j indicates 
three carhoxyl groups, in which the associated atoms 
are carbon, oxygen, oxygen, and hydrogen The 
Cs//4 indicates that the molecules of citric acid con- 
tain, besides the radical*, three atoms of carbon and 
four of hydrogen. 

CITRON, a large, sour, lemonlike fruit, 
valued chiefly for its thick, tender rind. When 
preserved, it is used in cakes and candies; when 
fresh, it yields two perfume oils. The juice 
of the fruit is sometimes used with sugar, for 
a drink like lemonade, or to flavor various 
liquors. The citron tree, a native of India, 
has been a favorite in Europe since the days 
of the ancient Greeks, because of its handsome 
fruit and violet-colored blossom. In California 
and other warm parts of the United States, the 
plant is grown as an ornamental. It is very sen- 
sitive to frost. B M.D. 

Scientific Name. The citron belongs to the rue 
family, Rutaceae, and to the same genus as the orange 
and lemon (see CITRUS) Its botanical name is Citrus 
medica The name citron is also applied to a preserv- 
ing melon related to the watermelon 

CITRUS, a commercially important genus 
of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs, mostly spiny 
or thorny, including the orange, citron, lemon, 
lime, grapefruit, bergamot, and others. Citrus 
trees are natives of India and other warm parts 
of Asia, but most of them are now cultivated 
in other parts of the world, especially for their 
fruit. Citrus plants have rather long, pointed 
leaves or leaflets, united by a distinct joint 
to the leaflike stalk. They all bear pulpy fruits, 
with spongy rinds, and are valued as dessert, 
for preserves, or for cooling drinks. The leaves, 
the rind of the fruit, and the flowers all 
contain valuable volatile (easily evaporated) 
oils. See illustration, page 1437. B.M.D. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following descriptions of citrus fruits. 








CITY. If a child is called on to define a city, 
he will probably say that it consists of a lot of 
people living close to each other, whereas in 
the country people live farther apart; for the 
child does not, of himself, realize that it is the 
difference in government that makes the real 

The Development of a City. Occasionally, a 
city springs into existence almost full grown. 
Thus Gary, Ind., had few of the transition 
stages which mark the growth of most cities; 
its founders knew that it was to become a busy 
manufacturing town, and they made their plans 
to that end from the beginning. But in most 
cases, the process is more gradual, and some- 
thing like this takes place: 

In any district, certain roads are bound to 
be more traveled than others. In time, some 
enterprising mechanic sets up an automobile 
repair shop or a filling station (in earlier days 
it was quite likely to be a blacksmith shop) at 
the point where two of these busy roads cross, 
and his success is so evident that a general 
storekeeper soon follows his example. Then, 
perhaps, a doctor chooses that location for his 
office and home, or a carpenter settles there. 
Slowly the little community grows, each new 
business or residence attracting others, but 
still the people arc a part of the township, 
with no special needs, and no special public 

Finally, the settlement is large enough to 
feel the need of a school. Better streets and 
sidewalks are necessities, if there is to be any 
social life, and there must also be street lights, 
and some better way of obtaining water than 
from wells. When the inhabitants of the little 
community bring such matters before the town- 
ship authorities, they meet with instant rebuff: 
why should the people living two or more miles 
from this corner settlement let themselves be 
taxed to confer benefits on these favored few? 

In other words, if the settlement wants these 
improvements, it must pay for them. Under 
the laws in all states and provinces, such a 
community may be incorporated as a village. 
Then it may elect its own officers, raise its 
own funds, and establish its own local laws, pro- 
vided it does not overstep those of any higher 
authority. From this time on, the change is 
one of degree only the village becomes a city, 
and must have a new charter, but its purposes 
and methods are those of the old village on a 
larger scale. 

The number of people who may incorporate 
as a city varies in each state and province, but 
the minimum is usually 1,000, though some- 
times it is as high as siooo. Villages contain- 
ing the required number of inhabitants usually 
make the change because larger powers are 
granted by the state or province to borrow 
money for pavements, sewers, street lighting, 
and other public works, and also because the 
usual division of a city into wards is thought 
to give all portions of a community a fair 
share in the government. A third reason is 
that every community is eager to proclaim its 
growth. A village ordinarily becomes a city 
by adopting a city charter (which see). In most 
states and provinces, the legislatures have 
passed acts providing uniform requirements for 
the incorporation of cities, but in a few they 
must consider separately each application for a 
charter. It is noteworthy that the city or 
ward system is not favored by all, as is shown 
by the fact that Brookline, Mass., for example, 
though it has over 40,000 people, is still a 
village. On the other hand, Harrison, Mich., 
with SQQ people in 1920, is a city with three 

Officers. Under the usual form of city gov- 
ernment, the chief executive officer is the 
mayor. Other officers are a city clerk, treas- 
urer, and assessor, all elected. The city council, 

Photo: St. Clair 


From left to right: lemon, grapefruit, lime, orange. 




which is the legislative body, is usually com- 
posed of a single chamber," with one or two 
aldermen from each of the wards into which 
the city is divided. With the approval of the 
council, the mayor appoints the heads of 
various executive departments, including the 
chief of police, the fire marshal, the superin- 
tendent of public works, and the board of edu- 
cation. A system of city courts is operated 
by elected judges. Since the beginning of the 
twentieth century, several types of city govern- 
ment have been developed which somewhat 
resemble village government. Among these 
are the city manager plan and the commission 
form of government, both of which arc de- 
scribed in these volumes. 

[The accompanying outline considers the city in all 
its phases its geography, its government, and its 
history It may be necessary to make occasional 
changes to meet local conditions, but in the main it 
will answer all needs 1 

Fifty Largest Cities of the World. Even in 
ancient times, very large cities were numerous. 
Thebes, Memphis, Babylon, Nineveh, Car- 
thage, Athens, Rome all were great cities. 
Baghdad, Damascus, and Cairo were flourishing 
cities in the Middle Ages, and by 1500 there 
were in P,urope at least half a dozen cities each 
with a population of over 100,000. Then, as 
now, there was a tendency for people to con- 
gregate in the capitals. In the following 
table of the largest cities in the world to-day, 
twenty-seven, or two more than one-half, are 
state, provincial, or national capitals. 


Latest official figures or estimates 

i. London, 7,742,212 26. Melbourne, 012,130 

2 Now York, 0,017,500 27. Montreal, 907,500 

3. Berlin, 4,013,588 28. Canton, 000,000 

4 Chicago, 3,157,400 2Q Mexico City, 

5. Pans, 2,871,429 40 Constantinople, 

6. Buenos Aires, 88o,gg8 

2,741,007 31 Milan, 877,424 

7. Osaka, 2,114,804 32 Liverpool, 856,000 

8. Philadelphia, 2,064,200 33 Naples, 852,362 

0. Moscow, 2,018,286 34. Saint Louis, 848,100 

10. Tokyo, 1,005,567 35- Baltimore, 830,400 

11. Vienna, 1,865,780 36. Brussels, 801,656 

12. Leningrad, 1,611,102 37. Tien-tsin, 800,000 

13. Hankow, 1,583,900 38. Boston, 799,200 

14. Shanghai, 1,500,000 39. Madrid, 791,511 
15- Detroit, 1,378,9.00 40. Cairo, 790,939 

16. Budapest, 1,217,325 41. Manchester, 760,000 

17. Bombay, i, 175,504 42- Rome, 758,569 

1 8. Rio de Janeiro, 43. Bangkok, 750,000 

1.157,873 44. Barcelona, 745,711 

19. Calcutta, 1,132,246 45. Amsterdam, 718,046 

20. Peking, 1,100,000 46. Cologne, 698,064 

21. Glasgow, 1,052,200 47. Munich, 680,704 

22. Sydney, 1,039,390 48. Leipzig, 679,322 

23. Cleveland, 1,010,300 49. Pittsburgh, 673,800 

24. Hangchow, 1,000,000 50. Dresden, 618,684 

25. Warsaw, 931,176 

Los Angeles, Calif , belongs in this list, in position 
probably between 24 and 26, but so rapid has been its 

growth since 1920, when its population was 576,673, 
that the Census Bureau has not ventured an estimate. 

Fifty Largest Cities in the United States. 
In the United States, contrary to the general 
rule in Europe and other parts of the world, 
the largest cities are rarely capitals. In Europe 
the cities often became largest because they 
were capitals. In the United States, on the 
other hand, the state capitals are usually cen- 
trally located in the state, whereas the location 
of the largest cities is determined by advan- 
tages of position with regard to commerce and 
industry. In the following table one city, 
Washington, D. C., is the national capital and 
nine are state capitals. 

From government estimates or state census 

1. New York, 6,017,500 27 Denver, 294,200 

2. Chicago, 3,157,400 28 Providence, 286,300 

3 Philadelphia, 2,004,200 2g Oakland, 274,100 

4 Detroit, 1,378,900 30 Portland, Ore., 

5. Cleveland, 1,010,300 2-58,288 

6. Los Angeles (uncertain) 31 Atlanta, 255,100 

7. Saint Louis, 848,100 32 Saint Paul, 2 54,698 
8 Baltimore, 830,400 33 Omaha, 222,800 

0. Boston, 799,200 $4 Birmingham, 222,400 

10 Pittsburgh, 673,800 ^ San Antonio, 218,100 

11 San Francisco, 585,300 s(> Dallas, 217,800 

12 Buffalo, SSS^oo 37 Akron, 208,435 
M Washington, 552,000 ^8 Syracuse, 199,300 

14. Milwaukee, 544,200 30 Worcester, 107,000 

15. Newark, 47^,600 40 Richmond, 194,400 
16 Minneapolis, 455,900 41 Memphis, 190,200 

17. New Orleans, 420,^00 42 New Haven, 187,900 

18. Cincinnati, 413,700 4^ Dayton, 184,500 

19. Kansas City, ^91,000 44 Norfolk, 184,200 
20 Seattle, 38^,200 45 Hartford, 172,300 
21. Indianapolis, 382,100 46. Fort Worth, 170,600 

22 Louisville, 329,400 47 Grand Rapids, 

23 Rochester, 328,200 164,200 

24 Jersey City, 324,700 48 DCS Moines, 151,900 

25 Toledo, 313,200 49 Springfield, 149,800 

26 Columbus, 209,000 50 Scranton, 144,700 

The Largest Cities in Canada. The figures 
given in the following table of the largest 
Canadian cities are from the census of 1921, 
except as noted. There are sixty-two cities or 
towns each with over 8,000 inhabitants. It is 
interesting to note that eight of the first four- 
teen cities are capitals, and that Fredericton, 
N. B., is the only one of the nine provincial 
capitals which does not appear in the complete 
list. 'It is also a striking fact that the total 
population of these sixty-two Canadian cities 
does not equal that of the second city in the 
United States. 

When it is realized that until 1867 the Domin- 
ion of Canada was not organized, and that for 
a quarter of a century thereafter the great 
West was a wilderness, the growth of the cities 
is remarkable. There are towns of 100,000 
and more in the West that were small villages 
a comparatively few years ago. 




1. Montreal, 907,500* 

2. Toronto, 521,893 

3. Winnipeg, 191,356! 

4. Vancouver, 117,217 

5. Hamilton, 114,151 

6. Ottawa, 107,843 

7. Quebec, 95,103 

8 Calgary, 65,513! 

9 Edmonton, 65,163! 
London, 60,959 

T. Halifax, 58,372 
Saint John, 47,166 
Victoria, 38,727 
Windsor, 38,591 
Rcgina, 34,432 
Brantford, 29,440 
Nanaimo, 29,088 
Saskatoon, 25,739 
Veidun, 25,001 
Hull, 24,117 
Shcrbrooke, 23,515 
Sydney, 22,545 
Three Rivers, 22,367 
Kitchener, 21,763 
Kingston, 21,753 
Sault Sainte Marie, 


Fort William ,20,541 
Maisonneuve, 10,886 
Saint Catharines, 


Peterborough, 10,477 
Moose Jaw, 10,285 
Guelph, 18,128 
Westmount, 17,50* 


34- Moncton, 17,488 

35- Glace Bay, 17,0*07 
36. Stratford, 16,094 

37- Saint Thomas, 16,026 

38. Lachinc, 15,404 

39 Brandon, 15,397 

40. Port Arthur, 14,886 

41. Sarnia, 14,877 

42. New Westminster, 

^ M.49S 

43- Chatham, 13,250 

44- Gait, 13,216 

45. Saint Boniface, 


46. Charlottetown, 


47. Belleville, 12,206 

48 Owen Sound, 12,190 

49 Oshawa, 1 1,940 
50. Lethbrid^e, 11,097 

51 Saint Hyacmlhe, 


52 North Bay, 10,692 

53 Shawimgan Falls, 


>4 Levis, 10,470 

55. Brockville, 10,040 

56 Woodstock, 9,935 

57 Medicine Hat, 9,634 

58 Valleyfield, 9,215 

59 Joliettc, 9,113 

60 Orillia, 8,744 

61 Welland, 8,654 

62 Sudbury, 8,621 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

City Manager Commission Form of Government 

City Planning Common Council 

CITY MANAGER, an official employed by 
the governing body of a city to manage its 
business affairs. This is a recent modification 
of the commission plan of government (which 
see). Under the city -manager plan, there is a 
small elective commission, but this body does 
not itself exercise administrative powers. In- 
stead, the commission appoints, and discharges 
at its pleasure, a city manager. 

The city manager is held responsible for the 
management of the city's business, which he is 
expected to conduct as he would a private en- 
terprise, aiming to secure the best results with 
the least expenditure of public funds and the 
highest degree of efficiency. In most cases he 
has authority to employ and discharge helpers 
and minor officials. The city-manager plan has 
been found to be of great value, since it removes 
public service from politics, and frees the 
municipality from the evils attending the sys- 
tem of filling offices to pay political debts. 
More than 400 American cities have adopted 
the city-manager plan, the largest being Cleve- 
land, 6.; a few have abandoned it after trial. 
Several universities have added courses for 
training men to become city managers. See 


I. Map of City, Showing Principal 

Streets, Location of Principal 

Buildings, Waterways, etc. 

n. Description 

(1) Area and population 

(2) Locution 

(a) In township 

(b) In county 

(c) In state 

(cl) Directions from other cities 

(3) Surroundings 

(a) Suburbs 

(b) Beauty spots 

III. Government 

(1) Chief executive 

(a) Title 

(b) How chosen 

(c) Length of term 

(d) Duties 

(2) Other elective officers 

(a) Financial 

1 Treasurer 

2 Assessor 

3 Collector of taxes 

(b) Clerk 

(c) Fire 

(d) Police 

(e) Judicial 

(3) Appointive officers 

(a) Health 

(b) Education 

(c) Parks 

(d) Streets 

(e) Water supply 

FV. Education 

(1) Board of education 

(2) Superintendent of schools 
(?) Public schools and buildings- 

(4) Private institutions 
(a) Kinds 

(1)) Endowments 

V. Public Utilities 

(1) Rail and water communication 

(2) Street railways 

(3) Water supply 

(4) Lighting system, how owned 

(a) Electric light 

(b) (ias 

VI. Parks and Boulevards 

(1) Parks 

(a) Number 

(b) Area 

(c) How controlled 

(d) How supported 

(2) Boulevards 

(a) Extent 

(b) Special rules governing 

VII. Commerce and Industry 

(1) Banking strength 

(2) Manufactured articles 

(a) Kinds 

(b) Market 

(c) Annual value 

(d) Persons employed in manufactures 

(e) Wages paid annually 

VTII. Study of Charter 
IX. History 

(1) When settled 

(2) Date of organization as a village 

(3) Date of change to city government 

(4) Notable events 

(5) Persons more than locally known 




CITY PLANNING. The purpose of city 
planning is to provide for the business inter- 
ests, residences, parks, boulevards, and the 
means of transportation, and to do this in such 
a manner as will majke the city convenient, 
sanitary, and beautiful. Most cities have 
grown from small villages by successive addi- 
tions, and have not followed any plan of 
development which has taken all interests into 
consideration. It is not practicable to remedy 
much that has been done, but many large 
cities now have city-planning commissions, 
which have oversight of new works and can pre- 
vent a repetition of mistakes of the past. In 
some parts of Europe, city planning has re- 
ceived attention for many years. 

A complete plan for the city of Washington 
was made by the French architect, L'Enfant, 
but it has not been strictly followed until re- 
cently. The national commission appointed to 
take charge of the beautifying of that city was 
headed by Daniel Hudson Burnham (which 
see), who collaborated with McKim, Olmsted, 
and Saint Gaudens. Canberra, the new capital 
of the Commonwealth of Australia, is being 
built after a complete plan furnished by Walter 
B. Griffin, an American. Tokyo sought the 
advice of American and European experts on 
city planning before beginning to rebuild after 
the earthquake in 1923. 

Zoning System. Not until a few years ago 
was there denial of the old doctrine that a man 
may do as he pleases with his own property, 
regardless of the wishes of his neighbors. This 
idea has controlled the development of cities. 
The owner of a vacant lot adjoining fine homes 
might erect on it a public garage or a machine 
shop, thus forcing an objectionable business 
enterprise into the midst of residential calm. 
Constant encroachment of this kind at length 
forced people to defend their rights. Aggrieved 
home-owners, on appeal to the law, have been 
protected, and objectionable enterprises in 
residential districts have been classed as 
nuisances to be abated. Thus began the move- 
ment for what is known as the zoning system 
for growing cities. 

No longer is unrestricted license the rule in 
building in any section of large cities. Under 
zoning laws, a city is divided into districts, each 
district being set aside for one particular line 
of development. Certain sections are desig- 
nated as purely single-residence areas; others 
quite as desirable are allotted to apartment 
houses, without, however, excluding individual 
homes; office buildings are appropriately 
placed; factory sections are located, and no 
factory may encroach upon residence zones. 
Billboards may be confined to areas where their 
presence will not mar landscape effects. The 
zoning plan has extended in over sixty cities 
to include control of the erection of buildings, 
to determining of what material they shall be 

constructed in certain sections, and in business 
zones to declaring what their maximum heights 
shall be, thus assuring the proper amount of 
light, air, and sunshine to the neighborhood. 
Zoning illustrates the developing social 
sense of a community. It also emphasizes the 
belief that there should no longer be unre- 
strained individualism, but that the interests of 
the whole body of people should be regarded 
as paramount to the rights of its individual 

[This new idea of controlling municipal growth in 
America originated in New York in IQTI. Over 500 
cities now have zoning ordinances The United 
States Department of Commerce has prepared a 
Standard Zoning Act, drawn by its Advisory Com- 
mittee on Zoning, which is so comprehensive that it 
has become the pattern for local acts in all parts of 
the country.] 

Garden Cities. The unprecedented growth 
of cities to include over half the population of 
the United States is the outstanding result of 
the nation's industrial development. It is 
proper to inquire whether this city growth has 
not cost more than would have been the case 
had it been properly directed. 

When cities were small, the cottage homes 
had a generous allotment of land. Privacy, 
quietness, and contentment were everywhere 
the rule; slums were unknown, and the open 
country, with its wild flowers and tempting 
vistas, was only a few blocks away. People 
knew and enjoyed their neighbors; they were 
living a sane and happy life. 

Then came a great increase in population, 
and the city spread over the country, swallow- 
ing up whole villages. The pretty cottages, 
with their ample grounds, have been replaced 
by houses and apartment buildings, erected 
so close together that all privacy and gardens 
have well nigh vanished. 

The short but pleasant walk to the office or 
workshop has been replaced by a tedious 
street-car ride, during which, perchance, one 
hangs to a strap and is jostled by an unfeeling 
crowd of citizens just as unfortunate. These 
are the conditions in most modern cities. 

Then there is the traffic problem of fast- 
growing communities, a problem that increases 
as the square of population, so that when a 
city has twice the population, the traffic will be 
four times as great as now. It can easily be 
seen that the great city no longer furnishes the 
best conditions for a safe and happy life, nor 
does the future give promise for betterment. 
Instead of boasting of a city's enormous growth, 
the thoughtful man will be filled with chagrin 
and dismay. 

A Proposed Remedy. There is but one real 
remedy; that is, the decentralization of industry 
and population, all other suggested remedies 
being simply palliatives which only postpone the 
real remedy. What is needed is the moving of 




factories from the great cities to the small 
towns and villages in country districts, or 
better still, the founding of a garden city. 

In such a new locality, industry will secure 
abundant cheap lands for both 'present and 
future needs, and more important still, the 
improved living conditions will give a more 
stable and contented labor supply. Employees 
will gain lower rents, better houses, less sick- 
ness, and more hours for leisure and recreation. 
Thus the entire community gains. 

The English Garden City. The finest ex- 
ample of a garden city, now twenty-four years 
old, is at Letchworth, England. The English 
define a garden city as follows: "A self-con- 
tained town, industrial, commercial, agri- 
cultural, and residential, planned from the 
beginning as a whole and occupying land 
sufficient to provide garden-surrounded homes 
for from 35,000 to 50,000 people, as well as a 
wide belt of open fields." It combines the ad- 
vantages of city and country, and ensures the 
permanency of both. 

The garden city aims at the following ac- 

(1) The establishment of the principle of business 
ad ministration in the organization and management 
of a well-nigh ideal community 

(2) The making of a cooperative enterprise the 
controlling factor in the business success of home and 
community building 

(3) The elimination of parasitic enterprise from 
the business of home and community building 

(4) The development of a scheme of community 
planning that will do away with the evils of intensive 

(5) In short, the building of a town full of the 
romance of modern progress in the art of living 

These results are accomplished by means 
of the following steps: 

(i) A cooperative stock company is organized, 
and 4,000 to 6,000 acres of land is purchased 
at its agricultural value; (2) expert town 
planners and architects then design and con- 
struct a complete city, providing homes for 
all classes of people; (3) provisions are adopted 
which will prevent overcrowding the land 
with houses, and the houses with people; 

(4) factory districts are allocated with reference 
to the health and convenience of the people, 
as well as to sidetrack facilities for factories; 

(5) a belt of agricultural land is permanently 
reserved in the out districts, to be intensively 
cultivated in the form of allotment gardens; 

(6) dividends on capital are limited to 5 or 6 
per cent, and the expenses of the town are 
chiefly met from the revenue of the land and 
house rents, both, from an American stand- 
point, being surprisingly low. 

The company in the first place maintains the 
full control of the development of the town 
and adopts a system of land tenure which 
ensures that all increase in the value of the 
land shall benefit those who create it. That 

the unearned increment in real-estate values 
of a growing community should go to those 
who create it is not a doctrine calculated to 
please land subdividers and land speculators, 
but that its application in a "garden city" like 
Letchworth has resulted in cheap rents and 
exceptionally low local taxes to all its 20,000 
citizens, admits of no doubt. 

But a true garden city like Letchworth is 
not simply an ideal place of residence; it is 
also fast becoming an ideal industrial city, 
with over fifty firms, many of which have 
removed from some large city, like London. 

It is not claimed that all "of the features of 
the English garden cities can be incorporated 
in an American garden city, for American 
customs and laws regarding land tenure, home 
ownership, etc., will require some changes 
to make them fit American conditions. That 
many of the desirable features of English 
garden cities can be used in new industrial 
towns admits of no doubt, and if so incor- 
porated, it is very clear that such towns would 
greatly accelerate the decentralization of in- 
dustry, so much needed to improve the con- 
ditions of large cities. L.S.S. 

CITY OF THE STRAITS, a popular name 
applied to Detroit, Mich, (which see). 

CITY STATES, those states in which po- 
litical life and political control are centered in a 
single city, which has all the powers of a self- 
governing nation, and exercises supreme 
authority over such territories as it may con- 
trol. The city state had its fullest development 
in ancient times, the most conspicuous ex- 
amples being Athens and Rome. The Athenian 
state consisted of Athens proper, and also 
the various outlying villages of the Attic 
territory; the free inhabitants of this territory 
owed allegiance not to Attica but to the city of 
Athens, and were, properly speaking, Athenian 
citizens. The ancient city state was, in terri- 
tory, identical with a modern city; in political 
rights, it was identical with a modern nation. 

In the Middle Ages, the Italian cities of 
Milan, Florence, Genoa, Venice, and Naples 
rose to power as independent states; the free 
cities of Germany, Hamburg, Bremen, and 
Ltibeck are present-day examples of the city 
state in a modified form. See GREECE (His- 
tory); ITALY (History: Period of City States). 

CIVET, siv' et, a beautiful and valuable ani- 
mal of the warmest regions of the Old World, 
chiefly Africa and the Malayan Islands. About 
two or three feet long and ten inches high, it 
is more slender than a raccoon, and has a long 
tail. The fur, gray above and white below, is 
tinged with yellow and marked by dusky spots 
in rows. Civets live in holes, like foxes, and 
eat birds and other small animals. They are 
also fond of crocodile eggs, and are considered 
valuable along the Nile because they prevent 
the too rapid increase of the crocodile family. 




Most of all, however, civets are valued for a 
fatty substance with a musky odor, which is 
taken from pouches connected with the genital 
organs, and used for making perfumes. Only 
a few drops are taken each week from one 
animal. London imports thousands of ounces 
each year. 

The American civet cat, so called, is not a 
true civet. With the 
mongooses (see MON- 
GOOSE), the civets form 
a distinct family among 
the numerous carnivo- 
rous animals. M.J.H. 

Scientific Name. Civets 
const it ut (i a genus of the 
family V ivcrridac The 
common civet of Africa is 
Vivcrra civetla 

ization of prominent employers, labor leaders, 
and public men, formed in IQOI for the purpose 
of settling and preventing labor disputes and 
strikes. The association grew rapidly and now 
includes nine departments, the most important 
of which is probably that for preventing and set- 
tling strikes; others wherein good work has been 
done are the welfare department, the woman's 
department, the social-insurance department, 
and that for preventing accirients to employees 
and securing compensation for those \\ho are 

nit. CIVKT 

injured. Each department is in charge of an 
executive committee whose members represent 
the public, the employees, and the employer. 
Headquarters are maintained in New York. 
CIVIL DEATH. According to law, a person 
may be alive and enjoying good health, and 
still, under certain conditions, be dead to all 
his civil rights. In 
some states, as New 
York, this is true of one 
sentenced to the state 
prison for life; all his 
civil rights are taken 
from him, and to the 
world he is as dead. In 
all states, absence for a 
specified time without 
any knowledge of the 
whereabouts of the in- 
dividual renders him legally dead to his civil 
rights; this period in most states is seven years. 
Supposing A, living in Wisconsin, should 
leave his home and family and go to Alaska. 
If at the end of seven years no word has been 
received from him, the" law assumes him to be 
dead; his estate can be settled by probate, 
provided the family consents, and his wife 
may legally marry again Should he after- 
ward return, he could not compel the court 
to restore his estate or family; these are legally 
forfeited, beyond all redress. 


GOVERNMENT, in the widest 
sense, is the administration of the public af- 
fairs of a country, a state, or a smaller political 
unit. Civil government indicates "a state of 
society reduced to order and regular govern- 
ment," as distinguished from a barbarous or 
savage state. The simplest definition of the 
term is citizen government, for civil is from 
civis, meaning citizen. 

Principles of Civil Government. Although 
there is great variety in the principles and 
methods of government in different countries, 
there is a general similarity in the organiza- 
tion of the central, or national, government. 
The great departments of the government 
state, or foreign affairs; treasury, or finance; 
postoffice, etc. are under the direction of Cab- 
inet members who are either the chief ad- 
visers of the executive, as in the United States, 
Dr are themselves the real executives, as in 

Canada and Great Britain In the latter 
countries, the Cover nor -General and the head 
of the royal house are the executive heads, but 
their authority has been greatly lessened 
during the years that democracy has been 
gaining strength. 

In local and internal affairs, the government 
organizations are as varied as the political 
ideals of the nations. It is generally true that 
in those countries in which feudalism left its 
strongest marks, the government is most highly 
centralized, whereas in countries which have 
partly emancipated themselves from feudal 
tradition, decentralization is noticeable. No 
modern civilized state, however, is either wholly 
centralized or wholly decentralized. Central- 
ized government, according to the popular 
view, is most advantageous when it deals with 
national affairs Decentralized control in 
international relations, or in the army or 




navy, for example, would be disastrous. It 
would seem absurd to-day if each of the states 
of the American Union or the Canadian prov- 
inces had independent diplomatic relations 
with foreign countries. On the other hand, 
decentralization is helpful in dealing with 
local affairs. It makes the government quickly 
responsive to public opinion, whereas a central- 
ized government tends to disregard criticism 
and to become mechanical in its attention to 

Civics, the Study of Civil Government. The 
study of civil government, or of civics, as it 
is now generally called, is one of the modern 
branches of school instruction. As early as 
1860, an attempt was made to introduce the 
subject in American schools, but at that time 
it was thought that a knowledge of the frame- 
work of government, as outlined in the Consti- 
tution, was the only thing needed. To-day 
the study of civics includes not merely the 
machinery of government, but an investigation 
of its actual workings, particularly as they 
affect the individual citizen. The duties of a 
citizen toward the government are as much a 
part of civics as the duties of the government 
toward the individual. Civics is still taught 
to a considerable extent in connection with 
history, but in addition to its historical side, 
teachers now emphasize the practical, present- 
day value of this subject. The fundamental 
purpose, after all, is to make better citizens a 
result which can be hastened by teaching chil- 
dren both the theory and the operation of 

Related Subjects. The* numerous articles on civil gov- 
ernment which these volumes contain arc here listed For 
ease of reference they arc classified 


Agriculture (Department 







Charge" d'Affaires 

Civil Service 

Commerce, Depart- 
ment of 

C onsul 




Dead-Letter Office 



Divine Right of Kings 


Education (Bureau of 

Electoral College 


Exchequer, Chancellor 
of the 



Governor- General 



Interior, Department 
of the 





Labor, Department of 





Ministers, Foreign 


Navy, Department of 



Postoffice Department 
President of the United 


Privy Council 
Royal Canadian 

Mounted Police 
Secret Service 

State, Department of 

Supremacy, Royal 


Burgesses, House of 
Civil Law 
Committee of the 


Common Council 
Congressional Record 
Congress of the United 

Initiative and Referendum 

Claims, Court of 


War, Department of 
Weather Bureau 



Lobby and Lobbying 

Local Option 


Pure- Food Laws 



Senate of the United 


Short Ballot 

Justice, Department of 
Justice of the Peace 
Juvenile Court 
Morals Court 

Supreme Court of the 
United States 




City Manager 

City Planning 

Commission Form of 


. Fire Department 

Municipal Government 
Municipal Ownership 
Poll Tax 
Town Meeting 




Australian Ballot 





Civil List 



Constitution of the 
United States 

Customs Duties 


Electoral Commission 




Forests and Forestry 

Franking Privilege 

Free Trade 



Income Tax 

Inheritance and Inheri- 
tance Tax 

Internal Revenue 

Lands, Public 


through civil processes, such as failure to pay 
alimony, or to obey the mandates of a court. 

CIVILITY, a condition of society which 
recognizes relations and duties of citizenship. 


National Debt 




Primary Election 

Privy Seal 


Recall, The 



Revenue Cutter 


Single Tax 


Squatter Sovereignty 






Tax and Taxes 




Voting Machine 

Woman Suffrage 




In the twentieth century 

r IVILIZATiqN, siv ih li za' shun. The 
development of civilization is one of the most 
interesting of the world's stories. It is one 
in which everybody has a part, and the sooner 
each one learns to play his part well, the sooner 
each will enjoy the fruits of a perfect civiliza- 
tion. The story is a long one. It has been in 
the making upwards of 100,000 years, yet 
Emerson tells us that we are only "in the cock- 
crowing and the morning-star.*' It is divided 
into three parts, savagery, barbarism, and civi- 
lization, and each of these parts is likewise in 
three parts, known as lower, middle, and higher 
savagery, barbarism, and civilization. 

The best thinkers and the best workers of 
savagery paved the way to barbarism; and the 
best thinkers and the best workers of barba- 
rism paved the way to civilization. And if 
we are to have a better civilization, we must 
have boys and girls and men and women who 
are willing and able to be good thinkers and 
good workers. 

Lower Savagery. Man in lower savagery 
was not aware of doing anything for people 
who were to live after him. In fact, it was all 
he could do to supply the needs of the day. 
He was without tools, without weapons, with- 
out fire, without the experience of working with 
others, and almost entirely dependent upon his 
own efforts. In many respects, Nature was 
kind to him. She placed him in a mild climate 
and in a region surrounded with wild plant 
foods. But there was danger on every hand, 
and he was filled with fear. The saber-toothed 
cat, the fiercest beast of prey ever known, 
made his home in the neighboring caves; cave 
bears, tigers, wolves, and hyenas lurked in the 
thickets; hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses wal- 
lowed in the marshes and splashed in the rivers 
and lakes; wild cattle, horses, bison, and other 
grass-eating animals fed on the hillsides and 
on the grassy plains. 

The safest place of refuge for man was in the 
branches of the tall trees. He was not able 
to cope with the wild beasts. Most of the ani- 
mals were stronger than he and were specially 
fitted for the fierce struggle for existence; man 
alone in the animal kingdom was not provided 
with adequate means of attacking the wild 

beasts or protecting himself from their attacks. 
He was not like the tiger, that could tear and 
rend with its sharp teeth; he was not like the 
rhinoceros, that could trample one under its 
feet; nor was he like the wild horse, that could 
strike hard blows with its hoofs. It would thus 
seem that man was not intended for fighting, 
but for work of a different kind, and we find 
that even the lowest savage was truly fitted for 
a different kind of work. In certain respects he 
was superior to any of the wild beasts. No 
wild beast was able to think, as man could 
think; no beast could do as many things as 
man could do; no wild animal gave its young 
training and care for so long a time as the 
savage did. Man, in lowest savagery, thus 
stands out from the brute world on account of 
the fact that he is a "thinking animal" who 
educates his young for a long period. Nature 
soon gives the young animal skill of its kind, 
but the young child needs training as well as 
protection for several years. 

Had the lowest savage known enough, he 
might have established civilization through 
the exercise of the characteristics which dis- 
tinguish him as man and separate him from 
the beasts. But he did not know enough to 
do it. The story of civilization is the story 
of how he learned to do it. The earliest chap- 
ters tell how he used intelligence at first in 
fighting the wild beasts and in taking what 
he needed without thought of giving anything 
in return. He was destructive because he was 
ignorant. It is no wonder that he remained in 
savagery tens of thousands of years. He did 
make some progress, however, and we all owe 
him a debt of gratitude, for it was man of 
lowest savagery who first conquered fire. 

Before the conquest of fire, man undoubtedly 
saw many forest fires, which may have been 
kindled by lightning. It was a brave man 
who first dared venture near the fire-monster. 
And undoubtedly it was the desire to gain the 
good will of the fire-monster that led to the 
practice of "feeding the fire" by piling sticks 
upon it. At any rate, we know that the savage 
worshiped the fire, just as he worshiped the 
powerful and much-dreaded beasts of prey 
that were a constant menace to him. 





Man soon found out thai fire was an in- 
valuabfer ally. When he had fire at the foot 
of a tree, wild animals kept away from the 
spot. He was thus able to come down from 
the branches and make his home at the foot 
of a tree. Other tree-dwellers, seeing and hear- 
ing something about it, were curious, and one 
by one they came to the spot, and they soon 
formed a clan. The fire needed attention, so 
quite naturally the women with little children 
stayed near the fire, while the men went farther 
away in their search for food. When these 
men returned from an exciting hunt, they 
were eager to tell the women about it. Not 
having a well-developed language, they gath- 
ered around the fire and acted out the story 
of the hunt, and thus invented the dance, which 
embodied music and poetry. 

Little by little, it was found that fire could 
be used in hunting, in making weapons, and in 
cooking. Each of these discoveries was the 
result of thinking; each made the struggle for 
existence a little easier than it had been before. 
The conquest of fire thus marks the entrance 
of man from lower to middle savagery. 

Middle Savagery. The story of middle sav- 
agery is the story of how man, armed with fire, 
took possession of the caves; how, thus pro- 
tected, he had more leisure and was able to 
make better weapons; how people learned to 
work together; how they gained courage 

to meet the wild beasts in open combat; and 
how, when they learned to cook fish, they be- 
came free to wander up and down the streams 
throughout the greater part of the world. This 
age has been called the rough stone age, be- 
cause of its rough stone weapons. Among these 
the stone ax and the spearhead are the most 
characteristic forms. 

Higher Savagery. In lower savagery, man 
was afraid of wild animals; in middle savagery 
he gained courage to meet them in open com- 
bat; in higher savagery, his courage grew and 
he invented weapons he could hurl through the 
air faster than the swiftest animal could run. 
It was then that the animals became afraid of 
man. At first, weapons were thrown from the 
hand. Then a throwing stick was invented, 
and finally there appeared that epoch-making 
invention, the bow and arrow. 

It was during this period that tools were 
made, as distinct from weapons. Among these 
were knives, files, saws, and needles. The in- 
vention of tools made it possible to use un- 
shaped material such as bone, horn, and ivory 
in the manufacture of weapons. Many such 
weapons, with beautifully carved handles, were 
made by the reindeer hunters of Western 
Europe during the Glacial Epoch (which see). 

During higher savagery, man had some ani- 
mal pets, but no animal except the dog was 
really domesticated. The dog proved to be 





a great aid to man, not merely in hunting, but 
in the domestication of the grass-eating animals 
in a later time. 

Lower Barbarism. The invention of pottery, 
which gave man permanent cooking utensils 
that could withstand the heat, was the dividing 
line between savagery and lower barbarism. 
Previous to this, cooking was a tedious process, 
and consequently much food was eaten in a 
raw or partially cooked state. But with per- 
manent cooking utensils that could be carried 
from place to place, the custom of serving 
well-cooked foods became established; and 
man, being better fed, was not so irritable as 
he was in savagery, when he was likely to 
gorge in times of plenty and go hungry in 
times of famine. 

The domestication of animals and the culti- 
vation of plants mark the greatest change in 
man as he passed from savagery to barbarism. 
The savage, we have seen, was content to take 
Nature's gifts, with no thought of giving any- 
thing in return. Such destructive methods 
resulted in exhausting the hunting grounds; 
and so gradually the women learned to sow 
seeds and make little gardens and to raise the 
young animals brought home from the hunt. 
They began to learn to protect the plants in 
return for their fruits; they found that the 
care they gave to their animal pets was repaid 
in times of famine by milk or meat. 

Middle Barbarism. In this period we find a 
more extended practice of agriculture, carried 
on not merely by the women, but by men who 
were captured in warfare. In many places it 
was found that the grass-eating animals, when 
protected from enemies, multiplied very rap- 
idly; so men as well as women took up the 
work of domesticating animals, and they soon 
had large flocks and herds. Man thus learned 
to be more sympathetic toward the grass-eating 
animals and toward the people of his clan, but 
he still regarded strangers as enemies, and 
enjoyed nothing better than making a raid on 
neighboring tribes and driving away their 

It was during this period that animals were 
first used for carrying burdens and also as draft 
animals; and as life became more settled, bel- 
ter dwellings were erected, adobe brick coming 
into use at this time (see ADOBE). 

Higher Barbarism. The discovery of how 
to smelt iron ore and fashion it into tools and 
weapons is the great discovery which charac- 
terizes the period of higher barbarism. The 
use of iron made it possible for people to have 
better tools and weapons and to progress at a 
far more rapid rate than before. Forests could 
be cleared with the iron ax, and many forests 
were soon transformed into arable land and 
meadows. With the division of labor and de- 
velopment of trade, cities grew up. Here the 





The genius of invention rivals the powers of Aladdin's lamp. 

ruling classes lived, protected by stockades or 
walls, while slaves and serfs lived outside and 
cultivated the land. The Homeric Greeks, the 
early Italian tribes, the Germans of the time 
of Tacitus, and the Norsemen of the Viking 
age are examples of higher barbarian culture. 
Lower Civilization. The discoveries and in- 
ventions of savagery and barbarism were worth 
so much to succeeding ages that the wise men 
and women who made these discoveries were 
deified as gods. It was not easy to hand down 
exact knowledge in the early ages. Stories 
were likely to be changed, and the picture writ- 
ing of the savage and the hieroglyphics of the 
barbarian were clumsy ways of preserving rec- 
ords. With the invention of the alphabet, 
knowledge was more easily preserved. This 
invention has been made the dividing line 
between barbarism and civilization. Lower 
civilization covers a period extending from 
about 4000 to 5000 B.C. to the fifteenth century 
A.D. Ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Phoenicia, 
Carthage, Greece, and Rome are examples of 
this stage of culture. In these countries, labor 
was performed by slaves. The ruling classes 
looked down upon the slaves and upon slave 
labor. Progress was made by the upper classes 
in the arts and sciences, but no one applied 
this knowledge to the work of slaves, most of 
whom were captives of war. 

Ancient civilizations were in constant fear 
either of uprisings on the part of the slaves 
and serfs or of being overrun by barbarian 
hordes. The invention of gunpowder wrought 
such a change in warfare that it marks the 
advance to middle civilization. The use of 
gunpowder enabled civilized peoples to protect 
themselves from barbarian hordes from with- 
out; and with the freeing of the slaves, it en- 
abled the masses of the people to protect them- 
selves from the oppression of the ruling classes, 
who lived in fortified castles or behind city 

Middle Civilization. While the use of gun- 
powder was "leveling down" the power of the 
mighty, the invention of printing was "leveling 
up" the intelligence of the people. The dense 
ignorance which had characterized the masses 
of the people began to disappear. Printing 
was a tremendous power in removing ignorance 
and prejudice. It began to draw people to- 
gether and to arouse a desire for knowledge 
of other peoples and other lands. The mari- 
ner's compass in the hands of Columbus, who 
had learned from the Greeks that the earth 
is a sphere, made it possible for that brave 
man to locate the New World. A little later 
the bold Copernicus (which see) opened up a 
new world of knowledge. For the Copernican 
theory gave a satisfactory explanation of much 




that had hitherto been unknown. "The cause 
of day and night, of climate, seasons, of the 
earth's velocity, weight, size, and shape, of 
latitude, longitude, the eclipses, the moon's 
phases, the exact length of the solar year, 
together with those wonderfully minute calcu- 
lations tabulated in our almanacs and text- 
books on astronomy" these were no longer 

Middle civilization began in the fifteenth 
century, and was brought to a close during the 
last years of the eighteenth by the application 
of steam power and machinery to the manu- 
facture of cotton cloth. Fire told its secret to 
Watt, and Watt gave the world the steam 
engine. See WATT, JAMES. 

Higher Civilization. Modern civilization has 
witnessed the triumph of mind over matter. 
Material obstacles which have so long sepa- 
rated men have been overcome The task of 
this age is to remove the mental qualities 
which separate men. Fear, envy, jealousy, 
greed, and hate are among the "wild beasts" of 
to-day. And just as the savage set himself 
to the task of waging warfare upon the saber- 
toothed cat and other dangerous beasts, so 
many people to-day are setting themselves to 
the task of destroying the mental "beasts of 
prey." This is a warfare in which every girl 
and boy may take part; for every girl and 

every boy can refuse to entertain these "wild 
beasts," and thus let them die of starvation. 
In this way, each of us can have a good part 
in the story of civilization. K.E.D. 

CIVIL LAW, that code of law which governs 
man in his relations with his fellow man in 
civil life. The term is derived from the Latin 
civis, which means citizen, and does not deal 
with crime; the latter lies wholly within the 
province of criminal law. When the breaking of 
a law affects only the persons directly con- 
cerned, civil laws are invoked; when a crime 
menaces the right to life and protection, it is 
prosecuted under the criminal code. To 
illustrate: Should A buy a horse of B for $150 
and later discover the horse to be blind, when 
B had represented him as "sound," A might 
sue B for damages under the civil law; but 
should C break into A's barn and steal the 
horse, A would have him prosecuted under 
criminal law. 

The first application of the term was to the 
code of laws compiled by the Roman Emperor 
Justinian, in A.D. 530. This became the foun- 
dation of the laws of many of the later nations 
of Europe. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Common Law Law 

Equity Justinian 


business of the United States 
government, not including the 
army and navy, is of such 
vast proportions that it requires over half a 
million employees of both sexes to conduct it. 
The government is by far the largest employer 
in the country. This extensive business em- 
braces a great variety of occupations, some 
of which require only laborers, while others at 
the opposite end of the scale call for highly 
trained experts. This branch of service forms 
the civil service of the United States. The term 
means citizen service, as distinguished from the 
personnel of the army and navy. 

Formerly, all these positions were rilled by 
appointment at will by the President or his 
high subordinate officers, often at the solici- 
tation of members of Congress. One of the 

chief qualifications of an ap- 
plicant for any position was 
his ability to influence votes 
for the party in power, but 
more especially for candidates for Senator or 
Representative in Congress from his district 
or state. In other words, government positions 
were granted as rewards for partisan political 
activity, and the fitness of the applicant to per- 
form his required duties was too frequently a 
minor consideration. 

Civil Service Law. Under this system of 
political appointments, the business of the 
government became so demoralized that 
Congress was compelled to institute reforms, 
and in 1883 the Civil Service Act was passed. 
The purpose of the act, as declared in its 
title, is "to regulate and improve the Civil 
Service of the United States." 


Civil Service Commission. The law provided 
for the appointment by the President of three 
commissioners, a chief examiner, a secretary, 
and such other officers and employees as might 
be necessary. It was the duty of the com- 
missioners to aid the President in making such 
rules as might be necessary to carry the act 
into effect. They now make all rules governing 
examinations and make an annual report touch- 
ing upon the enforcement and effect of these 

Rides. The service is classified into depart- 
ments known as departmental service, customs 
service, postal service, internal-revenue service, 
government printing, railway mail, pension, 
lighthouse, Indian schools, insular possessions, 
life-saving, etc. Because of this classification, 
the civil service has become officially known 
as the classified service. The Commission is 
required to make rules for filling positions in 
all classes of service by open, competitive 
examinations for testing the fitness of appli- 
cants, and for filling vacancies by selections 
among the successful candidates having the 
highest grades. 

No person employed under the Civil Service 
Act is obliged to contribute service or money 
for political purposes. All employees may 
vote as they please, and have perfect freedom 
to express privately their political opinions; 
but they are forbidden to take an active part 
in political campaigns, or to use their official 
authority or influence to compel one to vote 
or to work for any candidate or measure. 

Applications One seeking to enter the 
classified service must file an application blank. 
The blanks for the departmental service at 
Washington, railway-mail service, Indian- 
school service, and the government printing 
service are obtained from the Civil Service 
Commission at Washington. The blanks for cus- 
toms, postal, and internal -revenue classes may 
be procured from the civil-service board of 
examiners in the city where the examination 
is to be held. The Commission will mail to 
any person a list of cities in which examina- 
tions are to be held, with dates. The applicant 
must state specifically the class of service 
he wishes to enter, as stenographer, bookkeeper, 
clerk, etc. 

Applicants must be citizens of the United 
States. The age limit varies for different classes 
of service, but it is not enforced against former 
members of the army and navy of the United 
States honorably discharged because of dis- 
abilities incurred while in active service. No 
discrimination is made because of sex, color, 
or political or religious opinions. 

Examinations. Two examinations are held 
each year, and they are open to all persons 
qualified to enter the class for which the appli- 
cation is made. The examinations differ for 
each class of service. Full information con- 


cerning them can be obtained from the Com- 
mission or the board of examiners. 

Appointments. When a vacancy occurs, the 
highest three (in examination averages) of the 
sex called for are certified for appointment. 
In making this recommendation for the de- 
partmental service at Washington, the appor- 
tionment of employees among the states is 
considered. Appointments are made on six 
months' trial. If during that time the ap- 
pointee proves his worth, his position becomes 
permanent. There are in all about 550,000 in 
the classified service of the United States, and 
naturally vacancies are numerous. 

Exemptions. Officers appointed by the Pres- 
ident and confirmed by the Senate are not 
under the civil service law. These officers may 
appoint private secretaries and other helpers 
whose services are of a personal nature, with- 
out subjecting them to examination, and they 
are not protected in their tenure of office. 

State and City Civil Service. In most states 
the heads of departments, such as the secretary 
of state, state auditor, state treasurer, and 
superintendent of schools are elected by the 
people. Since each of these officers is usually 
empowered to appoint his assistants, there is 
not so good an opportunity for applying a 
civil-service law to state governments, though 
the general trend is becoming more satisfactory 
Large cities afford excellent opportunity for 
the application of civil service. 

Civil Service Reform. Attempts to improve 
the civil service are known as ciml-service 
reform. Ever since its organization, the gov- 
ernment of the United States has suffered more 
or less from the abuse of the appointing power 
of high officials. In 1832, in a debate in the 
Senate, Daniel Webster set forth the ideal 
which should be the aim in civil service He 

The theory of our institutions is plain, it is that 
government is an agency created for the good of the 
people, and that every person in office is the agent 
and the servant of the people Offices are created, 
not for the benefit of those who arc to fill them, but 
for public convenience 

When the government was organized, Wash- 
ington and the members of his Cabinet exer- 
cised great care in appointing men to public 
office, and tried to secure those who were espe- 
cially fitted for the duties to which they were 
appointed. Their example was followed by 
succeeding administrations, and for the first 
thirty-nine years under the Constitution, there 
were only 112 removals from office, each for 
good cause. 

The Spoils System. With the inauguration 
of Jackson, there came a radical change in 
political methods (see JACKSON, Andrew). He 
removed from office not only heads of depart- 
ments but all subordinates who had voted or 
worked against him in the campaign, and 


filled their places with his followers. Thus was 
founded the spoils system, so called indirectly 
by Senator William Marcy of New York, 
who in a speech in the Senate, in 1832, laid 
down the principle that "to the victors belong 
the spoils of the enemy." 

Each succeeding administration followed 
Jackson's lead, and a wholesale removal of 
office-holders on a change in the Presidency 
was taken by the country as a matter of course. 
At each change of administration, Washington 
was thronged by office-seekers many of whom 
had the support of their Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. Parties were divided 
into factions, and thousands of incompetent 
men were appointed to positions of trust and 
responsibility, to satisfy political demands. 

The Merit System. Government business, 
under the spoils system, reached a deplorable 
state; thoughtful men began to seek a remedy, 
but it was a^Jiflicult matter to secure necessary 
legislation. J In 1871 a bill was passed author- 
izing the President to make rules for admission 
to the civil service through competitive ex- 
aminations, and to appoint a Civil Service 
Commission. President Grant appointed the 
Commission, and a system of examinations 
went into effect in the year 1872. This law 
continued in force for three years, when the 
political spoilsmen in Congress defeated the 
appropriation for the Commission, and it was 
obliged to abandon the work. The spoils sys- 
tem was again in operation for six years. In 
1881 a quarrel over patronage in New York 
led to the assassination of President Garfield. 
Immediately public sentiment against the spoils 
system rose to such a high tide that the next 
Congress (1883) enacted the present law, 
described in detail above, the scope of which 
has been several times extended. The last 
extension, and one of the most important, 
was to include all postmasters of the fourth 
class (in the smaller offices) in the classified 
service. E.D.F. 

Civil Service in Canada 

The Canadian Civil Service Act is one of 
the most advanced pieces of legislation in 
civil-service affairs at present in existence. 
The establishment of the merit system in the 
Canadian Civil Service dates from the passing 
of the Civil Service Act of 1908, which applied 
the system of competitive appointment to 
certain positions at headquarters in Ottawa, 
and this was greatly enlarged by the Civil 
Service Act of 1918, which not only extended 
the field of competitive appointment to cover 
practically the whole service, but also pro- 
vided for the reclassification and reorganization 
of all government departments under the Civil 
Service Commission. 


The Federal civil service consists of approxi- 
mately 40,000 positions, exclusive of some 
10,000 or 15,000 positions exempt from the 
operation of the Civil Service Act. These 
exempted positions comprise ordinary skilled 
and unskilled labor classes and positions with 
an annual remuneration of less than $200. 
The headquarters of the service at Ottawa 
constitute what is known as the "Inside 
Service," with approximately 10,000 positions. 
Positions outside of Ottawa constitute the 
"Outside Service.' 1 

The Civil Service Commission, consisting of 
three Commissioners, including the chairman, 
administers the Civil Service Act. Broadly 
speaking, the work of this commission may be 
divided into three phases: classification, or- 
ganization, and examination. Classification 
may be defined as the grouping of positions 
into classes in such a manner as to provide 
approximately the same pay for the same kind 
of work. Positions involving substantially the 
same duties and qualifications carry a recog- 
nized scale of compensation, so that the prin- 
ciple of equal pay for equal work may be 
applied. As the service is constantly develop- 
ing and changing, classification is continually 
expanding, and classification schedules are 
kept up with current requirements. 

Organization may be defined as the setting 
of an adequate number of positions to carry 
on the work of a department. The require- 
ments of each department are ascertained. A 
fair day's work for each class of employees 
is estimated, and after comparison of these 
two quantities the necessary staff is determined. 
Examination involves the principle of compe- 
tition in filling government positions. When 
the merit system replaced patronage, it became 
at once essential to establish scientific methods 
of selection for the civil service, in order to 
secure a supply of qualified appointees to 
replace those who had dropped out, and to 
meet the needs of expansion and growth. 
Vacancies are duly advertised; candidates are 
summoned to write examinations at the most 
central places in the several provinces; exami- 
nation papers are rated; and eligible lists are 

In the higher technical and administrative 
positions, where executive and supervisory 
ability is essential and personal qualifications 
a determining factor, the oral test is frequently 
used. In the case of technical positions where 
academic tests are not applicable, the relative 
merit of candidates is determined by an ad- 
visory board of experts distinguished in the 
work for which the candidates are competing. 
By developing a sound selective process, the 
Civil Service Commission has endeavored to 
demonstrate the practicality of competition 
for a large variety of positions. The method 
of competition applies also to promotions, and 




candidates for promotion to higher positions 
are rated for seniority, efficiency, and fitness. 

In Canada, the reestablishment of the re- 
turned soldier has been considered in connec- 
tion with government appointments. The 
Civil Service Act provides that in all appoint- 
ments to the public service made by the Civil 
Service Commission, preference should be given 
to candidates who have been on active service 
overseas and who are found to possess the 
minimum qualifications for the position. A 
further preference is given to those who are 
in receipt of a pension for disabilities received 
as a result of war service. 

The Superannuation Act of 1024 provides 
generous security to employees retiring after 
years of service. A deduction of five per cent 
is made from the salary of every permanent 
employee, as a contribution to the superannua- 
tion fund. The retiring age is sixty-five, and 
the maximum contribution period is thirty-five 
years. On attaining superannuation age, the 
allowance is one-fiftieth of the average salary 
for the last five years for each vear of service, 
but not exceeding thirty-five years. The maxi- 
mum allowance is, therefore, seventy per cent 
of such average salary. G.H.L. 




CIVITAN, siv'itan, CLUBS, business and 
professional men's clubs, whose motto is 
"Builders of Good Citizenship," and whose 
purpose is unselfish service to local community, 
state, or nation. The first Civitan Club was 
created late in iqiy, in Birmingham, Ala. 
Since that time, the membership has increased 
to more than 7,500; the national headquarters 
are in Birmingham, Ala. 

The national program of the organization 
is, in general, one of public service; tuberculosis 
control is a field especially stressed, and several 
sanatoriums have been established through 
the joint efforts of local clubs. Other projects 
include the care of orphaned and crippled 
children; Americanization work; city improve- 
ment; the control of crime, and many other 
local service movements. 

CLAIBORNE'S REBELLION, kla' bornz re- 
bel' yun. In about 1631, William Claiborne, 
an energetic, resourceful colonial adventurer, 
established a trading post on Kent Island, in 
Chesapeake Bay, and induced many settlers to 
locate there. This settlement was then granted 
membership in the Virginia Assembly. Three 
years later, Lord Baltimore, under the Mary- 
land charter he had received in 1632, claimed 
title to Kent Island, stating that Claiborne's 
rights were merely for purposes of trading. 
Claiborne rebelled and claimed independence 
and ownership ; in these claims he was supported 
by Virginia. For years the dispute and re- 

bellion lasted, causing loss of life and property, 
and Claiborne has often been called the evil 
genius of Maryland. Finally, in 1770, Virginia 
released all claims to the territory beyond the 
Potomac River, and the ambitions of the 
obstinate Claiborne were thus defeated. 

CLAIMS, COURT OF, a court which settles 
claims against a government. In the United 
States such a court was established by act 
of Congress in 1855, and the legislatures of 
several of the states have created state courts 
of claims modeled on the national tribunal. 
The United States Court of Claims consists of 
a chief justice whose salary is $12,500 a year, 
and four associates, each with a similar salary. 
Sessions are held in Washington. 

This court has jurisdiction over all claims 
of citizens against the government, except those 
relating to pensions or over any regulation of 
an Executive department, or any contract 
entered into with the Federal government. Its 
jurisdiction is not extended, however, to any 
claim arising from a treaty with foreign nations 
or Indian tribes, these falling under the juris, 
diction of the Supreme Court. In cases where 
the amount in dispute is more than $3,000, 
appeal may be made to the Supreme Court 
of the United States within ninety days after 
the decision is rendered. As the United States 
or any state cannot be sued by citizens, the 
Court of Claims cannot countenance pressure 
by a litigant against the government on a 
claim for money; a decree favoring a plaintiff 
is really in the nature of a recommendation, 
which the government is usually inclined 
to accept. See COURTS. 

In Canada, claims against the Dominion 
government for injury suffered in the construc- 
tion of a public work are heard by the Ex- 
chequer Court of Canada. There is no tribunal 
under the name court of claims in the Dominion. 

CLAIRVOYANCE, klair voi' ans, the alleged 
power to see beyond the range of human 
vision, or through opaque objects; also to 
foresee the future. It is sometimes called 
second sight, a term applied among the Scotch 
Highlanders. It is a widespread tradition and 
is connected with the more ancient notion of 
the possession of supernatural powers by 
favored individuals. The notion was revived 
in connection with the practices of mesmerism 
and of Spiritualism. J.J. 

Relating to Various Beliefs. The articles on the follow- 
ing topics, while not bearing directly on clairvoyance, are 
of interest in this connection because they, too, deal with 
pseudo-sciences or superstitions 






Faith Cure 






Mind Reading 






Psychical Research 






CLAM, a salt-water shellfish highly valued 
for food, especially on or near the seacoasts. 
The Pilgrims learned from the Indians the 
value of this bivalve mollusk, with its tightly 

the shells themselves, the tips of which are all 
that appear above the surface of the sand. 
When disturbed, these dams send forth spurta 
of water and pull their siphons out of sight. 
They are secured by digging at low tide. 
Though not quite as good as quahogs, soft- 
shell clams are always in demand. They 
were the ones originally used in the famous 


A Right Valve of Shell, to show internal organs 

(a) Anterior muscle for dosing shell. 

(b) Opening of reproductive organ. 

(c) Brain, 
(rf) Foot, 
(r) Gill. 
(/) Heart. 

closing double-hinged shell (see MOLLUSKS). 
The Indian name quahog is given to the hard- 
shell clam, which has a nearly globular shell 
that was employed as money by the Indians 
(see WAMPUM). "The quahog does not burrow, 
but, standing erect on its thin edge, shoves 
itself along the sandy sea bottom. It is found 



How fresh-water, pearl-bearing mussels are caught in 
the Mississippi River 

from Cape Cod south. The young are known 
as little-necks, after Little Neck, Long Island, 
where they were first found. These clams are 
obtained by raking. 

Down in the gravelly bottoms of river 
mouths, from South Carolina to Greenland, in 
San Francisco Bay, and on the British coast, 
are found the soft-shell, or sand, clams. Their 
shells are smooth, thin, chalky, and somewhat 
oval. They have siphons often longer than 

B Dissection. 

G?) Intestine. 

(h) Kidney. 

(/) Liver. 

(j) Rear muscle for closing shell 

(k) Space through which water passes in leaving shell. 

(/) Stomach 

Rhode Island clam chowders and at the New 
England clambakes. Soft-shell clams have 
also been used for bait, and the walrus, the 
Arctic fox, and many birds will eat them. The 
food of all clams consists of the tiniest animals 
of the sea. 

A giant dam is found on the coral reefs of 
the East Indies, its shell alone weighing 500 
pounds or more. Natives often use parts of 
its sharp-edged shell for axes. 

The term clam is also applied to fresh-water 
mussels. See MUSSEL. S.H.S. 

Scientific Names. The scientific name of the 
quahog is Venu\ mcrcenaria, of the soft-shell clam, 
Mya arcnaria\ of the giant, Tridacna gigas. 

CLAN, originally a body of men bound by 
the ties of blood relationship, having a class 
name and a tribal organization ruled by a chief. 
As later used, the word meant a body of persons 
closely united by some common pursuit or in- 
terest, to the exclusion of other persons, with 
no regard to family ties. 

The clan system is said to have sprung up 
about 1008, while Malcolm II of Scotland was 
king, and was peculiar to the counties of Ireland 
and the Highlands of Scotland. Among the 
Highlanders, there was no liking for written 
agreements or charters, so the feudal system 
had but little hold; the clansmen were governed 
by men of the same blood, being united by 
descent from a common ancestor, and obligation 
of all the members to avenge one another's 
injuries was the most common principle 
cherished by them. 




When, by the rise of towns and by conquest, 
the tribal system began to be broken up and 
a common surname was needed for keeping up 
such connection, a chieftain of a tribe selected 
some ancestor and called himself by that name 
with the prefix Mac, meaning son. All of his 
kindred adopted the same name, and in Scot- 
land, Mac came to be generally used in the 
great clan which included the smaller clans of 
the MacDonalds, MacGregors, etc. The clans- 
men had the utmost reverence for their chief 
or lord, and obeyed his commands without 
question. Each clan occupied a certain portion 
of land, and among neighboring clans hostilities 
were frequent. 

After a rebellion in 1745 and the subsequent 
disarmament of the clans, the tribal system was 
practically broken up, though in the more re- 
mote districts of the Highlands, the old beliefs 
linger, and the interesting poetical traditions 
survive in the memories of the people. 

(1600-1674), an English historian and states- 
man, important in history during the reigns of 
Charles I and II. He began his political career 
in 1640, as a member of the Short and Long 
Parliaments summoned by Charles I, and, hav- 
ing become a leader of the king's party in the 
House of Commons, joined the Royalists on 
the outbreak of the civil war. He accompanied 
Prince Charles (afterward Charles II) in his 
flight to Jersey, remained on the island for two 
years, and began there his great literary work, 
History of the Rebellion. In 1643 he was 
knighted and made Chancellor of the Excheq- 
uer. Clarendon made every effort to save the 
life of Charles I, and was equally zealous in 
promoting the restoration of Prince Charles. 
In 1658 he was formally declared Lord Chan- 
cellor, and for several years was the trusted 
adviser of Charles II, but, having gained the 
ill will of the people because of the unsuccessful 
Dutch war and the sale of Dunkirk to the 
French, and having offended the king by op- 
posing the latter's divorce, he fell from power 
and went into exile. 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol- 
umes should be read in connection with the life of the Earl 
of Clarendon: 

Charles (1, II, England) Cromwell, Oliver 

Commonwealth of Long Parliament 

England Restoration, The 

CLARET, Jt/fliV </, OR BORDEAUX, bawr- 
doh', a still, dry, sour, red wine. It is called a 
still wine, because it does not contain a gas 
which makes it sparkle, as is the case with 
champagne. This wine has very little sugar. 
The genuine clarets were originally made in 
France, mostly at Bordeaux. The plant louse 
(phylloxera) wiped out so many vineyards, how- 
ever, that for years many cheap mixtures have 
been sold as claret. A genuine claret is made 
in California and, before the advent of prohibi- 
tion, was a popular wine in that region. 

CLARINET, klair' ih net, the leading instru- 
ment in military bands, corresponding to the 
violin in the orchestra. In fullness and variety 
of tone, the clarinet is considered the most per- 
fect of wind instruments. It is usually of wood, 
with a trumpet-shaped mouthpiece, in which is 
placed a thin reed, the vibrations of which 
produce the tones; the fingers playing on keys 


covering holes in the tube produce the melody. 
A range of three and one-half octaves is covered, 
but purity of tone and ease of playing necessi- 
tate the use of clarinets of different pitch. 
Clarinets commonly employed in orchestra 
music are those in Eh, C, 5b, A, alto (Eb), 
bass (Bb), and contrabass (Ity). 

In his book on the wind-band, Arthur A. 
Clappe says: 

Each clarinet is distinct from the other in shades 
of tone The ponderous gravity of the contrabass, 
violoncello-like effect of the bass clarinet, sympathetic 
and viola-like quality of the alto clarinet, beautiful 
mezzo tints of the A and #t> clarinets, and crystalline 
brilliancy of those in C and /-,t>, afford ample oppor- 
tunity for expression in every degree of emotional 
force which a composer seeks to depict in the string 
quartet and quintet , 

1921), one of the best-known leaders in the 
Democratic partv in his generation. In 1013 
he was honored with the most influential office 
in the United States below the Presidency, the 
Speakership of the 
House of Represen- 
tatives, which he held 
for eight years. He 
was born in Ken- 
tucky, was graduated 
at Bethany College, 
West Virginia, and 
then from the Cin- 
cinnati Law School. 
Before he became 
prominent in politics 
he worked as a farm 
laborer, clerk, editor, 
and lawyer, and 
served as president 
of Marshall College, 
in West Virginia. In 
1880 he began the 
practice of law in 
Bowling Green, Mo., 
and nine years later was elected to the national 
House of Representatives; he represented Mis- 
souri in that body continuously from then un- 
til his death, except for two terms, from 1891 to 
1893 and 1895 to 1897. 


Speaker of the United 
States House of Represen- 
tatives from IQII to iQi7- 





Clark became Democratic leader in the House 
in the second session of the Sixtieth Congress, 
in IQII. He was one of the strongest candi- 
dates for the Presidency in the Baltimore con- 
vention of 1912; Woodrow Wilson, however, 
was nominated after more than thirty ballots, 
largely due to the political skill of William 
Jennings Bryan. 


founder of the Young People's Society of Chris- 
tian Kndeavor, and for many years editor of 
the Golden Rule, the paper of that organization 
He was born in Ayl- 
mer, Ont. After his 
graduation from 
Dartmouth College 
and Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, he 
became a Congrega- 
tional clergyman 
From 1876 to 1883, 
he was pastor of a 
church in Portland, 
Me , and he spent 
the following five 
years in charge of a 
Boston church. After 
that time, Mr. Clark 
devoted himself to 
Christian Endeavor work, traveling around the 
world six times in its interests, and serving 
continuously as president of the United Soci- 

"CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS (1752-1818), a fa- 
mous American soldier and frontiersman, whose 
military successes in the old Northwest during 
the Revolutionary War gave the United States 
its chief claim, in the peace negotiations, to the 
territory between the Mississippi River and the 
Alleghany Mountains. He was a brother of 
William Clark (later of Lewis and Clark fame), 
and was born near Monticello, Va. At the 
beginning of the Revolution, he was chosen a 
delegate to represent Kentucky, then a district 
of Virginia, in negotiations which resulted in 
organizing Kentucky as a separate government. 
In 1778, as lieutenant colonel, Clark raised 
a force of troops and began the conquest of the 
Northwest by capturing Kaskaskia, the oldest 
town in Illinois, from the French; this victory 
he followed up by seizures of the other French 
villages, Cahokia and Vincennes. In 1780 he 
accepted a command under Baron von Steuben 
to defend Virginia against the British, and from 
that time on until the close of the Revolution, 
was engaged in active warfare against the Eng- 
lish and the Indians, winning many notable 
victories, and in 1782 destroying five Indian 
villages on the Scioto and Miami rivers. Ten 
years after the close of the war, he accepted a 
commission as major general to recapture Span- 

ish possessions on the Mississippi for the 
French, but the plan was not carried out. His 
last years were spent in retirement on an estate 

Photo Quincy Herald- Whl* 

A monument erected in Rivervicw I'ark, Quincy, Til. 

in the present state of Indiana, a gift from the 
Virginia legislature. See ILLINOIS (History). 

CLARK, WILLIAM (1770-1838), an American 
soldier and explorer, famed for his association 
with Meriwether Lewis in an expedition to the 
Pacific coast, to ex- 
plore parts of the 
new Louisiana Pur- 
chase. He was a 
brother of George 
Rogers Clark, was 
born in Virginia, and 
at the age of four- 
teen removed with 
his family to the site 
of Louisville, Ky. 
Eight years later he 
joined the army as 
lieutenant of in- 
fantry, and in 1794, 
under General 
Wayne, took part in 
a campaign against 
the Indians. In 1796 
he resigned because of ill health, but in 1803 
again entered the army and was commissioned 
second b'eutenant. The following year Clark 





and Lewis began their memorable exploring trip 
westward, traveling 8,500 miles in two and 
one-half years. Clark was later made Indian 
agent for Upper Louisiana, was governor of 
Missouri Territory between 1813 and 1821, and 
from 1822 until his death was superintendent 
of Indian affairs at Saint Louis. 

accompanying which is a map of the route followed, also 



GINIA (back of map). 

CLARK UNIVERSITY, a graduate school, 
was founded in 1887 and opened two years later, 
at Worcester, Mass., by Jonas Oilman Clark. 
Under its first president, Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
the university emphasized the study of psychol- 
ogy, particularly in research. An undergradu- 
ate school (Clark College) was organized as a 
separate institution in 1902, and in 1920 the 
college and university were united. A Gradu- 
ate School of Geography, a unique enterprise 
in American education, has been established. 
The university admits only young men, but the 
graduate courses, leading to the degree of 
A.M., are open to both sexes. 

CLASS, in the sciences. See CLASSIFICA- 
TION; ZoflLOGY (Divisions of the Animal 

CLASSICS, klas' iks, a name applied very 
generally to writings of the highest rank, but 
more especially to the best literary and art 
productions of the world those thai are ac- 
cepted as standard. The period of most bril- 
liant literary activity of any nation is usually 
referred to as its classical period; its best writ- 
ings are known as its classics. Thus, Thack- 
eray, Dickens, and George Eliot are numbered 
among the classic novelists in English literature, 
and Shakespeare, Browning, Tennyson, Long- 
fellow, Whittier, Poe, and others of their rank 
are classics among the poets. Because the 
greatest productions of ancient times have 
come to be regarded as the highest examples of 
literary excellence, the word is applied, in a 
narrower sense, to the best writers of ancient 
Greece and Rome, and classic and ancient are 
frequently used with the same meaning. The 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian are known as the 
classic orders of Greek architecture. The term 
classics, when referring to studies, means usually 
the Greek and Latin languages. 

CLASSIFICATION, an orderly arrangement 
of objects into groups, the objects in each group 
having some common resemblance. If a boy 
is given a number of circles, triangles, and 
squares and told to "sort" them, he will place 
the circles in one group, the triangles in an- 
other, and the squares in a third. He has 
classified the objects according to shape or form. 

If the objects were of different sizes, he might 
classify them according to size, or if they were 
of different colors, he might classify them ac- 
cording to color. Again, suppose a child is 
given a collection of flowers which contains 
pinks of different colors, roses of different colors, 
and lilies, and is asked to put all the pinks in 
one group, all the roses in another, and the lilies 
in a third; he then has a more difficult task, 
because in making his classification he must 
consider both color and form. If some of the 
roses are single and some double, the difficulty 
is increased, for in order to place all the roses 
in the rose group, he must observe the plan and 
structure of the flowers. 

The term classification, as applied to the 
study of plants (botany) and animals (zoology), 
means the arranging of all plants and animals 
in divisions and subdivisions, each of which de- 
pends upon some characteristic common to all 
objects that it includes. That is, all plants in- 
cluded in the rose family must bear some re- 
semblance to the rose; all animals belonging to 
the cat family must have some characteristics 
of the cat. There are so many different kinds 
of plants and animals that this orderly arrange- 
ment became necessary to their systematic 
study, and scientists have been working upon 
systems of classification for more than a cen- 
tury. The science of classification is known as 

Modern classifications are based on the worK 
of the Swedish naturalist Linne (Linnaeus), 
although the extensive development of natural 
science since his death, late in the eighteenth 
century, has made it necessary greatly to 
modify the scheme of classification that he 
originated. To Linnaeus, also, we owe the 
accepted system of naming plants and animals 
by use of Latin terms. Latin was adopted for 
three reasons: First, it was the language in 
which scientific works were written when these 
classifications were begun; second, Latin is a 
dead language, and the meaning of the words 
does not change; third, the use of Latin gives 
the same name to the object wherever it may 
be found. Many plants and animals are known 
by different popular names in different locali- 
ties. The bird known as the bobolink in the 
northern part of the United States and in 
Canada is known as the reedbird in Ohio and 
the ricebird in the South. One unacquainted 
with this fact would naturally think that three 
different birds were named. If, however, the 
Latin name Dolichonyx oryziwrus were placed 
after each popular name, we should know that 
these three names were applied to the same 
bird. It is important for the reader interested 
in natural history to become familiar with this 
plan of nomenclature. 

Groups in Classification. The basic units 
employed in classifying plants and animals are 
the species, genus, family, order, class, and phy- 




lum (the latter also known as branch, subking- 
dom, and grand division). There are, besides, 
various subdivisions of these units, as variety, 
a smaller group in the species; submenus, sub- 
family, etc. An order may be divided into 
superfamilies or suborders', a class into sub- 
classes. The basic units are denned as follows: 

Species. A species is a group of individuals that 
reproduce their kind and are so much alike in essen- 
tial particulars that it is reasonable to believe they 
have a common origin. There arc, for example, many 
different kinds of wild roses. Among them are roses 
having long, climbing, bramblelike stems, three to five 
leaflets, and deep-rose petals. There are others hav- 
ing smooth, purple-red steins, live to seven leaflets, 
and unusually large flowers. Here are two groups of 
roses, the individuals in each group having certain 
distinguishing characteristics that set them apart 
from other roses Hence each group constitutes a 
species The former, commonly called prairie row, is 
given the Latin name setter a; the Utter, called the 
meadow rose, is known scientifically as blanda. 

Variety. In many cases we find individuals within 
the species that show certain variations from the 
general type, but whose points of difference are not 
pronounced or important enough to warrant their 
being classed as a separate species Such varying 
individuals are said to constitute a variety, or sub- 
species. In floriculture and some other departments 
of agriculture, variety has a specialized meaning (see 

Genus. Just as related individuals may constitute 
a species, so several related species are grouped to- 
gether in the same genus (plural, genera) \ genus is 
made up of plants or animals having certain points 
of resemblance, but which do not resemble each other 
closely enough to form a single species. For example, 
the prairie rose and meadow rose, and all the other 
rose species, are sufficiently alike to be recognized as 
roses, but they are not enough alike to form a distinct 
species. Thus, all of the roses, separated into groups 
on the basis of common characteristics, are brought 
together into the larger group Rosa, a genus. The 
scientific name of the prairie rose, Rosa setigera, indi- 
cates both the genus and the species to which it 

Family. Several genera having one or more points 
of relationship are grouped together into a family 
The genus Rosa and a large number of other genera 
constitute the family Rosaceae, in which the common 
characteristic is the possession of regular flowers, with 
numerous distinct stamens inserted on the calyx 
Among the other genera included in this family are 
Spiraea, represented by the meadowsweet and bridal 
wreath; Pyrus, to which belong the pear and the 
apple; and Prunus, including the plum and the 
cherry. A good type family in the animal world is 
Felidae, the cats, animals possessing retractile claws 
The dominant genus is Felis, which includes, among 
other species, the house cat, the jaguar, the lion, and 
the tiger. Other genera are Cynaelurus, represented 
by the cheeta, and Lynx, to which the Canada lynx 
and bobcat belong. 

Order. This is a group of related families. With 
several other families, the rose family is placed in the 
order Resales, on the basis of flower structure Like- 
wise, the cats are grouped with the dog family, Can- 
idae, the bears, Ursidae, the weasels, Mustelidae, and 
others, in the order Carnivora, or flesh-eating animals. 


Hoofed animals, such as the horse, cattle, deer, and 
sheep, are placed in the order Ungidaia. The gnaw- 
ing animals, represented by the rat, rabbit, and 
squirrel, belong to the order Rodcntia. 

Class. Several orders of plants or animals are 
grouped together to form a class. The plants of the 
order Rosales and numerous others having the com- 
mon characteristic of possessing two seed leaves are 
all placed in the class Dicotyledoneae. Likewise, the 
flesh-eating, hoofed, and gnawing animals, and some 
others, are placed in the class Mammalia, for animals 
in these orders have as a common characteristic the 
possession of milk glands for the nourishment of the 

Phylum, or Branch. The entire plant kingdom is 
divided into four main branches, or phyla, and the 
animal kingdom into a number that varies according 
to different systems of classification. Some authori- 
ties give as high as twenty, but twelve is an average 
number. Each plant and animal phylum is made up 
of a number of classes having one or more points of 
relationship Dicotyledonous plants arc grouped 
with monocotyledonous plants (those with one seed 
leaf) to form the phylum S per mato phyla, containing 
all plants that bear seeds This great branch is 
divided into two subphyla xymnospcrms, or naked- 
seed plants, such as the pines, and an&ios perms, or 
eiiclosed-seed plants To the latter group belong both 
of the classes mentioned above 

The class Mammalia is one of several in the phylum 
Chordata, which includes all animals that have a 
supporting rod of cartilage at some stage of develop- 
ment The higher animals in this branch develop a 
bony vetebral column, and so form the subphylum of 
vertebrate animals, to which all of the mammals be- 
long, as well as the birds, reptiles, amphibians, and 

It may be seen from the foregoing summary that 
every species of plant and animal, from the lowest to 
the highest, has a place in the classification scheme 
To recapitulate, the prairie rose is classified as follows. 

Kingdom Plant 

Phylum Spermatophyta 
Subphylum Angiospermae 
Class Dicotyledoneae 
Order Rosales 
Family Rosaceae 
Genus Rosa 

Species -Setigera R.H. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles- 

Animal Evolution Plant 

Botany Lmn6 Zotilogy 

CLAUDIAN, klaw' dih an, AQUEDUCT. See 


CLAUDIUS, klaw' dih us (ip B.C.-S4 A.D.), a 
Roman emperor, whose reign is memorable be- 
cause of his admission of the Gallic nobles of 
the empire to the Roman Senate and to the 
city offices. He was the son of ClauoUus Drusus 
Nero, stepson of Augustus, and had little part 
in public affairs until A.D. 41, when, on the 
murder of Caligula, he was declared emperor 
by the soldiers. His liberal spirit was shown 
not only in his treatment of the Gallic nobles, 
but in humane laws regarding freedmen, slaves, 




widows, and orphans. In his reign, the southern 
part of Britain was conquered and made a 
Roman province, and he himself gave his at- 
tention to the improvement of Rome. The 
Claudian Aqueduct, which he completed, 
brought water to the 
city from a distance 
of forty-five miles. 
The great blot upon 
his character was his 
weakness in yielding 
to the influence of 
intriguing wives and 
favorites. In A.D. 54 
he was poisoned by 
his fourth wife, 
Agrippina, the mother 
of Nero. See AGRIP- 



CLAY is commonly thought of as the earth 
used in making brick, tile, and pottery. It is a 
more or less coherent but ordinarily not very 


A coin of his reign, showing 


An entrance to a home in New York City, in which 
tile, brick, and faience were employed. Above, unre- 
lated to the doorway, is a pleasing terra cotta. 

hard mass, whether or not stratified, of ex- 
tremely fine particles of mineral matter. Typi- 

cal day has an unctuous feel, soils the fingers, 
and when thoroughly wet becomes a sticky, yet 
slippery, mud. When thoroughly dry, most 
clay has little coherence and is easily reduced 
to powder or dust. Ordinary clay is composed 
largely, if not wholly, of one or more hydrous 
silicates of aluminum, but a few clays contain 
little or no aluminous material. The purest 
form of clay is white, and consists of kaolin. 
Most clay, however, is more or less deeply 
colored by iron oxide, carbonaceous matter, or 
other material. Clay containing much calcium 
carbonate is called mar/, and that containing a 
large amount of silica is called fire day. 

Clays are of two sorts residual clays, which 
are not stratified unless the rock from which 
they were derived was a stratified rock, and 
sedimentary clays, which ordinarily are strati- 
fied. Residual clays have been formed as the 
final product of the weathering of rocks, espe- 
cially those containing considerable amounts 
of aluminous minerals. Sedimentary clays 
were deposited by water or wind after trans- 
portation from elsewhere, although the material 
may originally have been of residual origin. 
Most clay, therefore, has been derived from the 
decomposition of older rocks, especially those 
containing feldspar. Some clay was formed by 
the grinding action of a glacier. 

Clay is an important constituent of soils. It 
absorbs ammonia and other gases necessary to 
the growth of plants, and retains in the soil 
the fertilizing substances supplied by manures. 
Without a certain amount of clay, soil will not 
retain its fertility from season to season. Too 
much clay, on the other hand, is detrimental 
in making the soil stiff and cold, in retaining 
too much water on the surface, and in harden- 
ing it too much in time of drouth. 

When moist, clay is sufficiently plastic to be 
molded into any form desired, to be rolled into 
thin sheets, or to be drawn into rods that can 
be twisted into ornamental shapes. When 
heated to the proper temperature, clay shrinks 
and becomes hard and compact, and hence 
finds a great variety of uses. 

Differences in composition give rise to several 
sorts of clay, with their special names and in- 
dustrial uses. Pure kaolin is used in making 
the finest grades of porcelain. Fire clay, which 
is highly resistant to heat, is used for stove and 
furnace linings, fire brick, gas retorts, crucibles, 
and the like. Potter's clay and pipe clay, which 
are less pure than kaolin, are used, respectively, 
in the manufacture of inexpensive grades of 
pottery and of pipes. Paper clay is a fine- 
grained variety used in filling paper. L.LaF. 

Related Subject!. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 

Fuller's Earth 




Terra Cotta 





"Ashland; Qay 5 Home at Lexington GT 

LAY, HENRY (1777-1852). This dis- 
tinguished leader in American public affairs 
was born at a time when his country was 
fighting for independence from British rule, 
and died less than a decade before the bitter 
struggle over the slavery question reached its 
climax in a clash of arms. For thirty years he 
gave his best efforts to warding off that great 
conflict, thereby winning the title, 'The Great 
Pacificator," that will be associated with him 
for all time. 

Henry Clay was born April 12, 1777, the son 
of a Baptist clergyman of Hanover County, 
Va., who died when the boy was four years old. 
He had few opportunities to attend school, and 
was forced to take a position in a retail business 
house at the age of fourteen; but he overcame 
early disadvantages by studious habits, love of 
reading, and a naturally keen and alert mind. 
Having readily mastered the principles of law, 
he was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1797 
and began practice at Lexington, Ky. Two 
years later, as a member of the state constitu- 
tional convention, he began his long political 
career. By this time, also, he had won local 
fame as a brilliant orator and as a lawyer who 
was able to win his cases. 

Clay was sent to the legislature of Kentucky 
in 1803, and in 1806-1807 and 1810-1811 filled 
unexpired terms in the United States Senate. 
When first chosen Senator, he had not reached 
the legal age required by the Constitution, 
though the matter was not brought to the 
official notice of the Senate. In 1811, then 
thirty-four years of age, he entered the na- 
tional House of Representatives, and was 
elected Speaker on the first day of the session. 
Five times thereafter he was reflected to the 
House and to the Speakership, holding office 
continuously until 1825, except for the term 
between 1821 and 1823, when he returned to 
his law practice. 

Almost at the very outset of his long 
career in the House, he won popularity as an 
advocate of the War of 1812, and at its close 
was chosen one of the peace commissioners; he 

signed the Treaty of Ghent (1814), which con- 
cluded the struggle. 

Resuming his activities in Congress on his 
return from the peace conference, Clay became 
a vigorous champion of protective tariff and 
of the government policy of internal improve- 
ments; but these issues were soon overshadowed 
by the greater problems involved in the slavery 
question, destined to be the dominant issue 
for years to come. I n 1 8 20 he used his in iluence 
to secure the passage of the Missouri Com- 
promise, whereby Missouri entered the Union 
as a slave state. At this time he was first 
called "The Great Pacificator;" the name 
dung to him throughout his life. 

Though he was opposed to slavery and never 
hesitated to denounce what he called a "stain 
on the national character," the leading purpose 
in his public life was, 
in his own words, 
"the preservation of 
the Union," and in 
this patriotic ideal 
may be found the ex- 
planation of all his 
efforts to allay the 
strife between the 
pro- and anti-slavery 
parties. To him the 
quickest and most ef- 
fective means of keep- 
ing peace was the 
policy of compromise. 

In 1824 Clay was 
an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the Presi- 
dency against Andrew Jackson, William H. 
Crawford of Georgia, and John Quincy Ad- 
ams. Clay and Adams were then leaders 
of the newly founded National Republican 
party, later known as the Whig. As no can- 
didate had a majority of the electoral votes, 
the election was thrown into the House of 
Representatives. Clay, being fourth on the 
list, was ineligible, and therefore gave his 
personal support to Adams, who appointed 

Photo: U A U 




Clay his Secretary of State. This appointment 
was the basis for a widely circulated charge of 
corruption between Adams and Clay, which, 
though unfounded, was used to the latter's 
injury throughout his career, especially by his 
bitter political rival, Andrew Jackson. The 
harsh language used by John Randolph in 
denunciation of this supposed "deal" led to a 
duel between himself and Clay, in which 
neither was injured. 

Adams showed excellent judgment in his 
selection of Clay as head of the State Depart- 
ment, but the latter felt that a seat in Con- 
gress offered the best opportunities for political 
leadership; moreover, he considered his absence 
from the House a hindrance in the attainment 
of what was now the great ambition of his life 
the Presidency. Having vainly opposed the 
candidacy of Jackson in the election of 1828, he 
retired to private life at the end of Adams' 

Two years later, in 1831, the state of Ken- 
tucky again sent him to the Senate, where the 
tariff issue, bound up in the greater issue of 
slavery, once more engaged his attention. The 
South, which was bitterly protesting against 
the "tariff of abominations" of 1828, he endeav- 
ored to pacify by the more moderate law of 

This measure, however, provoked threats of 
nullification and secession, and the next year 
he brought forward the famous compromise 
of 1833, which caused its author again to be 
hailed as "The Great Pacificator." Mean- 
while, in 1832, he had been unanimously nom- 
inated for the Presidency by the Whigs, but 
in the election lost overwhelmingly to Jackson, 
largely because of his tariff record. 

During the Democratic administration of 
Martin Van Buren, Clay was an unsuccessful 
leader of the opponents of the independent 
subtreasury system. He was at this time 
steering a middle course in the troubled sea 
of the slavery dispute, thereby pleasing neither 
side. In 1839 he delivered a speech in which 
he declared himself the foe of slavery, but 
stated in no uncertain terms that the aboli- 
tionists were responsible for the discord that 
was threatening to disrupt the Union. Warned 
by his friends that this speech would ruin his 
chances for the Presidency, he made the often- 
quoted remark, "I would rather be right than 
be President." 

In 1842 he retired from the Senate, and two 
years later unsuccessfully contended for the 
Presidency against James K. Polk of Tennessee. 
Clay's hesitancy in taking a firm stand against 
the annexation of Texas alienated the aboli- 
tionists. In 1848 he was defeated for the Whig 
nomination by Taylor, but in the same year 
was reflected to the Senate, and devoted the 
remaining years of his life to preserving peace 
between the Northern and the Southern states. 

In 1850 he made his last great speech in the 
Senate in support of the Compromise of 1850, 
a group of measures that postponed for ten 
years the outbreak of the War of Secession. 

During his career in the Senate Clay shared 
with Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun 
the glories of that great trio of American ora- 
tors. From a literary standpoint his speeches 
have not the excellence of Webster's, but his 
eloquence, personal magnetism, fine bearing, 
and above all, his voice, which was likened by 
his hearers to some delicately attuned musical 
instrument, combined to produce an effect 
comparable to that attained by the oratory 
of his great contemporary. B.M.W. 

Related Subjects. For a broader view of Clay's activi- 
ties the reader is referred to the following articles in these 

Adams, John Quincy 
Compromise of 1850 
Cumberland Road 
JacksoTh, Andrew 

Missouri Compromise 
Political Parties 

CLAYMORE, a large, two-edged sword. See 

CLAYTON, JOHN M., one of the framers of 
the Clayton-Bui wer Treaty (which see). 

SON, WOODROW (Administration); TRUST. 

entered into between Great Britain and the 
United States in 1850, so named because it 
was signed after long deliberation between 
John M. Clayton, Secretary of State, and Sir 
Henry Bulwer, the British minister to the 
United States. Both countries agreed to 
guarantee the neutrality of a canal through 
Central America, without exercising any con- 
trol over the territory or in any way fortifying 
it. Repeated attempts were made later to 
change the wording of the Clay ton-Bui wer 
Treaty, in order to give America greater power 
over any inter-oceanic canal which might be 
built; and at times discussion of the subject 
led to strained relations between Great Britain 
and the United States. In IQOI the Clayton- 
Bulwer Treaty was abrogated, and the Hay- 
Pauncefote Treaty came into force. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty Nicaragua Canal 
Nicaragua Panama Canal 

Taylor, Zachary (Administration) 

an essential element of health and personal 
comfort. From the earliest times, dirt has 
been a nuisance to mankind, and from the be- 
ginning of history we have accounts of the 
primitive methods of washing and cleansing. 

Modern science has shown us a new reason 
for sanitation that many of the diseases and 
plagues of the world have been due to a lack of 
proper sanitary provisions. It has also given 
us new weapons for the battle chemistry to 




conquer bacteria, and mechanical appliances 
to remove inert materials. 

Among the most important cleaning proc- 
esses are laundering, dry cleaning, and vacuum 
cleaning. The first two are discussed here; the 
third is in the article VACUUM CLEANER. 

Laundering. The essential element in this 
process is the washing of fabrics with soap and 
water. This can be done either by hand or by 
the use of machines, and since the work is 
laborious, the latter are coming more and more 
into use. 

The soap may be dissolved in the water or 
rubbed on the materials; the water should be 
as hot as can comfortably be used. Rubbing is 
necessary to make the soapy water go through 
the fibers of the fabric, and rinsing will then 
carry away the dirt. 

There are numerous details in the work of 
laundering, such as soaking, boiling, bluing, 
starching, drying, and ironing. These are 
performed according to the kind of fabric and 
the result desired, as well as according to the 
equipment available. The present tendency is 
to use mechanical devices wherever possible, 
both in the home and in the commercial 
laundry. The widespread use of electricity has 
been a valuable aid in laundry work, as it 
furnishes power to drive washing machines, 
and makes possible the electric iron. 

Dry Cleaning. The cleaning of fabrics by 
the dry-cleaning process is done by immersion 
in a liquid which dissolves fat. The term dry 
cleaning was adopted to distinguish the method 
from the ordinary laundering with soap and 
water, as no water is used in the process of dry 
cleaning. Because the dry-cleaning process 
originated in France, it is sometimes called the 
French method. Although less used, the term 
chemical cleaning is more apt than either of the 
other two, for the process is based on the 
chemical action of the fluid on grease. 

As a garment is worn, a certain amount of 
grease, which holds the dust and dirt, accumu- 
lates. By removing the grease, the dirt is 
released. Many fabrics are shrunk, or other- 
wise injured by soap and water, and further- 
more, the grease remains unaffected by water. 
By dipping the garment in such solvents as 
benzine or benzol, the fabric is uninjured, and 
the grease is dissolved; the dirt, therefore, is 
removed mechanically. 

Method and Equipment. The first step in 
the process is to free the garment of all dust; 
this may be done by whipping with sticks, or 
by the use of a revolving wheel device. Thor- 
ough brushing and drying is of next importance. 
Then comes the actual dipping. Benzine or 
benzol is generally used, although gasoline, 
naphtha, turpentine, and carbon tetrachloride 
are also commonly employed. Tubs, vats, or 
washing machines are filled with the cleaning 
fluid, and a special cleaning soap is dissolved 

in the first tub. Frequent rinsing is important. 
After the dipping process, the article is freed 
of the solvent by a centrifugal extractor, then 
transferred to the drying room, and finally 
inspected for spots. By means of scientific 
experiments, the action of certain chemicals on 
certain stains, dyes, etc., has been worked out 
to a remarkable degree. 

All plants are necessarily equipped with 
stills for reclaiming gasoline, a benzine clari- 
fier, a ventilation system, and a safety storage 
system. The larger the plant, the more com- 
plete is the equipment. 

Development as an Industry. It appears that 
as early as 1848 a dry-cleaning method was 
known; however, it has been only since M. 
Judlin, a Frenchman, discovered the cleansing 
powers of benzine, in 1866, that dry cleaning 
has become an industry of importance, and a 
business which requires a wide knowledge of 
fabrics, dyes, and chemicals. The growth of the 
industry is largely due to the realization by the 
general public that the cleaning plant is a 
great economy and, through its ability to 
keep outer garments in a sanitary condition, 
an aid to better health. Thus the cleaner has 
become an important factor in the scheme of 
present-day living. 

CLEARING HOUSE. We are living in an 
age when time and labor-saving devices are 
used in all branches of human activity. In 
modern banking, the clearing house is such a 
device. It is an institution maintained by an 
association of banks in a city, which secures 
daily a speedy settlement of the claims each 
bank has against the others, with the least pos- 
sible transfer of actual cash among them. 

The Work of a Clearing House. A brief de- 
scription is given below of the method used in 
the New York Clearing House, which was the 
first one organized in America; it served as 
a model for all later ones. Each bank sends to 
the clearing house at least two representatives, 
a so-called delivery clerk and a settling clerk. 
In a large room, each bank is assigned a desk 
at which the settling clerk or clerks are seated. 
Upon arrival at the clearing house, each clerk 
hands over to the manager of the room a list 
of the amounts due to his bank from each of 
the other banks, as shown by the checks, drafts, 
and other obligations which the clerk has 
brought with him. Promptly at 10 o'clock, the 
delivery clerks begin passing from one desk to 
another, delivering to each settling clerk the 
bundles of claims of all sorts their banks have 
against his bank. After each settling clerk has 
received all of these claims, he draws up a 
statement which shows the balance his bank 
should pay or receive. These statements are 
handed over to the manager of the room, who, 
after checking them, reads out the amount 
which each bank owes to all the other banks 
or is entitled to receive from them. Later in 




the day, the amounts due by the debtor banks 
are paid to the clearing-house manager, who in 
turn pays the creditor banks." In this way, 
each bank settles all its obligations to all 
the other banks of the city by one single 
payment, instead of settling with each bank 

History. In London, in the seventeenth 
century, it was the custom of the banks to use 
"walk clerks" or "collectors," as we would call 
them, to go to each of the other banks in turn 
and collect the actual cash to cover checks, 
drafts, and other credits which had accumu- 
lated in the previous day's business. 

About 1670, two of these walk clerks chanced 
to meet in a coffee-house, where each had gone 
for a little refreshment. It appears that mes- 
sengers of those days were no more eager for 
work than are some in our own time, so it 
seemed a clever idea to these youths to effect 
their exchange then and there, thus eliminating 
the long walk and the attendant fatigue, also 
permitting more time for refreshments. 

Their banks did not at once discover the 
subterfuge, and so the simple method was 
continued. Other clerks learned of the time- 
and labor-saving scheme of their colleagues, 
and before long the coffee-house had become 
the first clearing house. Many thousands of 
pounds changed hands daily without authority 
or sanction of the banks, who believed their 
clerks to be following their tedious rounds, 
instead of disposing of the business in hand 
in a fraction of the former time. 

When the practice was discovered, there was 
division of opinion among the bankers. Some 
ordered it stopped forthwith. Others, per- 
ceiving the germ of merit in the idea, held out 
for its development. The latter prevailed, 
and a room was engaged for the use of the boys. 
Later, a set of clearing rules was devised, and 
a manager was placed in charge of the entire 
activity. From this informal beginning evolved 
the London Clearing House, the largest in 
the world. 

Time and the development of American 
banking brought the system to this country. 
New York established its clearing house in 
1853, followed by Boston, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, and Chicago, in turn. Now, every city 
of size or commercial importance has its 
clearing house. All follow the same elementary 
idea of convenience and economy of time and 
labor, though local conditions make special 
rules advisable. F.H.E. 

CLEAVAGE, kleev' aje, the property pos- 
sessed by some metamorphic rocks and by 
many crystalline minerals of being divisible in 
certain directions into layers or thin sheets. 
The flat surfaces separating the layers are 
called cleavage planes. The cleavage of rocks 
and that of minerals differ in several ways, 
and are due to quite different causes. 

True rock cleavage is found only in fine- 
grained metamorphic rocks of rather uniform 
mineral composition, such as slate and some 

Photo Viaual Education Borne. 

varieties of schists. It is not a structure that* 
the rocks have possessed since their formation, 
but was imposed upon them when they were 
metamorphosed under intense pressure. The 
metamorphosed rocks are composed largely 
or wholly of minerals in the form of small 
flakes, or of small platelike crystals that lie 
nearly parallel. Consequently, they can be 
split into slabs or thin layers with fairly smooth 
sides, in a direction parallel to the flat crystals, 
but not in any other direction. 

Mineral cleavage, on the other hand, is 
inherent in the minerals that possess it; it is 
due to the atomic structure of the crystals and 
not to any later changes imposed from without. 
Some minerals, such as mica, are cleavable in 
only one direction, but others are cleavable 
in as many as four directions. The number of 
directions in which a mineral is cleavable is 
related to the degree of symmetry of its crys- 
tallization, but the cleavage planes in a crystal 
are not necessarily parallel to faces actually 
developed on that particular crystal. 

Cleavage, in both rocks and minerals, may 
be advantageous or detrimental, according 
to the purpose for which the material is to 
be used. In the manufacture of roofing slates, 
the rock is split along its cleavage planes, and 
the usefulness of mica in industry depends 




largely on its nearly perfect cleavage. See 

CLEAVELAND, MOSES, founder of Cleve- 
land, Ohio (which see). 

CLEBURNE, kle' burn, TEX. See TEXAS 
(back of map). 

CLEF. See Music (A Course of Lessons). 

CLEMATIS, klem' a tis, the name of a 
genus of herbs and shrubs belonging to the 
buttercup family. Both wild and cultivated 
forms are widely distributed through North 

America and Europe. Many of the species 
are of climbing habit and make most attractive 
vines. In September, when most of the summer 
flowers have come and gone 

Then the wild clematis comes, 
With her wealth of tangled blooms, 
Reaching up and drooping low, 

and we see the sprays of white or purple starlike 
flowers gracefully trailing over rocks and fences 
or swinging from the tops of shrubs. In the 
cities, the cultivated varieties cover veranda, 
trellis, and arbor with fragrant white blos- 
soms or large flowers of blue or reddish-purple. 
The best-known American species is the so- 
called virgins-bower. When its flowers have 
gone, the vines are covered with feather- 
tailed, silky tufts of seed clusters like an "old 
man's beard," or like "smoky clusters" rising 
"as from fires of sacrifice, 

Sacred incense to the dead!" B.M.D. 

Scientific Names. The genus belongs to the family 

Ranunculaceae. The botanical name of the virgin 's- 

Photo Keystone 

bower is Clematis virginiana. One of the first origi- 
nated and best-known hybrid species is the purple- 
flowered C. Jackmani. 

CLEMENCEAU, kla makn so', GEORGES 
BENJAMIN EUGENE (1841-1929). This teacher, 
physician, editor, statesman the "tiger of 
France" was the outstanding character in his 
country during the 
World War. Before 
that time, for a third 
of a century, he was 
a powerful influence 
in French affairs. 

He married an 
American woman 
while in the United 
States in his early 
years. Here he taught 
a girls' school and 
practiced medicine. 
Returning to France 
in time to witness the 
Franco-German War 
and exercise a certain 
influence as a mayor, 
he swore that thereafter he should live only to 
avenge his country's loss of Alsace-Lorraine. 
Circumstances made him a powerful instru- 
ment of his country in the war through which 
these provinces were restored (1919). 

While yet a young man, Clemenceau became 
editor of La Justice and of other papers; 
the thunder of his editorials was heard through- 
out Europe, and led in time to a seat in the 
national Senate, then to the post of Premier 
of France. In 1909 his Ministry was defeated, 
but in 1917, in the darkest period of the war, 
he again became Premier. The fiery old man 
was thenceforth the inspiration of all France. 
At the end of the war, he was presiding officer 
at the peace conference and head of the French 
delegation. In 1920 he was suggested for the 
Presidency of France, but was not chosen; 
Deschanel was the successful candidate. In 
1925 Clemenceau's Autobiography appeared, 
and in 1929 Memoirs of a Victory. 

(1835-1910). What boy does not count among 
his treasures The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 
and Huckleberry Finn? What man does not 
look back with real delight to the time when 
he first read them, and, re-reading them now, 
find new sources of humor? And even the 
serious historian finds them of value; for they 
give very clear, lifelike pictures of life in a 
bygone day. Written by the most popular 
American humorist, under the name of MARK 
TWAIN, they have made their author beloved 
wherever English is spoken, and have brought 
good-natured laughter into millions of homes. 

Clemens was born in the town of Florida, 
Mo., on November 30, 1835, and received only 
the meager education which a little Western 




town of those days afforded. At the age of 
thirteen, he was at work in a printing office, and 
there, with characteristic zeal, he soon became 
an expert typesetter. 
He worked for a time 
in Saint Louis, New 
York, and Philadel- 
phia, but the life of 
the river held a 
strong fascination 
for him, and in 1851 
he became a steam- 
boat pilot. Every 
reader of his Life 
on the Mississippi 
has followed with 
keen interest his ex- 
periences while in 
this position. It 
must have been dur- 
ing this time that 
he chose his pen 
name, for "Mark twain!" was a frequent call 
of the sounder, to indicate that the water was 
two fathoms deep. 

When the War of Secession broke out, navi- 
gation on the Mississippi practically ceased, 
and Clemens joined a company of Southern 
sympathizers who had volunteered in the Con- 
federate ranks, but he saw no actual service. 

Photo brown Bro. 


Better known to the world 
as "Mark Twain." 


From a photograph taken several years before his 
death, on the occasion of a visit "back home." 

In Nevada, whither he went with his brother 
after the war, and later in San Francisco, he 
worked as a reporter, and readers of the papers 
for which he wrote had glimpses of his delight- 
ful humor, which consisted largely in treating 
gross exaggerations with absolute seriousness. 
For a time he was interested in mining, then 

he took a trip to the Sandwich Islands (now 
Hawaiian Islands), and after his return, in 
1866, he gradually acquired a reputation as a 
writer and lecturer. The Jumping Frog of 
Calaveras County and Innocents Abroad, the 
latter an account, exquisitely funny in places, 
of a trip through Egypt and the Holy Land, 
won him a more than local reputation and 
made him prosperous. He married in 1870, 
and the next year gave up the editorship of 
the Buffalo Express, which he had held for 
two years, and removed to Hartford, Conn. 
There the Clemens family remained until 1880, 
when financial reverses took them to Europe, 
where living was cheaper. A New York pub- 
lishing house in which the author was inter- 
ested failed in 1804, leaving him with a burden 
of debt. This was entirely paid off by the pro- 
ceeds of a triumphant lecture tour around the 
world (1805-1896). In 1900 Clemens and his 
wife and daughters returned to America. 
They lived for several years in New York, but 
the author's last years were spent in a beau- 
tiful house which he built in Redding, Conn. 
His Name and Memory Honored. Statues 
in his honor have been erected in his birth- 
place and in Hannibal, but the most signal 
tribute to his memory is the io6-acre Mark 
Twain Memorial Park on the banks of the Salt 
River, a beautiful stream flowing through 'the 
village of Florida. This contains the humble 
two-room cottage where the author was born, 
and which has long been a Mecca for thousands 
of those who have learned to appreciate him 
"who cheered and comforted a tired world." 

Summary of His Works. In addition to the famous 
books mentioned above, he wrote A Connecticut 
Yankee at Kmx Arthur's Court, satirizing the roman- 
tic age of chivalry, a story which later became one 
of the most successful moving pictures of the day, 
PudcTnhead Wtlwn, a serious study of life in a little 
Missouri town, with some excellent character draw- 
ing; The Prince and the Pauper, a fantastic tale of 
what happened when Prince Edward of England 
changed positions with a beggar boy; Recollections ol 
Joan of Arc, and other works. He wrote some things 
which were not intended to be funny, but the public 
insisted on looking for humor in everything that came 
from his pen. He himself was far from being the 
typical "funny man," but took a deep interest in 
serious questions, social and political His vigorous 
style and mastery of language have been praised by 
more than one critic, for he was an artist, not merely 
an entertaining humorist 

CLEMENT, klem' ent, the name of fourteen 
Popes, of whom the fifth and sixth were French- 
men and resided at Avignon. Of most im- 
portance historically were Clement I, Clement 
VII, Clement Vlll/and Clement XIV. 

Clement I, commonly known as Clement of Rome, 
lived in the first century AD , and is alleged to have 
been the third bishop of Rome after Saint Peter 
The early Christians felt a reverence for him second 
only to that in which the twelve Apostles were held, 




and his Epistle to the Corinthians is an important 
source of early Church history. For a time, this letter 
ranked as a part of the Scriptures. 

Clement VII, Pope from 1523 to 1534, was of the 
famous Medici family (see MEDICI). His reign fell 
during the troubled days of the early Reformation, 
and his vacillating character led him to take sides 
with one party after another, until all lost faith in 
him. The troops of Emperor Charles V sacked Rome 
in 1527; the Pope was for a time held prisoner in one 
of his own castles, but was later reconciled to the 
emperor, whom he urged to take severe measures 
against the Protestants. Clement's refusal to grant 
the divorce of Henry VIII of England 
from Catharine lost England to the 
Church of Rome (see CATHARINE OF 

Clement VIII, Pope from i5Q2 to 
1605, was a lover of learning, as was 
shown by his favors to scholars and 
the revisions of the Vulgate, the 
breviary, and the liturgical books 
which he caused to be made; a man 
of sincere piety, as his daily con- 
fessions bear witness; and an apostle 
of peace rather than war, for he led 
in the mediations which resulted in 
the Peace of Vervins between France 
and Spain. It was he, too, who 
reconciled the great Henry IV of 
France with the Church. See VUL- 

Clement XIV, the last of the name, 
was Pope from 1760 to 1774. Be- 
cause of his support of the Jesuits, 
he met with determined opposition 
in most of the Roman Catholic coun- 
tries of Europe, and finally was com- 
pelled to sign a brief suppressing the 
Order. He was not only a statesman 
of ability, but a scholar as well, and 
was the founder of the Clementine 
Museum in the Vatican. See JKS- 


SOUTH CAROLINA (Education). 

CLEOBULUS, kle o bu' lus. 

CLEOPATRA, kle o pa' trah, the name 
borne by several Egyptian queens, the most 
famous of whom was CLEOPATRA VI, daughter 
of Ptolemy Auletes, and one of the most cele- 
brated rulers the world has ever seen. Her 
beauty influenced the policies of the greatest 
men of her day. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), in 
Thoughts, said, "If the nose of Cleopatra had 
been shorter, the whole face of the earth would 
have been changed. " See illustration, page 1466. 

She was born in 69 or 68 B.C., and in 51 B.C. 
reached the throne on the death of her father. 
Her brother, Ptolemy, then twelve years old, 
was made joint ruler with her, and his advisers 
soon succeeded in seizing all the power and 
driving Cleopatra from the kingdom. She col- 
lected an army in Syria, but met with no suc- 
cess until Caesar, visiting Alexandria and 

falling a victim to her personal charms, took up 
her battles for her. Her brother was defeated 
and killed, and a younger brother, also called 
Ptolemy, was placed on the throne with her. 
In 46 B.C. Cleopatra went to Rome, and she 
remained there as Caesar's mistress until his 
death in 44 B.C. 

On her return to Egypt, she had her brother 
put to death, that her son Caesarion, whose 
father was Caesar, might become her heir. 
In 42 B.C., after the Battle of Philippi, she 
had her momentous first meet- 
ing with Mark Antony at Tar- 
sus. She had arrayed herself for 
conquest, and Antony promptly 
fell in love with her and followed 
her back to Egypt. There he 
lived for some time, and although 
obliged to return to Rome, he 
hastened back to Alexandria as 
soon as possible, and gave him- 
self up to pleasure and revelry 
with her. He divorced his wife 
Octavia, sister of Octavius, for 
her, and thus hastened the war 
with Octavius which culminated 
in the Battle of Actium. 

Cleopatra had brought her 
fleet to aid Antony, but believing 
that he was being defeated, she 
fled with her ships, and Antony 
followed her. She let the report 
reach him, on the approach of 
Octavius, that she had com- 
mitted suicide, and he took his 
own life; but she tried to make 
herself safe, as she had done 
before, by bringing Octavius 
under the spell of her fascina- 
tions. This time she was unsuc- 
cessful, and rather than be led 
in triumph to Rome, she killed 
herself, by what method is not 
known, though tradition declares 
that she placed an asp on her 
arm and died of its bite. This is doubted, for 
such a death would have disfigured her skin, 
and her vanity would have revolted at mar- 
ring her beauty. Poisons were plentiful and 
their effects were understood; the best opinion 
declares such a means probably was employed. 
[See illustration, page 1466.] 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles- 

Actium Augustus Octavia 

Antony, Mark Caesar, Julius Ptolemy ( XIV) 

CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLES, the name given 
to two magnificent Egyptian obelisks of red 
syenite which were presented in 1877 by Is- 
mail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, to the 
governments of Great Britain and the United 
States, respectively. One was set up on the 
London Embankment in 1878; the other stands 


In Central Park, New 

York City. 




in Central Park, New York, having been trans- 
ported to the United States in 1880. The 
latter is sixty-nine feet high and seven and one- 
half feet thick at the base, and weighs 200 
tons. It rests on four bronze bases, the originals 
of which are in the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, a few rods to the east. The sides of the 
obelisk are covered with hieroglyphics, and 
bear inscriptions of Thothmes III (about 
1500 B.C.) and Rameses II. These obelisks 
originally stood before the Temple of the Sun 
at Heliopolis, whence they were removed to 
Alexandria, in 14 B.C. 

Restoring the Obelisk. Although the obelisk had 
stood undamaged in the dry climate of Egypt for 
more than 3,000 years, the moist salt air of New York 
has damaged its surface. Efforts were made some years 
ago to protect it, but now many of the hieroglyphics 
have been obliterated. See OBELISK; THOTHMES HI. 

CLEPSYDRA, kkp' si drah. See CLOCK. 

CLERESTORY, kleer' sto rie. See ARCHI- 

CLERMONT, the first American steamboat. 

(First Crusade). 


(1837-1908), the twenty-second and twenty- 
fourth President of the United States, the first 
Democrat after the War of Secession to hold 
this office, and the only President wjio has 
served two terms not in succession. Probably 
no other President was more consistent, more 
courageous in his convictions, and for a time 
more unpopular. Cleveland was physically 
large and heavy, and like many men of his 
build, was calm and deliberate in his judg- 
ments, but once his mind was made up, he was 
not swayed by public clamor He was obsti- 
nate, but always for reasons of conscience. 

Yet it must not be imagined that Cleveland 
could not feel the public pulse. He may have 
been indifferent, but he was not deaf to public 
opinion. And there were times when he pre- 
sented an issue to the public in such a form 
that his words are still quoted. He was not 
an orator, but he could phrase his statements 
in crisp, telling form. When he said that 
"Public office is a public trust," everybody 
understood him. 

His Youth. Cleveland was born on March 
18, 1837, at Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., 
where 'his father was pastor of the Presby- 
terian church. The son was christened Stephen 
Grover, but he dropped the name Stephen be- 
fore he reached manhood. After 1841 the family 
lived first at Fayetteville, N. Y., and later at 
Clinton, N. Y. Grover was sixteen years old 
and was preparing to enter Hamilton College, 
when his father died. He went to work to 
help support his mother and sisters, and for 
a year taught in the Institution for the Blind 

at Batavia. He then felt, however, that the 
West offered him greater opportunities, and 
in the autumn of 1855 he borrowed twenty -five 

Photo- brown I 

From a photograph taken the year before his death. 

dollars and set out for Cleveland, Ohio. He 
got no farther than Buffalo, where an uncle 




persuaded him to remain and soon found him 
a position as clerk in a law office. 

In Law and Politics. Almost immediately 
after his admission to the bar, in 1859, Cleve- 
land became conspicuous in local politics, and 
in 1863 was appointed assistant district attor- 
ney for Erie County, of which Buffalo is the 
chief city. Two years later, he was the unsuc- 
cessful candidate for district attorney, but in 
1870 was elected sheriff. In this office, which 
he held for three years, he displayed at least 
one trait which was characteristic of him 
throughout his career. Because he believed 
that a public official should perform the duties 
for which he was elected, he personally sprang 
the trap that hanged a convicted criminal 
rather than delegate this duty to a deputy. 
At the end of his term, he resumed the practice 
of law, and was soon recognized as one of the 
leaders of the bar in Western New York, 

The decade following the War of Secession 
was a period of political corruption and con- 
fusion, and of extravagance in public and pri- 
vate life. Cleveland's appearance in public life 
nearly coincided with the beginning of a re- 
action against the looseness of morals which 
had been apparent during these years. Cleve- 
land, as sheriff, had displayed an honesty and 
devotion to duty which led to his nomination 
and election, in November, 1881, as mayor of 
Buffalo on a reform ticket. In a year, Buffalo 

experienced little less than a revolution, for its 
mayor was a man who went on his course with- 
out regard to "influence." A year in the 
mayor's office won him the Democratic nomi- 
nation for governor of New York. His oppo- 
nent was Charles J. Folger, President Arthur's 
Secretary of the Treasury, a man of great 
ability, but unfortunate in that the people of 
New "York thought he was being forced upon 
them by "machine" politics. Cleveland was 
elected by a plurality of iQ2,8oo votes an 
unprecedented victory in those times. As 
governor, Cleveland continued to show the 
same fearless independence which had charac- 
terized his course as mayor of Buffalo. He kept 
a watchful eye on many details of adminis- 
tration which governors usually neglect. It is 
said that he never signed a bill until he had 
read it through; he accepted nobody's inter- 
pretation of it, but always relied on his own 
judgment. He vetoed so many bills that he 
was often called the "veto governor." He 
offended Tammany, the labor element, and 
many others. Nothing better showed his dis- 
regard of public clamor than his veto of a 
bill which provided lower rates of fare on the 
elevated railroads of New York City. The 
object of the bill met his approval, but not 
the method. Nevertheless, he won a large 
personal following, simply because he was fear- 
less and independent. 

Cleveland's Career as President 

The Election of 1884. Cleveland's terms as 
mayor of Buffalo and governor of New York 
made him a national figure. As the time for 
the Campaign of 1884 approached, he was 
recognized as the leading candidate for the 
Democratic nomination, and at the national con- 
vention in Chicago was nominated practically 
without opposition. The Republicans nomi- 
nated James G. Blaine, one of the most bril- 
liant men in public life and one of the most 
popular. Yet Blaine had many enemies, and 
thousands of Republicans refused to vote for 
him. It was this clement, called Mugwumps, 
that turned against Blaine and elected Cleve- 
land. The campaign was one of the bitterest 
in the history of the United States. Blaine 
attempted to keep alive the issues of the War 
of Secession and reconstruction, but the 
campaign proved that they were dead. The 
real contest was personal, and was marked 
by charges against the characters of both 
Cleveland and Blaine. When friends of Cleve- 
land asked him how they should answer 
the charges against him, he said, "Tell the 
truth!" The election was close; the result was 
not known for three days, until the official 
count gave Cleveland a plurality of fewer 
than 1,500 votes in New York state. New 
York's vote gave Cleveland a plurality of 

thirty-seven in the electoral college. Cleve- 
land's popular vote was 4,qi2,6g6, against 
4,840,680 for Blaine. 

First Administration (1885-1889). His term 
of office was in many respects notable. It was 


States shown in black were Democratic; cross-lined, 
Republican; light shaded, non- voting territories. 

apparent from the first that Cleveland was 
prepared to take, and even insisted on taking, 
the entire responsibility of the administration. 
He showed his independence at the start by 
refusing to make wholesale removals of Re- 




New Orleans Cotton Exposition 


Four States Admitted 
to the Union 

, President 

nter state 

Exclusion Act 

Haymarket Riot 

Earthquake in Charleston, 5 C. 

Statue of Liberty 
Completed 1886 




Bering Sea 




Railway Strike 


to the 





publican office-holders. Although he made 
enough changes to incur the disapproval of 
reformers, his administration marked a great 
advance in civil service. He applied the prin- 
ciples of the Civil Service Act of 1883 to many 
offices not specifically mentioned in the act; 
and during his term in office added nearly 
12,000 offices to the classified service. 

Vigorous Use of the Executive Power. Dur- 
ing his term, Cleveland frequently proved his 
independence. He became involved in a quar- 
rel with the Senate, in which the Republicans 
were in the majority, because he refused to 
give his reasons for removing certain officers. 
The Senate's consent was necessary to their 
appointment, but when the Senate demanded 
that the President make public the documents 
on which he based their removal, he laid down 
the principle that a President's papers were not 
subject to the order of Congress. In other 
ways he maintained the dignity of the Chief 
Magistrate. He prevented a rebellion among 
the Mormons by concentrating troops at Salt 
Lake City. In a dispute over Canadian fish- 
eries, he threatened to prohibit importation 
from Canada except over American-owned rail- 
ways, and he dispatched 3,000 marines to the 
Isthmus of Panama to quell an insurrection 
which threatened loss of American lives and 
property. During his term, he vetoed over 400 
bills sent to him by Congress. Nearly two- 
thirds of these were private pension bills, but 
the most important of all the vetoed bills 
was the Dependent Pension Bill, whose indefi- 
nite terms would have opened the way to 
endless confusion. Cleveland's frequent use of 
the veto power gave him the nickname of the 
"Veto President." 

Labor Troubles. During the whole of this 
period, the United States was disturbed by 
labor troubles. There were many strikes in 
different parts of the country, and relations 
between labor and capital were generally un- 
satisfactory. The Knights of Labor, an organi- 
zation founded in 1869 on the principle that 
"the injury of one is the concern of all," in- 
creased its membership from about 100,000 in 
1885 to more than 700,000 in 1886. The num- 
ber of strikes in 1886 was more than double the 
number in 1885. In one of the strikes, af- 
fecting the Gould system of railways, 6,000 
miles of railway were tied up, and a great strike 
at the McCormick harvester plants in Chicago 
had its climax in the famous Haymarket Riot 
[see CHICAGO (History)]. President Cleveland, 
in a message to Congress, advocated an arbi- 
tration commission to settle industrial disputes, 
but Congress took no action. 

Important Legislation. Although the Demo- 
crats in the Senate of the United States during 
the whole of his term were in the minority, 
Cleveland's administration was noteworthy for 
the enactment of a number of important laws. 

First of these was a contract-labor law, pro- 
hibiting the importation of alien laborers under 
contract. Other important acts were the Presi- 
dential Succession Act of 1886; a new Anti- 
Polygamy law, in 1887, dissolving the Mormon 
Church as a corporation and strengthening 
preceding statutes aimed at polygamy; the 
Electoral Count Act of 1887, which made 
the states the final judges in controversies 
concerning the election of Presidential electors, 
and thus was aimed to prevent disputes like 
that of 1876; and the Chinese Exclusion Act, in 
1888, which forbade further Chinese immigra- 
tion. More important than any of these was 
the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, placing 
the railways and other common carriers under 
the control of a Federal commission. During 
the last months of Cleveland's administration, 
Congress voted to establish a Department of 
Agriculture, and also passed an enabling act 
for the admission of North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Montana, and Washington to the 

Local and Miscellaneous Events. One of 
the most interesting events of these years was 
the dedication of the Statue of Liberty in New 
York Harbor, in 1886. The New Orleans Cot- 
ton Exposition in 1885 and the destruction of 
Charleston, S. C., by an earthquake in 1886 
are also noteworthy. 

The election of Cleveland in 1884 showed 
that the old political issues raised by the War 
of Secession were dead. As if to bear witness 
to this fact, during Cleveland's term occurred 
the deaths of many of the men who had been 
leaders during or immediately after the war. 
Among these famous men were U. S. Grant, 
George B. McClellan, Philip H. Sheridan, John 
A. Logan, Winfield S. Hancock, Samuel J. Til- 
den, Horatio Seymour, Roscoe Conkling, and 
Cleveland's predecessor in the Presidency, 
Chester A. Arthur. 

The Tariff and the Presidential Election of 
1888. For a number of years the United States 
government had faced the problem of an in- 
creasing surplus in the treasury. During 
Arthur's administration, several attempts were 
made to reduce the surplus by appropriations, 
many of which were wasteful. In a special 
message to Congress in December, 1887, Cleve- 
land pointed out that the increasing surplus 
showed that the scale of taxation was excessive, 
and recommended sweeping reductions in the 
import tariffs. The Mills Bill, which passed 
the House of Representatives, was a low-tariff 
measure, estimated to reduce the revenues by 
$50,000,000 a year. The Republican Senate 
amended it so that it became a high protective 
measure, which the House refused to accept. 

The failure of this tariff, however, placed 
the issue squarely before the country in a 
Presidential election year. The tariff was the 
chief issue in the campaign. Cleveland was 




renominated, and to oppose him the Republi- 
cans chose Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. 
Cleveland received a plurality of 96,000 in the 
popular vote, but Harrison carried New York 
and thus had a majority in the electoral col- 
lege (233 to 1 68) and was elected. 

An Interval in Private Life. In 1886 Cleve- 
land married, at the Executive Mansion, Miss 
Frances Folsom, the daughter of a former 
law partner in Buffalo. At the end of his 
term, he moved to New York City and there 
practiced law. When he went out of office his 
political career seemed ended, but by 1892 the 
McKinley tariff law and other Republican 
measures led to a change in public feeling. 
In spite of the opposition of the Democratic 
leaders of New York, his own state, he was 
again nominated for President, and was re- 
elected over Harrison by an electoral college 
vote of 277 to 145, and a plurality of 364,000. 
At this election, for the first time since the 
election of 1860, more than two candidates 
received electoral votes. General James B. 
Weaver of Iowa, a Populist, received twenty- 
two votes. 

Second Administration (1893-1897). Cleve- 
land's second administration was one of the 
most remarkable in the history of the United 
States. He entered office free from pledges; 
the office had sought him. Naturally inde- 
pendent and sometimes lacking in tact, he now 
paid little attention to the feelings of other 
men, and probably no other President ever did 
things more unpopular at the time. For the 
first time since Buchanan's administration, the 
Democratic party was in control in the White 
House and in both houses of Congress. But 
at the outset, Cleveland antagonized a large 
section of his party by his stand on the silver 
issue. In the summer of 1893, the country suf- 
fered from a severe panic, and the govern- 
ment's gold reserve, fell far below the danger 
point. The United States was actually, though 
not knowingly, on the verge of inability to 
redeem its notes in specie. 

Cleveland faced the issue squarely; he called 
Congress in special session, and after a bitter 
fight forced the repeal of the Sherman Silver 
Purchase Act of 1890. That act, by requiring 
the government to buy a large amount of silver 
each month, was exhausting the gold reserve. 
Cleveland, through Secretary of the Treasury 
Carlisle, sold for gold several bond issues to a 
syndicate of New York bankers, in order to 
keep the gold reserve at a point where it was 
enough to redeem the government's paper 
currency. He was severely criticized for allow- 
ing the bankers a large profit, and a later bond 
issue was sold by public subscription. The 
effects of the panic, however, were apparent for 
several years, until about 1897. 

One of the principal results of the business 
depression following the panic was a series of 

labor troubles, which culminated in a great rail- 
way strike in 1894. Everywhere there was dis- 
content among the laboring classes; thousands 
were out of work, and strikes were frequent. 
The closing of the Pullman Company's shops 
at Pullman, 111., led to a general strike of the 


States shown in black were Democratic; oblique 

shaded, Republican; perpendicular shaded, Populist; 

light shaded, non-voting territories. 

railway employees on practically all of the 
lines running east of Chicago. Chicago was 
the center of the trouble, and rioting and de- 
struction of property were ordinary events of 
the day. As the governor of Illinois, John P. 
Altgeld, refused to call out the militia to pre- 
serve order, the President on his own initiative 
sent Federal troops to Chicago to protect the 
mails and incidentally to suppress rioting. 
This action caused sharp controversy, because 
Altgeld insisted that the President had no 
right to order out Federal troops for service in 
a state, except at the request of the governor. 

In the midst of the panic and depression, 
Cleveland urged a revision of the tariff in ac- 
cordance with the Democratic campaign prom- 
ises. The Wilson Bill, framed in the House 
according to the President's suggestion, was 
so materially altered in the Senate that Cleve- 
land refused to sign it. He allowed it to be- 
come a law (1894) without his signature, but 
issued a statement criticizing some of the 
Democratic Senators who had not supported 
their party. This split in the Democracy was 
followed by Republican victories at the polls 
in November, 1894, and for the last two years 
of his term the new Republican majority pre- 
vented Cleveland from securing any important 

In his foreign policy, Cleveland was no less 
energetic and firm than at home. Almost his 
first act in 1893 was to withdraw from the 
Senate the Hawaiian annexation treaty nego- 
tiated in Harrison's administration. He se- 
cured a treaty with China which marked the 
beginning of the "open door" policy. But per- 
haps his greatest act, which has left the deepest 
impress on American history, was his famous 




Venezuela message, sent to Congress on Decem- 
ber 17, 1895. Cleveland's Secretary of State, 
Richard Olney, had urged Great Britain to 
arbitrate its dispute with Venezuela over the 
British Guiana- Venezuela boundary, but Great 
Britain insisted that the Monroe Doctrine did 
not apply to the issue. Thereupon Cleveland 
sent a brief message, in which he declared that 
the Monroe Doctrine was the vital issue at 
stake, and intimated that the United States 
would go to war to maintain it. The excite- 
ment in Great Britain and the United States 
grew intense, but after several diplomatic ex- 
changes the English government agreed to 
arbitrate the boundary dispute; this was accom- 
plished to the satisfaction of all concerned. 
The Private Citizen 

The Venezuela message was Cleveland's last 
important act as President. When he retired 
to private life, in 1807, there was probably no 
more unpopular man in the United States. He 
had offended his own party by his stand on the 
silver and tariff issues; he had won the enmity 
of labor by his action during the strike; he was 
even disliked by the bankers and financiers 
because his Venezuela message had upset the 
stock markets. Yet Cleveland was fortunate 
enough to outlive the bitterness of these years, 
and long before his death he was universally 
respected and recognized as one of the greatest 
of the Presidents. The policies for which he 
had fought and had been jeered at were carried 
out by his Republican successors, and even 
his few mistakes were excused in the light of 
his undoubted honesty of purpose. From 1897 
until his death, he made his home in Princeton, 
N. J., where he took an active interest in the 
university, especially the graduate school. He 
was a lecturer and a trustee of the 
university for ten years, and the 
beautiful tower of the graduate 
school is a memorial to him. 

In 1005, following the exposure 
of insurance scandals in New York, 
Cleveland became one of the 
trustees of the Equitable Life As- 
surance Society, one of the larg- 
est insurance companies in the 
United States. Nothing is better 
testimony to Cleveland's repu- 
tation than the renewal of public 
confidence in this and other 
companies after he assumed this 
responsibility. . , 

Other Items of Interest. A Re pub- ' 
lican of high standing, who opposed 
Cleveland in many ways, declared that 
his treatment of the Venezuela question 
was "the most signal victory of American diplomacy 
in modern times." 

During his second Presidential candidacy, Cleve- 
land was referred to by his opponents as "The Per- 
petual Candidate" and "The Stuffed Prophet." 


The lectures delivered during his latter years at 
Princeton University were published as Presidential 

The hero of Paul Leicester Ford's The Honorable 
Petff Stirling is in part a characterization of Grover 

Cleveland could not enlist during the War of Se- 
cession, for two of his brothers were in the army and 
he had to work hard to support his mother and sisters. 
But he borrowed money to hire a substitute, and was 
unable to repay the loan until long after the war 
was over. 

The Indians of the Oklahoma country had been 
deprived of many of their rights and much of their 
territory by white settlers, but Cleveland compelled 
the latter to withdraw and even to tear down the 
fences which they had hurrriedly constructed to mark 
their "claims." 

At the great memorial meeting which was held for 
Cleveland, his personal friend, Richard Watson 
Gilder, read a poetic eulogy, in which occurred the 
following lines, which give a true picture of the man: 

Thou brave and faithful servant of the State, 
Who labored day and niffht in little things, 
No less than large, for thy loved country's sake, 
With patient hand that plodded while others slept! 

His manner of speaking was delightfully informal, 
and his powers of mimicry were so great that Joseph 
Jefferson declared that he had missed his calling and 
should have been an actor. 

Almost the last words he spoke were, "I have tried 
so hard to do right." A B H 

Frances Folsom Cleveland (1864- ), the "White 
House Bride," was the first woman to marry a Pres- 
ident in the White House She was so universally 
admired and beloved that the fact that President 
Cleveland spent a year in office as a bachelor is usu- 
ally forgotten. During that year, the mistress of the 
White House was the President's sister, Rose Eliza- 
beth Cleveland, famous in her own right as a lecturer 
and writer, and a popular and graceful hostess 

Frances Folsom was the daughter of Oscar Folsom, 
Cleveland's law partner in Buffalo; after her father's 
death she was Cleveland's ward He 
married her at the White House in 1886 
The difference of a quarter century in 
their ages did not prevent their marriage 
from being ideally happy The beauty 
and charm of Mrs. Cleveland, as well as 
her romantic marriage, endeared her 
to the public, no action or word of hers 
appeared too unimportant to merit 
attention in the press. The working 
women who attended her famous Satur- 
day receptions were met with the same 
pleasure and tact displayed before 
women of high official rank. 

Five children were born to the 
Clevelands; the second daughter, Es- 
ther, was born in the White House, in 
1803. In 1013, five years after the ex- 
President's death, his widow married 
Thomas J. Preston, Jr., a professor at 
Princeton University. 

Related Subjects. The reader who seeks 
additional information with respect to this 
President and his times is referred in these volumes to the 
following articles: 

Elaine, James G. Presidential Succession 

Interstate Commerce Act Tariff 

Mugwumps Venezuela (History) 






I. Years of Preparation 

(1) Birth and parentage 

(2) Education 

(3) Removal to the West 

(4) Practice of law 

II. Early Political Career 

(1) As sheriff 

(a) Serious conception of his duties 

(2) As mayor of Buffalo 
(a) Financial reform 

(3) As governor of New York 
(a) The veto governor 

(4) The election of 1884 

III. First Administration 

(1) The Cabinet 

(2) Legislation 

(a) Contract labor law 

(b) Presidential Succession Act, 1886 
(L) Anti-Polygamy law, 1887 

(d) Electoral Count Act, 1887 

(e) Chinese Exclusion Act, 1888 

(f) Interstate Commerce Act, 1887 

(3) Other governmental affairs 

(a) Advance in civil service 

(b) Controversy between President and 


(c) Troops sent to Salt Lake City 

(d) Marines sent to Panama 

(e) States admitted 

(4) Miscellaneous events 

(a) Haymarket Riot in Chicago 

(b) Other labor troubles 

(c) Arrival of Statue of Liberty 

(d) New Orleans Cotton Exposition 

(e) Destruction of Charleston 

(5) Election of 1888 

IV. Second Administration 

(1) Election of i8g2 

(2) Legislation 

(a) Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed 

(b) Tariff revision 

(3) Foreign affairs 

(a) Hawaiian annexation treaty with- 


(b) Treaty with China 

(c) Venezuela message 

(4) Other events 

(a) Financial panic 

(b) Labor troubles 

i Troops sent to Chicago 

(c) World's Columbian Exposition 

(d) Utah admitted 

V. After Retirement 

(1) Later life 

(2) Character 


What words, spoken shortly before his death, summed up his aim in life? 

How did Cleveland manage to displease both the civil-service reformers and the 
"spoils system" advocates? 

What led to his nomination in i8q2? 

What significance had the fact that he once sprang the trap and hanged a criminal 
in showing his attitude toward public office? 

What was the most important legislation of his first Presidential term? 

How many Presidents have served two terms not consecutively? 

What was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, and why was it repealed? 

What were "Mugwumps," and what part did they have in determining the career 
of Cleveland? 

How did the public attitude toward Cleveland at his death differ from the atti- 
tude toward him when he went out of office? 

What is regarded as his greatest act? 

Why did not Cleveland fight in the War of Secession? What did he do instead? 

What was the Haymarket Riot? 

How did the President incur the enn-ity of a governor of Illinois? 




_ /LEVELAND, OHIO, the largest city 
in the state and the county seat of Cuyahoga 
County, is the sixth city in population in the 
United States and one of its principal manu- 
facturing and trading centers. Cleveland's 
rapid growth and consistent prosperity owe 
much to its location on a site where rail and 
water routes have a natural junction, and at a 
point accessible to the iron ore of the Lake 
Superior region, the products of the grain belt, 
and the coal and oil of Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
and West Virginia. The city is situated on the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, on a natural inner 
harbor formed by the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River. It is thus directly on the line of the 
Great Lakes traffic ; furthermore, lying, as it 
does, in almost the same latitude as Chicago, 
339 miles to the west, and New York, 576 
miles to the east, it is on the through rail 
and airplane routes between the populous 
markets of the East and the Middle West. 
These factors of location have had a major 
share in the stimulation of manufacturing and 

Cleveland's development, however, has not 
been restricted to the commercial and the 
industrial. In civic accomplishments, the city 
has a record of achievements of which it may 
well be proud, not only in connection with 
city planning, but in the difficult field of muni- 
cipal government, and in social welfare and 

Briefly Stated. Below are summarized a 
few of the notable statistical facts relating to 
Cleveland. Where figures are subject to slight 
changes from year to year, they must be re- 
garded as approximations. 

Area, 71 square miles. 

Auditorium (public), capacity of, 12,500 

Banks, 22; capital, $50,425,000. 

Bank deposits, $840,000,000 

Boulevards and driveways, municipal, 40 miles 

Breakwater, sf miles. 

Capital invested in manufacturing, $702,000,000 

Churches, 410. 

City airport, acres. 

Export trade, annual, $300,000,000 

Freight receipts (exclusive of ore), 25,000,000 tons 

Frontage on Lake Erie, 14 2 miles 

Gas mains, 1,000 miles. 

Manufacturing plants, over 2,400; yearly payroll, 

Parks, municipal, 3,640 acres 

Parks of metropolitan area, 15,000 acres 

Percentage of industries classified by the United 
States census, 8s. 

Schools, public, 166; teachers, 4,562. Parochial 
schools, 123; teachers, 1,092. 

Sewers, 1,050 miles. 

Street railway system, 1,600 cars, 418 miles of 
track, 500,000,000 passengers yearly. 

Streets, mileage of, 1,105. 

Water mains, 2,240 miles. 

Water consumption, including suburbs, 161,000,000 
gallons daily; eight pumping stations, with 000,000,- 
ooo gallons daily capacity. 

Population. At the 1920 census, Cleveland's 
population had grown to 796,841, increasing to 
that number from 4 within a period of 124 
years. The city was then the fifth largest in 
the United States, but in the next decade Los 
Angeles forged ahead and Cleveland dropped 
to sixth place, without, however, losing its 
rank in manufacturing and commerce. Since 
1880 the city has doubled its population every 
twenty years. In 1928, according to Federal 
estimate, the population was 1,010,300; that 




of Greater Cleveland, including adjoining 
suburbs, was estimated at i , 1 50,000. Over one- 
third of the inhabitants are foreign-born; these 
are made up chiefly of Germans, Slavs, Hun- 
garians, Russians, Irish, and Italians. 

General Description. The city occupies an 
attractive site of seventy-one square miles, on 
a bluff rising about a hundred feet above the 
lake level. It is divided into an East Side and 
a West Side by the deep, winding valley of the 
Cuyahoga. The land along the lower reaches 
of the river, called the Flats, provides excellent 
sites for factories, lumber yards, docks, and 
other industrial properties, and this section 
of the stream forms the inner harbor. Behind 
a breakwater half a mile out, the outer harbor 
extends along the shore of the lake for nearly 
six miles. The floor of the Cuyahoga Valley 
and the ravines made by several small tribu- 
taries, or runs, have been utilized by the rail- 
roads as roadbeds, because of their easy grades 
and convenience as approaches and exits. 
The plateau above the Flats, fairly level ex- 
cept where it is gullied by the creeks that have 
cut their way through to the river, is the site of 
the principal business and residential sections 
of the city proper. Girdling this plateau are 
the hills and valleys of a highland region be- 
longing to the Alleghany Plateau. 

Principal Thoroughfares. The business 
activities of Cleveland center about the 
Public Square, from which the principal 
streets of the East Side radiate. This square, 
formerly called Monumental Park, is divided 
into four sections by Ontario and Superior 
avenues, these streets intersecting in the center. 
Superior Avenue continues eastward beyond 
the city limits, and westward to the rim of the 
river valley. At this point, the High Level 
Bridge spans the river and connects with 
Detroit Avenue on the west. This bridge is a 
double-deck concrete structure, the largest of 
several city viaducts; its center span, ninety- 
five feet above the lake level, affords mast 
clearance for the tallest vessels. 

Besides Superior, the principal arteries lead- 
ing from the business center to the outer 
sections of the East Side are Saint Clair, Euclid, 
Carnegie, Cedar, and Woodland avenues, and 
Broadway. On the West Side, Lorain, Detroit, 
and Franklin avenues and West Twenty-fifth 
Street are important thoroughfares. Of all 
these the best-known is Euclid Avenue, a 
broad street extending from the Public Square 
to the suburbs on the northeast. Originally an 
Indian trail, it was reclaimed from brushwood 
and forest, and laid out with such generous pro- 
portions and such mathematical precision, that 
it was named for the Greek father of geometry. 
In time it became the most beautiful residence 
street in the city, if not in the country, but to- 
day is given over to business houses, except in 
the eastern end. 

Cleveland, however, does not lack handsome 
residential streets. Abundant growths of trees 
and shrubbery are so characteristic of its 
avenues that it is called the Forest City. Among 
its most attractive home streets are Lake 
Shore and East boulevards, Magnolia Drive, 
Bellflower Road, Juniper Drive, and Clifton 
Boulevard. On the rolling hills that form the 
highland rim about the city are many fine 
suburban communities, threaded by spacious 
drives. Cleveland Heights and Shaker Heights 
are typical of these desirable suburbs. 

Parks and Parkways. With more than forty 
miles of driveways and a score of parks, 
Cleveland's park system covers 2,475 acres. 
Deep ravines, sparkling waterfalls, and pictur- 
esque combinations of lake and woods give the 
parks the charm of natural beauty; while 
children's playgrounds, tennis courts, ball 
grounds, lagoons, swimming pools; and beach 
equipment make them delightful recreation 
centers. The city is also developing a Metro- 
politan Park District covering about 15,000 
acres of parks and roadways and embracing 
the finest scenery of the surrounding region. 

One of the most attractive sections of the 
city system is the chain of parkland beginning 
at Gordon Park, which lies at the point where 
Doan Brook flows into the lake. The pic- 
turesque Doan Valley, presented to the city 
by John D. Rockefeller, has been converted 
into a narrow park about four miles long; as 
Rockefeller Parkway, it connects Gordon and 
Wade parks, both of which are notable for 
their beautiful landscapes. Overlooking Wade 
Park is the Museum of Art, in a lovely setting 
of shrubbery, trees, and water. Other parks 
include Edgewater, on the lake shore, west of 
the river; Brookside Park and Zoological 
Gardens, on Fulton Road at Denison Avenue; 
and Woodland Hills, half a mile south of Wade 
Park. Among the larger reservations outside 
the city limits are Shaker Heights, Garfield, 
and Clifton parks. 

Public and Business Buildings. In its 
scheme for the grouping of the public buildings, 
the city-plan commission gave Cleveland a 
civic center that is admired the country over. 
These buildings are arranged around the Mall, 
a T-shaped tract of 104 acres, extending from 
Superior Avenue to the lake front. Structures 
already completed are the Cuyahoga County 
Court House, the United States Postoffice 
and Custom House, the City Hall, the Public 
Auditorium, and the Cleveland Public Library. 
Still to be erected is the Criminal Courts 
Building. A Union Passenger Station, origi- 
nally planned for the Mall, has been constructed 
on the southwest side of the Public Square. 

The Terminal group will be a city with'n a 
city, and the reported cost of the entire enter- 
prise will be approximately $200,000,000. The 
Terminal Tower, already completed, is the 




focal point of the group. It is fifty- two stories 
in height, and measures 708 feet from the 
station concourse to the top. It is at present 
the second tallest building in the world. The 
station itself will provide initially thirteen 
tracks and six platforms for steam railroads, 
and six tracks and seven platforms for com- 
muter and rapid transit, with ample space 
reserved for later expansion as required. The 
Terminal will be completely electrified 

Numerous massive office and bank buildings 
give the city a metropolitan appearance. 
Especially characteristic of downtown Cleve- 
land is the arcade type of architecture used for 
many of the buildings housing shops and offices. 
The city is the center of the Fourth Federal 
Reserve District, and its bank headquarters 
for the district, at Superior and East Sixth, is 
an imposing structure erected at a cost of 
$7,500,000.. At East Ninth and Euclid is one 
of the largest bank buildings in the world, 
twenty-one stories high and covering Q5,ooo 
square feet of land space. In Cleveland, too, 
is the first labor cooperative bank established 
in America, the property of the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers. The bank is housed 
in a twenty-story building. 

Institutions. Western Reserve University 
(which see), one of the older collegiate institu- 
tions in the Middle West, occupies a beautiful 
site in the Wade Park district. Near by is 
the Case School of Applied Science. These 
institutions and the Catholic John Carroll 
University, formerly Saint Ignatius College, 
are the chief seats of higher education in 
Cleveland. The Museum of Art, whose collec- 
tions are housed in a handsome building of 
Georgian marble, maintains a comprehensive 
educational program and works in cooperation 
with the city Board of Education. The 
Museum of Natural History docs much to en- 
courage the study of natural science, and is 
open free every day. A third museum, that 
of the Western Reserve Historical Society, is a 
treasure house of Cleveland relics and 'docu- 
ments. Besides the Public Library, with its 
many branches, the city has a considerable 
number of special libraries. 

The Medical Center at University Circle is 
part of a great educational and cultural de- 
velopment. The Center will consist of the 
following buildings: Lakeside Hospital, $3,- 
600,000; Nurses' Dormitory, $1,600,000; Rain- 
bow Hospital, $600,000; Western Reserve 
University Medical School, $2,250,000; West- 
ern Reserve University Nursing School, $750,- 
ooo; Babies' and Children's Hospital, $1,125,- 
ooo; Maternity Hospital, $1,500,000; Allen 
Memorial Library, $600,000; Pathological In- 
stitute, $750,000; and the Private Pavilion, 
$800,000. Money has been provided, by public 
subscription, for the entire group; the Rainbow, 
Babies 1 and Children's, and Maternity hospi- 

tals, the Medical School, and the Library have 
already been constructed. 

The social welfare work is unusually well or- 
ganized. The Cleveland Community Fund, 
subscribed to by citizens, covers all charitable 
efforts. The Boys' Farm, twenty-two miles 
from the city, is controlled by the city and has a 
powerful influence for good among the un- 
manageable boys sent from the Juvenile Court. 


This municipal building has seats for 12,500 people 
It contains one of the world's largest pipe organs. 

An interesting experiment in welfare work is 
the WarrensvUle Farm, occupying 2,000 acres 
eight miles from the city, and devoted to 
charitable and corrective purposes. Here are 
provisions for the treatment of tubercular 
patients, homes for the aged, and cottages 
where indigent old couples may spend their 
last years together. Here, also, is a workhouse 
with connecting shops and fields for employ- 
ment. The project is municipally owned. 

Commerce and Manufacture. With its 
spacious harbors, miles of dockage, and ample 
railway terminal space, Cleveland is equipped 
to handle an enormous volume of trade. Ex- 
clusive of ore shipments, the annual freight 
receipts exceed 25,000,000 tons, of which three- 
fifths are delivered by rail and two-fifths by 
water. The lake commerce consists mainly of 
coal, coke, and iron, with grain and livestock 
following. Every week, when navigation is 
open, a million tons of ore are brought into the 
harbor. Most of this cargo is used by the 
city's blast furnaces; the rest is reloaded onto 
freight cars, to be shipped to Pittsburgh and 
other steel centers. The city is also the largest 
market for fresh-water fish in America. 

By rail and steamer, products of every sort 
and description go from Cleveland to all 
quarters of the world, and raw materials from 
every country are received. The city's export 
and import trade encircles the globe and has an 
average value of $500,000,000 a year. The pas- 
senger business is also heavy during the sum- 
mer, when luxurious steamers ply the Great 













Lakes between Cleveland, Buffalo, Detroit, Chi- 
cago, and Duluth. 

Cleveland has a water front of 14.2 miles on 
the lake and 18.0 miles on the river. Both har- 
bors have been improved by dredging, and the 

Photo U * U 

The shore line of the harbor, taken from an aeromarine flying boat. [Copyright: Hamilton Maxwell ] 

terminal and industrial lines, and six interurban 
roads. The railroads entering the city are the 
Baltimore & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & Saint Louis (Big Four), the New 
York Central, the Erie, the Pennsylvania, 
the Nickel Plate, and the Wheeling & Lake 

In total value of manufactures, Cleveland is 
given fifth rank, among American cities, by 
the United States census. Its 2,400 factories 
produce goods to the value of a billion dollars 
a year, and the more than 14,000 different 
articles manufactured represent about eighty- 
three per cent of all those classified by the 
Federal census. Cleveland is preeminently a 
steel center, the value o* its iron and steel 
products being one-third the value of all other 
commodities combined. These products in- 
clude everything in hardware, from bolts to 
heavy machinery. 

The city is second to Detroit in the manu- 
facture of automobiles, and has the home 
factories of four pleasure cars the Chandler, 
the Jordan, the Peerless, and the Stearns. In 
Cleveland are the largest paint and varnish 
interests in the world. Oil refining has been an 
important industry in Cleveland since 1862, 
when John D. Rockefeller built here his first 
petroleum refinery. The city is second to 
New York in the manufacture of women's 
outer garments, and has 175 mills making men's 
and women's wearing apparel. The lumber, 


government breakwater has been extended to 
nearly six miles. The rail service of the city 
is furnished by seven through railroads, five 





Founder of 

sandstone, and limestone resources in the vicin- 
ity are the basis of prosperous building-material 
enterprises. In East Cleveland, at Nela Park, 
is located the chief lamp works of the General 
Electric Company, where millions of mazda 
lamps are made. The Glenn Martin airplane 
factory is another important 
Cleveland enterprise. Here are 
manufactured some of the planes 
used in the air-mail service, for 
which the city is the eastern 
division headquarters. 

History. In 1796 Moses 
Cleaveland, head surveyor for 
the Connecticut Land Company, 
visited the wilderness known as 
the Western Reserve (which 
see), founded a settlement at 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River and named it Cleaveland. 
In 1831 the spelling was changed 
by a printer to fit a headline 
space. The village of Cleaveland 
was incorporated in 1814, when 
it had a population of less than 

The Ohio Canal, connecting 
Lake Erie with the Ohio River, 
was completed in 1832; then the real develop- 
ment of the city began. In 1836, when the 
place had acquired a population of 6,000, a 
city charter was granted. In 1851 the first 
railroad came to Cleveland, providing connec- 
tions with Columbus, and the next year the 
first cargo of iron ore from the Lake Superior 
region entered the harbor. In 1853 Ohio City 
became a part of Cleveland, making the first 
of several annexations through which the city 
acquired its present area. 

Cleveland has been the home of many dis- 
tinguished men, including James A. Garfield, a 
President of the United States; John Hay, 
Secretary of State during the McKinley ad- 
ministration; Tom L. Johnson, a local capital- 
ist and politician of national reputation, the 
father of the three-cent street-car fare and mayor 
of Cleveland for several terms; Marcus A. 
Hanna, once United States Senator and a 
prominent national figure, and Newton D. 
Baker, Secretary of War in the Cabinet of 
President Woodrow Wilson. In Cleveland, 
John D. Rockefeller, oil king and philanthro- 
pist, laid the foundations of his fortune, and 
his magnificent estate is an interesting feature 
of the city. In 1921 Cleveland adopted the 
city-manager form of government, and to-day 
it is the largest city in the world functioning 
under that plan. In 1024 the Republican 
convention held its sessions in the Public 
Auditorium, nominating Calvin Coolidge for 
President of the United States. E.M. 

[An outline suitable for Cleveland will be found 
with the article CITY.] 

(back of map). 

SKIPJACK, names given to a family of spring- 
ing, snapping beetles. If the click beetle is 
touched or alarmed, it falls to the ground, folds 
up its legs, and lies for a time 
as if dead. If upon its back, it 
will throw itself some little dis- 
tance into the air by a sudden 
jerking motion accompanied by 
a clicking sound, and, landing 
on its feet, will run away. There 
are about 350 species of click 
beetles in the United States 
and Canada alone. Most of 
them are brownish; some are 
black, grayish, or marked with 
gay colors. 

The young click beetles, long, 
slender, horny-skinned worms 
of brownish- or yellowish-white 
color, are called wireworms (see 
a in illustration). They hatch 
from eggs laid in sod, weeds, and 
grass. The wireworms are very 
destructive, boring into the seed 
of sprouting corn, wheat, and 
other grains. They also feed on the roots of 
field and garden plants. Several years are 
required for the wireworms to mature. In mid- 
summer, or later, they pupate in the ground, 


the city. 


(a) VVireworm, the larva stage; (b) adult form, from 
above, (c) from below, showing snapping apparatus. 

developing into adult beetles before winter. 
The beetles, however, do not emerge from the 
pupal cells until spring. The time to destroy 
these pests is when they are in the pupal state, 
in August and September, and the best method 
is plowing, disking, and harrowing of infested 
fields. They can also be checked by crop rota- 
tion, and by proper drainage in low, wet land. 
Some of the tropical click beetles are lumi- 
nous, and one species carries two glowing 
spots on each side of its thorax. In Cuba 
the dead bodies of these beetles are sometimes 
worn as ornaments. See page 1480 (Classifi- 
cation), wj.s. 




Photo Wide World 


If the reader will consult a map of France and locate a point about half way between Bondome and Tours, 
he may mark that location as the home of about two hundred peasants who make their homes in rock caves 
extending down the sides of the little hills bordering the River Lior (not to be confused with the larger Loire) 
The rent problems of these people do not weigh heavily upon them. At Montoire the purse-proud individual 
who inhabits the best cave in the hill pays $5 oo a year rent, while lower and less desirable caves can be had 
for $2.00 a year. The more affluent man justifies the larger rent outlay by the fact that his cave ib kept warm 
and dry by the heat that arises from the hearth in the apartment below. 

Classification. Click beetles comprise the family 
Elateridac, in the order Coleoptera (see BEETLE) . 

CLIFF DWELLERS. The history of this 
early American race can be gathered only from 
the ruins of their strange dwellings built in can- 
yon cliffs and rocks. Nobody knows when they 
lived, or exactly what great page of human 
history they filled. They were gone long before 
the white man first saw America. From all the 
evidence that can be gathered, it is believed the 
Pueblo Indians descended from them; they may 
have been the Pueblos' immediate ancestors. 
The Moqui, or Hopi, and other Pueblo Indians 
to-day imitate some of the building character- 
istics of the Cliff Dwellers. 

Reading the Cliff Dwellers' story from un- 
earthed bodies, from bits of pottery, articles 
of wearing apparel and implements obtained 
from those almost inaccessible fortress homes, 
there is unfolded a tale of absorbing interest. 
In the corners of Utah, Arizona, New Mex- 
ico, and Colorado, which meet beyond the 
southern Rocky Mountains, lived this race 
of people, peace-loving but forced by warring 
neighboring tribes to live in the inaccessible 
cliffs, where their dwellings were strong as for- 

From excavations in one place in Arizona 
were recovered about 300 skeletons, some com- 
pletely dressed, showing that the Cliff Dwellers 
were small in stature, black-haired, and had 
heads flattened perhaps by papoose boards. 
Side by side with the bodies were found 
weapons, utensils, and ornaments. The only 
metal objects discovered were small charms 
made of copper. The weapons were of polished 
stone; their many implements, of bone or flint. 
Hampers found were no doubt used to carry 
burdens, and there were brushes made of fibers. 
Clothing was probably scarce, and much of it, 
like the sandals, was made of milkweed fiber. 
Beads, feathers, and bits of buckskin were also 
found. The great variety of pottery unearthed 
was always tastefully decorated. 

It has been decided that these were an agri- 
cultural people, who raised maize, beans, 
watermelons, tobacco, and cotton. They do- 
mesticated the turkey, and irrigated their fields 
with well constructed ditches. 

Their Houses. The peculiar dwellings they 
built have given to the people their name. 
Most of them were on the tops of plateaus 
or high in cliffs, and could be reached only by 
winding, roundabout paths. Sometimes, too, 

Photo. Wide World: L. M. Lewi* 

Apartment Houses of Prehistoric America. Balcony House of ancient Cliff Dwellers, Mesa Verde National 
Park; Cliff Palace, a ruin of a communal village, in the same park. 143! 




steps were cut in the cliffs. Often these houses 
were built as high as 800 feet above the level 
of a river or valley floor. Constructed either 
of assorted stones held together with moistened 
clay, or of sun-dried bricks, these dwellings, 
like the homes of the Pueblo Indians, later, 
were usually built two or three stories high, 
each story set back from the one below, leav- 
ing flat, open roofs, or courts. The lower story 
had no windows, and entrance was obtained 
by means of ropes or ladders which led up on 
the outside to a hole in the roof. A ladder on 
the inside was then let down, and the outer 
ladder could be drawn up, thus guaranteeing 
safety from enemies. The rooms were gen- 
erally very small, but there were many of them. 
Some rooms had fireplaces, and always there 
was one room half underground which the 
Spaniards called estufa, which, it is said, meant 
council chamber, where the principal men of 
the tribe assembled. In some of these estufas, 
crude pictures are found painted on the walls, 
in green, perhaps obtained from carbonate of 
copper, in black from charcoal, yellow from 
yellow ochre, and white, probably from kaolin. 

One "cliff palace," in Cliff Canyon in South- 
western Colorado, is 425 feet long, contains 127 
rooms, and is capable of affording shelter to 
1,500 persons. The best-preserved cliff ruins 
are found in Colorado, and the Federal 
government is restoring some of these. c.w. 


CLIMATE, the general average of tempera- 
ture, moisture, and other weather conditions 
in any certain region or locality. The climate 
of a place, therefore, may be hot or cold, wet 
or dry, healthful or unhealthful, according to 
the kind of weather, or meteorological, condi- 
tions which have prevailed there for a great 
number of years. Climate may be said to be 
a settled or regular condition, for no very 
marked change has been known to occur in 
the climate of any region in 2,000 years. 
Weather, on the contrary, is a present atmos- 
pheric condition, and may change daily. 

Influence of Climate on Civilization. Cli- 
mate is the most potent factor in determining 
the civilization, vegetation, and animal life of 
a region. In the tropics, wherever the equa- 
torial rain belt prevails, animal and vegetable 
life are abundant, but the excessive heat is 
apt to discourage the development of enter- 
prise and energy in people. In the frigid zones, 
where there is little or no vegetation, the few 
people have difficulty in living, and cannot 
develop the arts and sciences. Thus it will 
be seen that in the great temperate zones, 

where cold and heat succeed each other, and 

where neither is extreme, are developed the 

great civilizations of the world. 
Factors of Climate. Climate is the result of 

a number of factors, or determining influences. 

These are chiefly latitude, altitude, distance 

from the sea, winds, mountain ranges, rainfall, 
inclination of the earth's axis, and ocean cur- 
rents. In general, the warmth necessary to sus- 
tain life comes from the sun; the sun warms 
the earth, and the earth in turn warms the air. 

Latitude. The latitude of a place is the chief 
factor in determining its average warmth, or 
mean temperature, and the mean temperature 
of a place computed for not less than ten years 
is its "normal" temperature. At the equator, 
the rays of the noon sun are practically vertical, 
and in every part of the torrid zone they are 
vertical during a part of each year. Beyond 
the tropical circles, they fall more and more 
obliquely as the latitude increases; therefore, 
these parts of the earth receive less and less 
warmth as the latitude increases. If the earth 
were a perfectly smooth land mass, all places 
in the same latitude would have the same tem- 
perature; but this is not the case because there 
are so many modifying influences, altitude and 
distance from the sea being the most im- 

Altitude. Altitude, or height above sea level, 
affects temperature. The air grows thinner 
and receives less heat from the earth in propor- 
tion to the distance one rises, the temperature 
falling one degree for about every 300 feet of 
elevation. Thus, even in the tropics, a wide 
range of temperature may be found in ascend- 
ing a lofty mountain one of the Andes or 
Himalaya mountains, for instance. At the 
foot, one experiences the temperature of the 
tropics; at 6,000 feet up, that of the temperate 
zone; at the summit, the eternal cold and snow 
of polar regions. The great plateaus of the 
tropics, which usually are at an altitude of 
5,000 to 6,000 feet, have a cool climate. 

Distance from the Sea. The position of a 
place or country with respect to the sea or to 
other large bodies of water also determines 


The diagrams show the variations in temperature in 
Chicago, 111., and Peoria, III., on the same days. The 
solid line represents Peoria; the broken line, Chicago. 
The latter city is on the shore of a great body of 
water; the former is over a hundred miles inland. 

largely its climatic features. All places adja- 
cent to the ocean or to the Great Lakes have a 
much more equable climate than those situated 
in the interior of a continent; the fact that the 
water is cooler than the air in summer and 
warmer in winter modifies the extremes of 




temperature. Such places, therefore, are copier 
in summer and warmer in winter than locations 
farther inland. 

Winds. An examination of a wind chart 
(see WIND) shows that in equatorial regions 
the great air currents forming the trade winds 
have a northerly origin north of the equator 
and a southerly origin south of it. They tend, 
therefore, to modify the warmth of equatorial 
regions. In each temperate zone, the prevail- 
ing winds originate in warm regions and blow 
into the colder regions of higher latitudes. 
When the moisture mingled with the air falls 
as rain, an enormous amount of latent heat 
is set free, warming the air still more. Thus, 
the west coast regions of the continents which 
are in the temperate zones have much milder 
winters than those of corresponding latitudes 
on the east side of the continents. Because of 
warm southwesterly winds, the winters of Sitka, 
Alaska, are not colder than those of Philadel- 
phia, nearly twenty degrees farther south. The 
climate of England is mild; that of Eastern 
Canada is hotter in summer and colder in winter. 

The prevailing westerly winds also perform 
another important office. They blow the sur- 
face water of warm ocean currents into great 
drifts, and the warm water keeps the harbors 
and fiords in high latitudes free from ice during 
long winters. Because of the wind-blown drift 
of warm water, Hammerfest, a port within the 
Arctic Circle, is open all the year; on the 
other hand, the fiords of Labrador, considerably 
farther south, are ice-blocked more than half 
the year. Cold ocean currents have the oppo- 
site effect. The cold current coming down 
from Baffin Bay hugs the Labrador coast, carry- 
ing icebergs and cold fogs far into southerly 
regions. A cold current coming up from Ant- 
arctic waters flows around the lower part of 
South America and similarly affects its climate. 

Mountains and Rainfall. Mountain ranges 
act as barriers, and by preventing the free 
passing of winds from one region to another, 
influence climate. The rainfall of localities 
is greatly affected by these mountain barriers. 
A wind passing over mountains leaves its 
moisture on the windward side and becomes 
a hot, dry wind on the opposite side. Thus, 
the Pacific coast has an excessive rainfall, 
while some of the regions east of the mountains 
are hot and arid, and are called the Great 
American Desert. The Sahara Desert in 
Northern Africa likewise is the result of moun- 
tain barriers, and the hot winds that blow from 
it and are intercepted by the Pyrenees and 
Alps make the climate of the Mediterranean 
region very much warmer than that in the same 
latitude elsewhere. Naples, Italy, has a semi- 
tropical climate, but it is almost in the same 
latitude as New York City. 

Inclination of the Earth's Axis. The inclina- 
tion of the earth's axis is one of the most 

important factors in climate. In the torrid 
zone, it causes the movement of the equatorial 
rain belt north and south, giving nearly every 
part of the torrid zone an abundance of rain. 
In temperate zones, it causes the alternation 
of summer and winter, and in the frigid zones 
it causes the alternation of six months of sun- 
shine with six months of darkness. 

Rainfall. A region without rainfall is prac- 
tically uninhabitable. The history of agricul- 
tural industries shows that a yearly rainfall 
not much less than twenty inches nor much 
more than forty inches is required for the 
world's wheat crop; that is, about 5,000 pounds 
of water are required for every pound of 
wheat. If the annual rainfall is less than 
twenty inches, food crops, with the possible 
exception of grass, usually must be helped by 
irrigation. If the annual rainfall is materially 
greater than fifty inches, it hinders rather than 
helps most food crops. The map of the distri- 
bution of rainfall compared with that of the 
density of population shows that most of the 
people of the world live in regions having an 
annual rainfall varying from twenty to forty 
inches, and also that such regions in the tem- 
perate zones will yield enough foodstuffs for 
nearly 100 persons per square mile. 

Soil and Vegetation are also climatic factors. 
Sandy regions are always wanner than those 
with a clay soil; and where there are forests 
and abundant vegetation, the climate is more 
equable and the rainfall nearer normal for the 

An isothermal map forms one of the most 
interesting studies in temperature. In follow- 
ing the lines which show the average tempera- 
tures of all parts of the earth's surface, it is 
interesting to note how little degrees of lati- 
tude sometimes have to do with the facts of 
climate. R.H.W. 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol. 
umes relate to the subject of climate, and will make more 
interesting certain phases of the general topic: 



Antarctic Circle 

Arctic Circle 


Calms, Regions of 







Dust, Atmospheric 






Gulf Stream 


Horse Latitudes 




Isothermal Lines 

Japan Current 

Labrador Current 

Land and Sea Breezes 





Ocean Currents 

Prevailing Westerlies 






Snow Line 



Trade Winds 



Weather Bureau 






CLIMAX, in rhetoric, is the arrangement 
of words or clauses in the rising order of their 
importance, a most effective device when used 
by a skilful writer or speaker. Probably the 
best-known example of climax is 
Julius Caesar's terse announcement 
to the Roman Senate, "I came, I 
saw, I conquered." The beautiful 
passage from the ninth chapter of 
Isaiah, which is used with such stir- 
ring effect in Handel's oratorio The 
Messiah, is one of the numerous 
examples of climax found in the 
Bible: "And his name shall be 
called Wonderful, Counsellor, the 
mighty God, the everlasting Father, 
the Prince of Peace." 

Climax is used with striking effect 
in oratory, an illustrious example 
being the following passage from 
Patrick Henry's eloquent speech DE WITT CLINTON 
against England before the Virginia 
delegates to the provincial convention which 
met at Richmond in 1775 : "We have petitioned', 

years, except for two short intervals. During 
that period, he was again a member of the 
senate of New York, and was lieutenant 
governor of the state for two years. In 1812 
he was defeated by Madison for 
President of the United States, but 
in 181 7 was chosen governor of New 
York, and to this position he was 
reflected three times. During his 
third term, in the autumn of 1825, 
he was triumphantly carried on a 
barge from Buffalo to New York 
along the canal which his untiring 
effort had made a reality. 

we have remonstrated', we have supplicated; we 
have prostrated ourselves before the 
throne," Few stronger climaxes 
have been uttered in any age of the 
world's history. 

Anti-Climax is the reverse of cli- 
max, the arrangement of ideas in 
the descending order of their im- 
portance. Ordinarily, the use of 
anti-climax serves to make a sen- 
tence weak, and should be avoided. 
The argument used by the country 
clergyman against swearing is a 
good example of anti-climax: "Oh, 
my brethren, avoid this practice, 
for it is a great sin, and, what is 
more, it is ungenteel." Very often 
writers deliberately resort to anti-climax in 
order to produce a humorous or sarcastic effect, 
as in the following lines from Pope: 

Go, soar with Plato in the empyreal sphere, 
To the first good, first perfect, first fair; 
Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule, 
Then drop into thyself, and be a fool 


CLINTON, DE WITT (1769-1828), an Amer- 
ican statesman whose name is inseparably 
connected with the construction of the Erie 
Canal; to promotion work in behalf of the en- 
terprise he devoted the best years of his life. 
He was born in Little Britain, N. Y., and com- 
pleted his education with honors at Columbia 
College. He was admitted to the bar in 1788, 
but his earnest ambition soon carried him into 
politics, first to the assembly, then, in 1798, to 
the state senate, and in 1801 to the United 
States Senate. 

In the year 1803, he was elected mayor of 
New York, an office which he held for twelve 

[The story of this effort is told 
under the title ERIE CANAL.] 

CLINTON, GEORGE (1739-1812), 
an energetic soldier and statesman, 
uncle of De Witt Clinton, was born 
in Little Britain, N. Y. Because he 
was very popular, he was elected 
to the New York assembly; in 1775 he was 
sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress. 

Photo. Brown Unw 


In 1777 he was appointed a brigadier general 
in the Continental army, and dur- 
ing the war he turned his friendship 
for the Indians to the advantage of 
the colonists. He became first gov- 
ernor of the state of New York, 
serving in this position for eighteen 
years with exceptional ability and 
discretion. He opposed the adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution on 
account of its centralization of 
power, and advocated the improve- 
ment of internal communication by 
navigation companies. In 1804 he 
was elected Vice-President of the 
United States, an office which he 
held until his death, serving with 
both Jefferson and Madison. In 1811 it was 
his vote which defeated the bill for the re- 
chartering of the Bank of the United States 
(which see). 

CLINTON, SIR HENRY (about 1738-1795), a 
British general who saw active service in the 
American Revolution, beginning at the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, with the rank of major gen- 
eral. After Washington's defeat in the Battle 
of Long Island in 1776, Clinton took possession 
of New York, and as a reward for his share in 
the American defeat was knighted and raised 
to the rank of lieutenant general. In 1778 he 
was placed in chief command of the British 
forces in America, with headquarters at 
Philadelphia. When he heard of Burgoyne's 
surrender and of the French alliance with the 
American cause, he evacuated Philadelphia 
and began a retreat through New Jersey. 
Washington hurried after him, and the two 
armies fought a battle at Monmouth in June, 
1778, in which the British were defeated. 


Clinton then stationed his forces at New 
York, where he remained until December, 1779. 
At that time he led an expedition into South 
Carolina, capturing Charleston in the following 
spring. After his return to New 
York, he planned to go to the aid 
of Cornwallis, but his expedition 
started southward on the day the 
latter surrendered. In 1782 the 
chief command was given to Sir 
Guy Carleton, and Clinton returned 
to England. Thereafter he served 
in Parliament and as governor of 

CLINTON, IA. See IOWA (back 
of map). 

CHUSETTS (back of map). 


CLIO,kli'o. See MUSES. 

CLISTHENES, klis' the neez, an Athenian 
statesman who introduced ostracism, or banish- 
ment by public vote, and who was one of the 
first to suffer this punishment. He was a 
member of the celebrated family of 
Alcmaeonidae and was noted for his 
democratic tendencies. Some of 
his plans for reform met with popu- 
lar approval, but he was eventually 
forced to retire from Athens in dis- 
grace. The dates of his birth and 
death are unknown, but many of 
his additions to the Athenian con- 
stitution are dated about 510 B.C. 

CLITUS, kit' tus. See ALEXAN- 

CLIVE OF PLASSEY (1725-1774), the 
military and administrative genius 
to whom Britain largely owes its 
empire in India. In his day, the 
government of English colonies east of the 
Cape of Good Hope was vested in the East 
India Company, to whom the eighteen -year- 
old Clive was sent as a clerk, because of his 
fondness for adventure and apparent inability 
to apply himself to school work. 

Clive began his military career in 1 747 as an 
ensign, after escaping from a French prison 
at Pondicherry. In 1751, in command of only 
320 natives and British, and aided by inex- 
perienced officers, he successfully defended 
Arcot against thousands of fanatical Moham- 
medans, and followed this exploit by several 
victories in the field. In 1757, at the Battle 
of Plassey, he established British supremacy 
in India by routing over 50,000 natives with 
his 3,200 men. 

At his home-coming in the year 1760, Clive 
was given his title, and he entered Parliament. 
Five years later he was returned to the East 



Photo Brown Brom. 


to revive the ebbing fortunes of the Company. 
He secured the formal allegiance of the Mogul 
emperor, reorganized the army, and reformed 
the civil administration. He reentered Parlia- 
ment in 1767. 

In 1773, after an investigation of 
the affairs of the East India Com- 
pany, a vote of Parliament put on 
record that Clive had gained a for- 
tune of 234,000 during his first 
administration, as charged by his 
enemies, but that he "did render 
great and meritorious service to his 
country." It is quite certain that 
none of the presents which Clive 
had received from Indian princes 
were bribes. But the shadow cast 
on him deeply stirred his morbid 
temperament, and he ended his 
own life the next year. See INDIA 
(History: Coming of the Europeans). 

CLOACA MAXIMA, klo a' kah max' si mah. 
See FORUM; ROME (How the City Looked). 

CLOCK. The sun was man's first time- 
keeper, just as it was his first warmth and light. 
The regular cycles of the sun, 
moon, and stars divided his time, 
and their positions in the sky 
marked off his waking hours. He 
knew that at the middle of the 
period of light the sun was di- 
rectly overhead; and "noon," 
"dawn," and "sunset" meant the 
same periods, in whatever language 
they were spoken. Gradually, men 
found that the shadow of an iso- 
lated tree made a more accurate 
measure than the position of the 
sun in the sky; later x they found 
that they could replace the tree 
with a rod, placed wherever they 
wished, and could mark off the arc 
of its shadow into even divisions. 
Thus was the first rude sundial made the 
forerunner of those dials which "count only the 
hours that are serene" in our parks and gardens. 
And the remarkable fact is that in spite of our 
elaborate and convenient system of time-keep- 
ing to-day, the sun is still the measure of our 
day, and the simplest form of sundial can 
regulate our clocks within one or two minutes. 
As life grew more complex, the necessity for 
a time measure on cloudy days or starless 
nights resulted in the first time machine, the 
clepsydra, or water clock. Scholars say it was 
known in China more than a thousand years 
before Christ, and the Egyptians, the Greeks, 
and the Romans used it. All of the many 
forms of the water clock had the same principle: 
fluid running or dripping from one receptacle 
to another was made to measure time by the 
rate of its flow. By some means unknown to 
us now, the varying length of days according 




to seasons was allowed for in the ancient water 

Many other time machines existed along 
with the water clock, and after it was dis- 


Explanation of the parts appears in the text. 

carded, the candles, marked with the rate of 
their burning, which were said to have been 
devised by Alfred the Great of England; the 
oil lamp; the knotted hemp (burning regularly 
from one knot to the next), which was used 
until recent years by Asiatic peasants; and 
that important variation of the water clock 
known as the hourglass or sand glass. 

The modern clock, in its essentials, appeared 
for the first time in the fourteenth century, in 
the work of Henry De Vick. He built a clock 
which had wheels, dial, hour hand, weight, and 
winding square. Then from 1600 to 1700 some 
additions and changes were made a pendulum, 
a minute and a second hand were added, and 
some parts replaced for the sake of greater 
accuracy. Since then the essential principles 
of the clock have not been changed; we have 
worked toward lightness and perfection of its 
time-keeping qualities, and have applied elec- 
tricity to its operation, but otherwise De Vick's 
beginning and our modern clocks are much 
the same. 

Essential Parts. The necessary parts of a 
clock are a set or train of wheels and a weight 
or spring to set and keep them in motion. 
There is also a face, or dial, and hands, or 
pointers, to indicate the time. The accompany- 
ing drawing illustrates the working principles. 

Before a clock's mechanism can be set in 
motion, it must be "wound up." That means 
winding a chain round a barrel or drum, which 
is marked A in the picture. The weight at 
the end of the chain slowly fails, and as it does 
so it causes the drum A to revolve. The wheel 
marked B is then made to turn, as it is con- 
nected to A by cogs. The turning motion is 
passed on to the wheel C in the same way. 
To prevent the weight from falling too fast 
and making the wheels turn too quickly, there 
is a little device called the escapement, marked 
D, connected with a pendulum. This curved 
piece of metal has a tooth at each end, which 
fits into cogs in the wheel C. The pendulum 
as it swings to right and left moves D up and 
down and releases the wheel C, one cog for 
each swing, or tick. Instead of making the 
clock go, as is often supposed, the pendulum 
prevents the wheels from turning too rapidly 
It also acts as a regulator; shortening the pen- 
dulum by means of a screw makes it swing 
more rapidly, while lengthening it makes it 
move more slowly. 

The second illustration shows the face of a 
clock and the wheels which cause the hands to 
move. Wheel F makes a complete revolution 
once every hour and carries the long, or minute, 
hand with it. Wheel E is made to move by 
touching wheel F. At the back of wheel E is 
another smaller wheel with only six teeth ; these 
fit into teeth in wheel B, which has seventy-two 
teeth, and carries the hour hand. Turning the 
small wheel of six teeth causes the large wheel 


The inner circle of figures represents the hours; the 

outer circle, the minutes of the hour. This dial is 

especially valuable in railway stations. 

B, with its seventy-two teeth, to turn just one- 
twelfth of the way around. Thus the combi- 
nation of wheels causes F to turn twelve times 
while B turns but once. 

CLOCK 1487 

Modern Spring Clocks. Though for centuries 
pendulums and weights were used, requiring 
perfect equilibrium and permitting only an 
upright position, it was eventually discovered 
that clocks could be made without them, and 
that a small steel spring would perform the 
same office. Instead of having a pendulum, 
spring docks are fitted with a balance wheel, 
which prevents the other wheels from turning 
too rapidly. Small clocks and watches are 
made on the same principle, and both were 
impossible before the adoption of the spring; 
all that is necessary to start the mechanism 
is to wind, or tighten, the spring. 

Clocks which require winding only at inter- 
vals of eight days or longer, and a special type 
which runs for 400 days without winding, are 
made possible by the principle of the steel 
spring and balance wheel. 

Striking Clocks. The striking mechanism of 
a clock is separate from the ordinary time- 
keeping machinery. It is an interesting fact 
that many of the earliest clocks had no faces 
or hands to point out the time; the escapement 
principle mentioned above was used to strike a 
bell or gong. The word clock itself shows its 
close relationship to the German Glocke and 
the French cloche, both meaning bell. A weight 
or spring sets in motion wheels which release 
a hammer at certain times. The hammer falls 
on a bell or rod 
of metal and an- 
nounces the hour. 
Many clocks have 
elaborate devices 
for striking chimes 
on a series of bells, 
for playing tunes, 
and for making 
certain figures go 
through regulated 
motions at regular 
intervals (see 
Strassburg Clock, 

koo clocks , from (a) Electromagnet; (b) rock- 
which a small bird ing armature lever; (c) pawl; 
emerges and whis- (d) ratchet wheel; (e) spring; 
ties the hours, are < f) backst P 

common in Europe and America. "Alarm" 
clocks, instead of striking the hours, have an 
attachment which causes a bell to ring at 
any indicated time. 

Electric Clocks. The most important appli- 
cation of electrical knowledge to clock-making 
is the operation of a number of clocks in differ- 
ent places in unison with a master clock in an 
observatory, but there are also electric clocks 
which differ from the ordinary clock chiefly in 
deriving power from batteries, instead of from 
weights or springs. The picture shows one 
method of operating either type of clock. The 
cylinder a is an electromagnet in which the 


current is alternately excited and broken by 
the swinging of a pendulum, which in the case 
of a series of docks is that of the master clock. 
When current 
passes through 
the coil, the lower 
end of the arma- 
ture lever b is at- 
tracted and the 
pawl c pulled 
back as the lever 
swings on its 
pivot. The back 
stop / prevents 
the ratchet wheel 
d from slipping. 
When the current 
is broken, the 
spring e draws 
the lever back 
and the wheel re- 
ceives a push. 

Industry. So 
great is the de- 
mand for clocks 
that the United 
States alone, be- 
sides providing 
for nearly all its 
own needs, ex- 
ports them in 
large quantities. 
Nearly 10,000,- 
ooo are manufac- 
tured yearly by 
American fac- 
tories. American 
enterprise, to 
which is due the 
introduction of 

the cheap but efficient steel spring, has revo- 
lutionized clock-making throughout the world. 
For more than 200 years previously, coiled 
springs had been used by European clock- 
makers, but only in the most expensive clocks. 
Now the spring clocks made in the United 
States are the cheapest, and, in proportion 
to their cost, the most satisfactory that can 
be obtained from manufacturers anywhere in 
the world. 

Famous Clocks. Those which are well known 
for their size or other distinguishing features 
are described below: 

The Largest Clock in the World is that built in 
1908 for the Colgate Company of Jersey City. It 
was erected on top of the factory, and may be seen 
from the Hudson and from Manhattan. The dial is 
thirty-eight feet in diameter, and the two hands to- 
gether weigh more than half a ton. Another huge 
clock is in the tower of the Metropolitan Life Building 
in New York City. Its dial is over twenty-six feet in 
diameter, and a set of chimes sounds the hours and the 

Cuurteiy Mn. Janus Noble 


This old clock bears the date 

1561 embossed in the metal 

frame. The solid hand is the 





Big Ben. Probably the world's most famous clock 
is that whose great bells have sounded the hours of 
day and night for more than seventy years from the 
tower of the House of Commons, at the north end of 
the Parliament Buildings, in London. Each of the 


This clock is the time standard for the entire country. 
It is in an underground vault in Washington, and to 
safeguard it and others like it Congress passed a law 
forever prohibiting the building of any thoroughfare 
within 1,000 feet of the vault. This clock and others 
like it are in sealed glass cases from which the air is 
partially exhausted; the temperature is kept at 84 F. 
The clock shown above needs to be inspected only 
once every four years. [See subhead, Naval Observa- 
tory Clocks, in this article.] 

four dials is twenty-three feet across, the minute 
hands are fourteen feet long, and the pendulum weighs 
nearly 450 pounds. The great bell which gives the 
clock its name weighs thirteen and one-half tons. 

Naval Observatory Clocks. These clocks in Wash- 
ington, D. C. t are of wonderful accuracy and furnish 
the standard for the country. They are kept under- 
ground, so that they may be on the solid earth, and 
are operated within glass cylinders, in which the air 
pressure is very low. They arc regulated by slight 
changes in this pressure, and have special seconds 
pendulums of a nickel steel which resists temperature. 
The clocks run with an error so slight as to be some- 
times less than a second a month. 

The Strauburg Clock, the most famous of the old 
clocks which have elaborate automatic figures telling 
more than the time of day, is in the cathedral of 
Strassburg. Besides telling the hour, this huge 
thirty-six foot clock tells the position of the heavenly 
bodies, has figures 
which point to the 
day of the month, 
a procession of gods 
ing the day of the 
week, figures which 
strike the quarter 
hours, and one 
which turns an 
hourglass. Sur- 
mounting all is the 
figure of Christ, be- 
fore whom, at noon 
each day, appears a 
procession of the 
Apostles, while a 
cock perched above 
crows three times 
Similar famous 
clocks are found in 
Munich, Prague, 
and the French 
cities of Beauvais 
and Lyons. All of 
these clocks are ev- 
idences of the im- 
portance placed by 
the first clock-mak- 
ers on complicated 
mechanism and automatic figures, as preferred to ac- 
curacy of time-keeping. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles. 
Hourglass Pendulum Sundial Watch 


CLOISONNE, kloi zo na'. See ENAMEL; 
illustrations in article POTTERY. 

CLOISTER, klois 1 tur. This word, which 
comes from the Latin daudcrc, meaning to close, 
was at first applied to the entire space enclosed 



Seen in the foreground, with the garth beyond. 

within the walls of the monastery, cathedral, 
or collegiate establishment of the Middle Ages. 
Later, it designated the four-cornered court in 





A close view of a loom, from which the finished cloth is emerging. 

the center of the main group of buildings, which 
was surrounded on all sides by a covered, arched 
corridor. Sometimes the term was applied only 
to these corridors; the central, open space, 
which contained a well and garden, was known 
as the garth. Within the cloisters, the monks 
were accustomed to enjoy their recreation. 

Milton's beautiful lines from // Pcnseroso 
illustrate the general association of the word 
cloister with the serene and quiet life passed 
within the monastery: 

But let my due feet never fail 
To walk the studious cloisters pale, 
And love the high embowered roof, 
With antique pillars massy proof, 
And stoned windows richly dight; 
Casting a dim, religious light. 



CLOSED SHOP, a term referring to a place 
or industry in which only members of labor 
unions are employed. See OPEN SHOP; LABOR 

CLOT. See BLOOD (Composition of the 


CLOTH, the woven material used for our 
garments and many of the furnishings in our 
homes. The first covering worn by man was 
made of foliage; then, for warmth, the skins of 
animals and feathers of birds were used. But 
animals became more scarce each year, and 
finally, the wool of sheep was used, twisted into 
threads and woven for use as garments. So 
the term cloth originally applied to woolen 
fabrics. Then, at various times, the value of 
cotton, flax, silk, and fibers of hemp, jute, and 
other plants was discovered, and the primitive 
methods of weaving were gradually improved, 
until now the making of cloths of all kinds is a 
world- wide industry. 

Cloth is woven on a loom (see WEAVING). 
Two sets of threads are used, the warp threads 
running lengthwise of the goods, and the weft, 
or woof, threads running in and out across the 
warp. The edge of cloth woven to prevent 
raveling is called selvage. The warp is some- 
times called the back, or foundation, of goods, 
and the woof, the filling. When the warp of a 
piece of goods is of cotton and the weft of silk, 
it is described as having a cotton back and a 
silk filling (see WEAVING) . All-wool cloths have 
both warp and weft of wool, but most cloth 



Mi ill 


PbotMi UftU 

The Cloth Industry. In this spinning room of a Massachusetts cbth mill (first illustration), there are 93 ooo 
1490 spindles. Below, 4,000 looms in one room in the same mill. 




sold as wool contains some cotton or other 
fiber. Worsted goods are made of well- twisted 
combed wool (see WORSTED). 

Photo- U * U 

The design is etched on rollers, against which the doth 
unrolls ,ui(l nukes >nl;ul tor printing 

The width of cloth depends on the number 
of warp threads. Its rinencss or coarseness is 
determined bv the size of the threads used and 

their distance apart. According to the way in 
which weft threads are woven across the warp, 
cloths are plain, like muslin; twilled, like tweeds; 
piled, like velvet ; figured, like damask; mixed, 
like cheviot; or checked or striped, like gingham. 

Serge, cashmere, flannel, velour, and covert 
are some of the commonly known cloths of 
wool. Muslin, calico, gingham, some cambrics, 
canvas, duck, and dimity are widely used cot- 
ton cloths. Made of flax are the linens, includ- 
ing lawns, sheetings, toweling, and some cam- 
brics. Pongee, crepe de Chine, foulard, taffeta, 
satin, and surah are some of the best-known 
cloths of silk. So varied are the methods of 
manufacture that a single description will not 
apply to all cloths. 

"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy," is 
a wise phrase of Polonius in Hamlet, though 
often ascribed in error to Benjamin Franklin, 
in Poor Richard's Almanac. Fortunately, cloth 
is made to meet the demands of every purse. 

Related Subjects. Each principal kind of cloth named 
above is described in its place in these volumes, and a study 
of these will identify the various fabrics with respect to 
utility and comparative values Some details of manufac- 
ture are also included See, also, AbULi* RATION ot FOOD- 




CLOTHING. See DRESS (Related Sub- 


CLOTHO, kh' tho, one of the three Fates 
(which see). 



The STORY of CLOUDS LT* f 1 

r LOUD. Some clouds assume the shape 
of great, fleecy masses, some are feathery forma- 
tions far in the upper air, and some are dull 
gray or black sheets which darken the earth 
and give promise of rain; but whatever their 
appearance, the formation is always the same. 
They are merely atmospheric moisture, con- 
densed until it has become visible; in other 
words, they are upper-air fogs. That this is 

true, the mountain-climber can bear witness. 
From below, he may see clouds high above as 
rolling masses, veiling the summit of the moun- 
tain; as he ascends, he loses sight of cloudlike 
forms but finds himself gradually enveloped in 
a heavy mist; and when at last he comes out 
upon the sun-bathed peak, he can turn and see 
the mist again as heaving billows of cloud 
below him. 




When the sun warms the surface 
of the earth, water reached by its 
heat loses its liquid form and is 
transformed into vapor. This 
vapor rises, and as it cools by ex- 
pansion in the light upper air, it 
is condensed again into the tiny 
particles of water or snow or ice 
which form the clouds. As their 
weight causes them to sink, these 
liquid particles come again to the 
warmer layers of air, and are once 
more vaporized and become in- 
visible. So goes on the ceaseless 
change that we can nearly always 
observe in cloud shapes as they 
float past us, and that makes 
them, as Emerson has said, "al- 
ways and never the same." Clouds 
or banks of fog are also formed 
when winds carry warm atmos- 
phere into a cold region or cold 
air into warmer lands, for the 
result is exactly the same as when 
we "see our breath" on wintry 

Every Cloud Has a Name. Be- 
cause of the indication they give 
of weather conditions present and 
to come, clouds have been closely 
studied by men of science. To 
each shape of cloud has been given 
a name descriptive of it, and as 
the shapes depend upon the con- 
ditions within and around the 
cloud masses, the names ought to 
be known by all who like to "dis- 
cern the face of the sky." Though 
they are Latin, most of them can 
be easily remembered by their 
resemblance to English words. 

Cirrus, to a Roman, meant a 
ringlet of hair, and so the name 
was given to the curly white cloud- 
lets of ice crystals which form high 
above all other clouds, five or ten 
miles above ihe earth's surface. 
The word cirrus may be recalled 
because it is similar to circle. 

Stratus, which in Latin means 
spread out, is like the word stratum, 
the geological term for a layer. 
Stratus clouds are the most fog- 
like, and are generally very close to 
the earth. They are of tenest seen 
at morning and evening, when the 
still air contains no currents to 
break them up. 


From top to bottom: cirrus, cumulus, 


Cumulus means a heap (as we 
see in our word accumulate, which 
is to pile up), and cumulus clouds 
are the beautiful heaped-up masses 
of white that float across the sky 
on lovely summer days, casting 
swiftly moving shadows on the 
earth. 1 1 must have been a cumulus 
that inspired the conversation be- 
tween Hamlet and old Polonius: 

Do you see yonder cloud that's al 
most in shape of a camel? 

By the mass, and 'tis like a camel 

Methinks it is like a weasel 

It is backed like a weasel. 

Or like a whale? 

Very like a whale 

Cumulus clouds travel at a height 
of perhaps a mile. In midafter- 
noon, when the sun's rays are the 
warmest, the heaps increase in 
number and in size as more and 
more water is drawn up by evap- 
oration, but when comes 

The evening beam that smiles the 
clouds away, 

they lose their beautiful dream- 
like shapes in the flat monotony 
of stratus clouds. A great number 
of heavy cumulus clouds often 
portends rain, which conies when 
the atmosphere contains more 
moisture than it can support. 

Nimbus is the very word which 
the Romans gave to a rain cloud. 
A nimbus is a rather shapeless 
formation, for its lower half con- 
tains the falling raindrops. 

The cirrus, the stratus, the 
cumulus, and the nimbus are the 
four chief types of cloud forms, and 
from them most others take their 
names. Among frequently seen 
combinations are the following: 
alto-cumulus, white or grayish glob- 
ular masses, sometimes closely 
packed together; alto-stratus, a 
thick cloud sheet of gray or bluish 
color; cirro-stratus, a thin, whitish 
sheet of clouds; and cirro-cumulus, 
masses of fleecy little cumulus 
clouds that produce the fair- 
weather aspect called "mackerel 
sky." Some of these combina- 
tions are shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations. 


From top to bottom cirro-cumulus, 
cirro-stratus, cumulus-stratus 






The Poetry of Clouds. Like most works of 
Mother Nature, the cloud has always been a 
favorite symbol of other things, either, as in 
Browning, of temporary misfortunes, or, as in 
Shakespeare, of great heights. One poet alone 
has caught the spirit of the cloud as other 
poets have discerned the heart of the flower, 
the tree, or the brook. Here are parts of the 
first and last stanzas of Shelley's The Cloud: 

I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers, 

From the seas and the streams, 
1 bear light shade for the leaves when laid 

In their noonday dreams. 
From my wings are shaken the dew.s that waken 

The sweet buds every one, 
When rocked to rest on their mother's breast, 

As she dances about the sun. 

1 am the daughter of earth and water, 

And the nursling of the sky, 
1 pass through the pores of the ocean and shores, 

I change, but I cannot die 

Cloud-Burst. In desert and mountain regions 
a not unusual occurrence is a sudden heavy 
deluge of rain, lasting a short period of time 
and covering but a small area, falling with such 
terrific force that it seems as though a reservoir 
in the sky had broken and emptied its entire 
contents at once. In such a cloud-burst, it is 
impossible for the ground to absorb its usual 
proportion of moisture, and raging torrents are 
quickly formed in stream beds and even in 
usually dry valleys. Many of the most beauti- 


Photo: St. Glair 

The space covered by a cloud-burst is seldom 
more than a few acres, and the rainfall may be 
as much as five inches in fifteen minutes. These 

ful of Nature's works, such as the fantastic 
promontories of the Grand Canyon in Arizona, 
have been carved by these torrential floods. 

Photo St CUir 


Red, at left, white, at right. 

torrential rains are sometimes caused by the 
weakening of wind whirls holding a large 
quantity of water in suspension; sometimes 
they are the result of the impact of heavy 
showers against mountain masses. See LIGHT- 

CLOVER, any one of several pod-bearing 
plants found along roadsides, on lawns, or culti- 
vated in great fields for hay, pasture, cover 
crops, green manuring, for use as green fodder, 
or for soil improvement. Commonly, clover 
has leaves consisting of three rounded leaflets, 
but sometimes there are more. Who has not 
searched for the "four-leafed clover for luck," 
or having found a five- or six-leafed clover, has 
not thought of the old superstition, that evil 
would follow? Most children have discovered 
what the bees have always known that the 
purple, red, pink, white, and yellow dense heads 
or spikes of blossoms hold stores of nectar 
Because bees get so much sweetness from 
clover, the term, "to live in clover," means 
the height of luxury and plenty. 

Kinds. There are about 300 species of clover, 
some of which are merely weeds, but many are 
of immense value for the uses mentioned above. 
The common red clover, native of America and 
most parts of Europe and now cultivated in 
other countries, is the most important. It 
grows in temperate climates from six inches to 
two feet high and blooms from April to Novem- 
ber, and as it lives for two years, it is classed 




as a biennial (which see). It is used for hay, 
for pasture, and for enriching soil. It is ex- 
cellent food for milch cows, sheep, and young 
stock. And its roots gather so much nitrogen, 
which they leave in the soil, that it is an ex- 
cellent crop to restore fertility to worn-out 
land. Bumblebees are absolutely necessary 
for the fertilization of the clover, however, and 
the experience of the Australians with this 
valuable plant is interesting. They imported 
large quantities of clover to plant for fodder, 
but left the bumblebee behind, so the next 
year there was 
no clover seed for 
planting, and no 
crop could be 
raised until bum- 
blebees were 

While clover is 
also very valu- 
able for pastur- 
age, and its fra- 
grant blossoms 
furnish nectar 
for the highest- 
priced honey 
on the market. 
White clover is 
seldom grown 
alone, however, 
as it does not 
yield as much as 
red clover. It is 
usually mixed 
with grasses and 
other clovers. 

A Is ike, or 
Swedish, clover 
was introduced 
into the United 
States and Can- 
ada from Sweden 
by way of Eng- 
land. Its flowers, ranging from white to pink, 
are borne in rounded heads. Alsike clover 
grows well in a cool, moist climate, and at har- 
vest time withstands wetting better than red 
or white clover. 

Other species include crimson clover, a plant 
with bushy habit of growth, which is much 
used for soil improvement; the yellow- flowered 
hop clovers-, and the silky- flowered gray-pink 
rabbit-foot clover, which grows on worn-out soils. 
Red, white, alsike, and crimson are the four 
species important in the agriculture of the 
United States and Canada. 

Distribution in America. Red clover is the 
most common of the leguminous hay plants 
grown between the Atlantic coast and Eastern 
Kansas, and between Tennessee and the north- 
ern limit of agriculture in Canada. It is also 
important in some sections of Idaho, Oregon, 


Nodules of nitrogen-fixing bac- 
teria are shown 

Washington, and in some of the Western prov- 
inces of Canada. White clover is distributed 
generally over the United States and Canada, 
except in regions of little rainfall. Alsike clover 
is also of wide distribution in these countries, 
but the United States imports a considerable 
amount of alsike seed from Canada. Crimson 
clover is found chiefly in regions with mild 

The value of clover as a soil-improving crop 
is being realized more and more each year, but 
in many sections it no longer grows as easily 
as at one time. In some places, certain neces- 
sary elements in the soil have been exhausted; 
in others, diseases have caused failures of the 
crop. Covering with straw and burning to 
prevent spread is the best cure for clover-rust, 
clover rot, leaf spot, and dodder, and plowing 
under is advised if one would be rid of the 
worst clover insect pests. Before planting, to 
obtain a good, clean crop, the seed should be 
carefully examined and sifted through wire- 
cloth screen to remove weed seeds, especially 
dodder B.M.D. 

Classification. The clovers belong to the genus 
Tnjohum in the family Legnminosac. Red clover is 
T pratense, white clover is T. repens; alsike, T. 
hybndum, and crimson, T incarnatum 

CLOVES, a spice, the dried, unopened flower 
buds of a tree which is a native of the Molucca, 
or Spice, Islands. It is now cultivated in Su- 


Flower, leaves, and cross-section of bud. 

matra, Jamaica, the West Indies, and Brazil. 
The tree is a handsome evergreen, from fifteen 
to thirty feet high, with large, oval, smooth 
leaves, and numerous purplish flowers on 
jointed stalks. The buds, gathered when red- 
dish, are picked by hand. They are then dried, 
and in the drying process turn dark brown. 
They have a very fragrant odor and a bitterish, 
sharp, warm taste. This spice is used chiefly 




. in cooking, but the buds and stem yield an oil 
much prized for flavoring desserts and candy 
and for scenting soaps. Oil of cloves is also 
used medicinally; in cases of toothache, it will 
deaden the pain, but it lacks curative proper- 
ties. The name clove comes from the French 
word clou, meaning nail, and was suggested by 
the shape of the bud. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The clove plant belongs to the 
family Myrtaceae Its botanical name is Caryophyl- 
lus aromaticus. 

CLOVIS, klo' vis (466-511), a noted warrior 
and king of the Franks. He was the son of 
Childeric I, and in 481, at the age of fifteen, 
succeeded his father on the throne. Clovis was 
very ambitious, and this trait led him into war. 
When a mere youth, he attacked with his army 
the Roman general Syagrius and completely 
vanquished him at Soissons, which he afterward 
made his home. He is said also to have con- 
quered the whole of Belgica (modern Belgium), 
of which Rheims was the capital. 

His wife was a Christian princess of Bur- 
gundy. She greatly desired the conversion of 
the king, but he remained a pagan until the 
close of his successful war with the Alemanni, 
when, in fulfilment of a vow, he was baptized 
at Rheims. This was an important event to 
the orthodox Christians of Western Europe, 
who afterward looked to him to support them 
against the Arians. After the conquest of the 
Visigoths, the kingdom of Clovis extended to 
the Pyrenees. Tie later became king of all the 
Frankish tribes, and was the founder of the 
Frankish monarchy. See FRANKS. 

CLUB, a body of either men or women, or 
frequently of both sexes without discrimina- 
tion, organized to promote some particular 
object, whether literary, political, or merely 
social. The derivation of the word indicates 
something of the nature of such an organization, 
for club comes from an old word meaning to 
divide, and has reference to the fact that the 
expenses of a club are divided among the 

Historical Clubs. The first club that really 
made a place for itself in history was that to 
which Shakespeare, Raleigh, Beaumont, and 
Fletcher belonged. It met at the Mermaid 
Tavern, in Bread Street, London, and from it 
went forth judgments and criticisms that 
strongly influenced the literary life of London. 
Later came the Kit-Cat Club, named for 
Christopher Cat, whose mutton pies graced its 
banquets; the Beefsteak Club, with its motto 
of "Beef and Liberty" and its custom of calling 
its members "Steaks"; and that famous or- 
ganization known to its members simply as 
"The Club," but commonly referred to as the 
Literary Club. Of this group, Dr. Samuel 
Johnson was the recognized head, though the 
membership included such brilliant men as 

Goldsmith, Garrick, Reynolds, Burke, and 
Gibbon. This club still exists in London, 
though it no longer sways public opinion as it 
did in its early days. 

The earliest clubs were largely social in their 
nature, but men of like political convictions 
tended to seek the society of one another, and 
thus political clubs grew up. In the eighteenth 
century, many a man was successful or defeated 
in public life according as he gained the good 
will or ill will of one of these organizations. 

Modern Clubs. Practically all of these clubs, 
whether literary, social, or political, had their 
beginnings in some tavern or coffee house, 
where all future meetings were held, the land- 
lord often finding it worth his while to neglect 
other patrons for the sake of some such club 
organized within his doors. Still there was no 
hint of the club in its more modern sense the 
club in which the members actually own the 
clubhouse and its equipment. This was a prod- 
uct of the early nineteenth century, and had 
its beginning in associations of army and navy 
officers who, reduced to half pay on the cessa- 
tion of the Napoleonic wars, found it cheaper 
to combine their resources and live under one 

From that time on, clubs have spread rapidly, 
and every great city has its organizations which 
play a more or less definite part in its life 
London, for instance, the original home of the 
club, has no fewer than 100 societies of note 
literary, scientific, artistic, political, athletic, 
and social; and all of these phases of club life 
are represented in the large cities of the world. 
Some of the buildings possessed by these or- 
ganizations are very large and sumptuously 
appointed, and life in them is luxurious in the 

These are clubs in the most formal sense, but 
along with these have grown up thousands of 
organizations less ambitious in purpose and 
less wide in their scope. There are clubs for 
women, for children, and for men who cannot 
afford to avail themselves of the privileges of 
the great city clubs. Some of these less formal 
organizations are small, but others have hun- 
dreds of members. 

Related Subjects. A number of organizations which 
may be classed as clubs are treated in these volumes under 
the following subjects 

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Kiwanis Hubs 

Canning Clubs Lions Clubs 

Civitan Clubs Rotary Clubs 

Fraternities, College Women's Clubs 


CLUNY, kloo' ne, in modern times, a hand- 
some, though coarse and thick, strong, white 
lace made by hand in Belgium, Germany, and 
Italy. The real cluny is expensive, the price 
varying with the width and pattern, but ma- 
chine-made imitations are numerous. Modern 
cluny lace is used largely for edging doilies, 
scarfs, and tablecloths. There are three ways 




to detect imitation from real cluny. If two 
sizes of thread are used, and if they are crinkly, 
irregular, and loose, the lace is imitation, in 
contrast with the real, in which only one size 
of thread, straight and taut, is employed. Im- 
itation cluny is usually made of cotton; the 
real is made of linen. 

Ancient cluny was a French net lace in which 
the pattern was darned. This is now known as 
antique, fillet, or spider work. 

Derivation. The name r/wwv was taken from the 
museum of C'luny, where samples ol anucnt lace are 
kept This is in the town of Cluny, or Clugny, in 
Kastern 1- ranee \t one time the most celebrated 
Benedictine abbey in France was located there, and 
the abbey church, destroyed in the time of Napoleon, 
was then regarded a- one of the world's wonders 


CLYDE, Wide, RIVER, commercially the 
most important stream in Scotland, celebrated 
throughout the world for the shipbuilding yards 
which line its banks. "Built on the Clyde" 
was formerly as high praise for a vessel as is 
now the familiar 'Vl/ at Lloyds," referring to 
the great London shipping insurance company. 
The river is formed by a combination of small 
mountain streams draining the counties of 
Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, and flows 

through some of the most romantic scenery in 
Scotland. The celebrated Falls of Clyde, in 
addition to being noted for their picturesque 
beauty, furnish power for many mills. The 
most important point on the banks of the 
Clyde is Glasgow, and below this city the river 
gradually expands into the great estuary known 
as the Firth of Clyde. The actual river is only 
seventy-five miles long; the broad estuary is 
ninety miles in length. In 1812 the first Euro- 
pean steamboat was launched on the Clyde. 


CLYTEMNESTRA, kli tern ncs' trah, in 
Greek mythology, the unfaithful and treacher- 
ous wife of Agamemnon and half-sister of 
Helen, Castor, and Pollux. The poet Homer 
tells how, during the absence of her husband 
in the war against Troy, she bestowed her 
favors on Aegisthus. On Agamemnon's return 
they murdered him to hide their guilt, and 
together governed Mycenae for years. Her 
son Orestes later avenged his father's death 
by killing both Clytemnestra and her lover. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes lo the following articles 
Agamemnon Helen of Troy Orestes Troy 

COAGULATION, ko af> it la' shun. See 
BLOOD (Composition of the Blood). 


'OAL. If we burn \\oocl in a closed 
vessel, so that only a little air can get to it, we 
obtain a black substance uhich is nearly all 
carbon. We call this substance clnu coal. What 
we may do on a small scale in making charcoal, 
Nature in the past ages did on a large scale in 
making the coal which we now take from the 

Possibly you have stood beside a marsh and 
noticed that in spots it was filled with a kind 
of moss, that seemed to be dead underneath 
and alive on top. Cutting down into this moss 
usually shows it to have a thickness of several 
feet, and to be more compact near the bottom 
than at the top. In Ireland and other regions, 
some parts of America included, this moss 
occurs in large quantities, and in Europe it is 
dried and used for fuel under the name of peat. 
Now, if this peat had been buried deeply in the 
earth and subjected to intense heat, it would 
have been turned to coal, something like the 
charcoal. We may say, then, that peat is coal 
in the process of formation. 

Ages before man lived upon the earth, por- 
tions of it were covered with a dense growth of 
vegetation far more luxuriant than that found 
now in the densest tropical jungles. This vege- 
tation consisted of great tree ferns, and fernlike 
plants that bore seeds, horsetail rushes forty 
feet high, and club mosses even taller. By the 
lowering of the level of the land, these vast 
forests were covered by the ocean, and while 
resting for ages on the bottom of the sea, they 
were buried in mud. The land again rose and 
appeared above the ocean. The mud was hard- 
ened into rock, and the buried vegetation by 
heat and pressure was turned into coal. This 
process was repeated many times through un- 
counted ages, and for this reason we find the 
coal in veins, one above another and separated 
from each other by layers of rock . Green plants 
grow only under direct sunlight. Since the 
plants of the Coal Period (Carboniferous Sys- 
tem) owed their growth to the influence of the 
sun, coal is sometimes called buried sunshine, 
a very appropriate name. The coal beds are 





believed to have been formed at least 20,000,000 
years ago. 

Mineral coal, as hard and soft coal are gen- 
erally called, differs from charcoal in several 
particulars. Since it was formed under great 
pressure, it is more compact, and since the air 
was practically excluded during its formation, 
many of the gases that are driven off in making 
charcoal were changed into substances that 
combined with the coal. These are compounds 
of hydrogen and carbon with a few other sub- 
stances, and their presence in varying propor- 
tions gives us the different varieties of coal. 

Proof of the Origin of Coal. Bituminous coal 
is dirty and black, and anthracite, also black, 
is none too clean; but scientists tell us that 
they have found very great beauty in both 
varieties, in their efforts to learn exactly of 
what coal is composed and how it was formed. 
They have cut from lumps of coal slices thin 

enough to be translucent, and have placed 
them under microscopes which magnify more 
than i, 800 diameters. The preparation of such 
a thin section is a most difficult task. First, a 
thin piece is sawed from a lump; then it is 
ground down smoothly until it is reduced 
nearly to a film that is, until it averages 
about one five-thousandth of an inch in 

Seen through a powerful microscope, such a 
slice of coal is translucent. The color is no 
longer as dark as night, or sooty, or forbidding. 
In the cross section from the dirty, black lump 
one beholds a landscape in brown and gold. 
Golden links in serried chains bound in filigree 
fill portions of the view. The links are cross 
sections of the cells of pieces of wood of twig, 
branch, or log that entered into the product we 
call coal. Each cell in the wood is a jewel box 
of gold. In the hollow interior, where once 




were protoplasm, starch, and other substances 
embracing the very life of the plant, there 
is seen a transparent, amber-like substance, 
clouded with sepia and containing clusters of 
shining crystals of utmost minuteness, together, 
perhaps, with tiny, glistening globules of gas. 

Stem of leaf and fern, scale of catkin or cone, 
are seen in tissues traced in saffron and orange, 
straw-color and russet. Scattered here and 
there are spores of club moss, fern, or fungus, 
and pollen of many kinds of flowers; and there 
are resins of different kinds brownish, amber, 
yellow, or red. 

Geological as well as microscopic study of 
coal proves that all of its ordinary varieties 

began their existence, in ancient geological 
times, as peat deposited in vast swamps that 
spread back of the low coasts or in the interior 
lowland basins of the continents. The great 
chemical and physical transformations by 
which the peats were changed to lignites and 
the different ranks of bituminous and anthra- 
cite coal have been brought about by geological 
processes. The principal agents in this geo- 
logical laboratory were pressure, heat, and 
time, each contributing to the production of an 
important factor in civilization. 

[The reader will find a vivid description of the chief 
coal-making era in the article CARBONIFFROUS 

Varieties and Distribution 

Varieties. Three general varieties of coal 
are recognized in commerce. The classification 
is founded on the degree of hardness, and the 
varieties are anthracite, bituminous, and lignite. 
Each variety may be subdivided into several 
sub-varieties, each named for some distinguish- 
ing quality or from the locality where it is 
mined, as Indiana Black, Lchigh Valley, and 

Anthracite. Anthracite is the hardest, clean- 
est, and best variety. It was once popularly 
called stone coal, because it is so hard and is 
supposed to have been the first coal formed, 
since it occurs deep in the earth. It was sub- 
jected to greater heat than bituminous coal, 
since it is almost pure carbon; if the carbon 
content is at least ninety per cent, the coal is 
anthracite. The most extensive anthracite 
mines are in Eastern Pennsylvania; nearly all 
of America's anthracite is there, in an area less 
than 500 square miles. The veins do not lie 
as they were formed, for they have been 
moved by mighty convulsions of the earth; 
some are near the surface, while others are 
found at great depths Anthracite burns 
with little or no flame and without smoke, and 
produces intense heat Its chief uses are for 
warming dwellings and for the manufacture of 
water gas. 

Bituminous Coal. Bituminous coal is much 
softer than anthracite, and contains much more 
matter that is readily vaporized; it is sixty to 
seventy per cent carbon. Tremendous pressure 
and heat over long ages would squeeze and cook 
out of coal the tarry material that makes it 
soft. Hence, soft coal is hard coal in its earlier 
stages. Bituminous coal burns with more or 
less flame and a dense black smoke, the 
latter caused by the escape of unburned car- 
bon into the air. In many large cities, this 
smoke has become so annoying that ordinances 
have been passed requiring the use in chim- 
neys of such devices as will prevent the nui- 

Bituminous coal is widely distributed in the 
United States and Canada, and in nearly all 

other countries. The great coal fields of West- 
ern Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, 
and Illinois all contain it. Canada's largest 
coal areas are in Alberta; its next largest fields 
are in Saskatchewan and in the Maritime 
Provinces. Bituminous coal from different 
fields varies in composition. That from one 
region, as Illinois, is especially suited to one 
purpose, the production of steam; that from 
West Virginia is especially valuable for coke, 
and so on. Hence, we find the names steam 
coal, gas coal, and coke coal applied to these 
coals of different composition. Some of the 
best grades of bituminous coal approach an- 
thracite in hardness. These are known as 
semi-bituminous, and have a carbon content of 
eighty to eighty-five per cent. 

Cannel Coal. This is a variety of bituminous 
coal which is very compact. It burns like a 
candle from one end of the lump to the other, 
hence its name, cannel being corrupted from 
candle. Very hard pieces take a good polish, 
and they are sometimes used for ornaments. 
Cannel coal is highly prized for burning in 
open grates, but it is very scarce. 

Lignite. Lignite is of a brown color, soft and 
brittle. It is the most recently formed coal, 
and contains more or less earthy matter. It 
often shows a woody structure, and sometimes 
branches or twigs are found in it in the form 
in which they grew. Lignite occurs west of the 
Mississippi River, where it is mined in North 
Dakota, Montana, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, 
and New Mexico. The scarcity of other fuel 
in these localities makes it of considerable 
value for warming dwellings. It is not, how- 
ever, well suited for use in steam boilers, be- 
cause of impurities present which prevent it 
from producing so intense a heat as anthracite 
or bituminous coal. 

Distribution. Coal is found in all the conti- 
nents, but the largest areas are in North 
America and Asia. The fields in Asia, however, 
are only slightly developed, and the United 
States, Great Britain, and Germany pro- 
duce as yet over eighty per cent of all the coal 




used in the world. The following table gives 
the estimated area of the coal fields of the 
world, so far as they have been located, and the 
chart below shows the annual production: 


United States 






United Kingdom 



Austria and Hungary 






No data 





r, 800 

No dala 


United States. The United States produces 
more coal than any other country The great 
coal fields are the Appalachian, the Eastern 
interior, and the Rocky Mountain. The Appa- 
lachian field covers an area of over 70,000 
square miles, and extends from the northern 
boundary of Pennsylvania in a southwesterly 
direction to the north-central part of Alabama. 

Millions of Short Tons 



Japan Belgium Br. India China Canada 


The figures represent an average annual yield for 
four years 

The anthracite coal measures are in the eastern 
part of this field, near its northern extremity. 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and portions of 
Virginia, Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ala- 
bama are included in this field. 

The eastern interior field includes parts of 
Tennessee and Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and 
all the other states in which coal is found east 
of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Its 
area is about 04,000 square miles. 

The Rockv Mountain field includes the 
region extending from the eastern foothills of 
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast Its 
area is about 4^,000 square miles Most of the 
coal in this field is lignite, though valuable 
seams of bituminous coal are found in Colo- 

The total area of the coal fields within the 
United States, not including those of Alaska, 
is about 333,000 square miles. This is equal 

Bituminous Chart 



Vest Virginia 



Kentucky Illinois Ohio 

I Indiana Alabama Virginia 
I Millions of Short Tons j 


The figures represent average annual production for 
five years 

to the combined areas of Texas and Oklahoma, 
or the state of New York and five states as 
large as Illinois, or eight times the area of 

The present annual output of the United 
States is about 600,000,000 short tons (2,000 
pounds) The leading states in the order of 
production in average years are 

West Virginia 










Canada. The coal fields of Canada occur in 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and in Sas- 
katchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. 
The Nova Scotia fields are of great value and 
have been worked for many years The fields 
in Saskatchewan and Alberta are the largest in 
area and contain lignite and bituminous coal, 
some of the latter being an excellent cooking 
coal. The exact area of coal-producing lands 
in the whole Dominion has not yet been deter- 

Other Countries. Great Britain, next to the 
United States, is the largest producer, followed 
by Germany. The table shows that most of 
the leading countries of Europe produce some 
coal. In Asia production is practically confined 
to Japan, China, and India; in Africa, to Cape 
Colony; and in South America, to Chile. Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand produce as yet only 
a little more than is needed for home consump- 

Quantity of Coal. Each field contains a 
number of veins of coal. In the older mines of 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, a number of 
these veins have been worked so long that 
some shafts are 1,500 or more feet deep, and 

o^md there are Many Hundreds More not illustrated here 






Coal not only heats our homes and public buildings, provides power 
for railroads and steamships, and keeps alive the great furnaces that 
transform iron into steel, but it enters into everyday living at innumer- 
able points of contact. For coke, gas, ammonia, and tar are all derived 
from coal, and they, in turn, have derivatives that are now considered 
indispensable to modern civilization. The most important of the 
products obtained from coal are listed below: 


Carbon bisulphide 
Fuel gas 
Illuminating gas 

Ammonium carbonate 
Ammonium chloride 
Ammonium nitrate 
Ammonium sulphate 
Anhydrous ammonia 
Aqua ammonia 


Domestic coke 
Metallurgical coke 
Oven carbon 










Benzoic acid 

Carbon bisulphide 










Lubricating greases 





Paving material 




Photo developer 

Picric acid 

Pipe coating 





Salicylic acid 

Synthetic resins 

Tarred felt 





Wood preservative 





below these veins there are probably others 
that have not been discovered. It is there- 
fore impossible to estimate accurately the 


A cube (A in the illustration) ten miles on each edge 
represents the total coal resources of the American 
republic The small cube B fairly, though not with 
absolute accuracy, shows the amount thus far mined 
(For the above we are indebted to Bedford's General 
Science ] 

amount of coal in reserve. The most authentic 
estimate that has been made is that under the 

direction of the International Geological Con- 
gress, which gives for the world 7,000,000 
million tons (7,000,000,000,000), of which 
5,105,000 million tons (5,105,000,000,000) are 
in the United States. While the mind utterly 
fails to grasp the significance of these figures, it 
will be clear that at the present rate of consump- 
tion, we need not worry about shortness of coal 
for centuries to come. 

At the present rate of consumption, it is de- 
clared the coal in the United States will last 
6,000 years, but as it is being used incredibly 
faster every year, it is believed the supply 
now known to exist will be exhausted in less 
than a thousand years. 

Products and By-Products. Reference was 
made above to the manufacture of water gas 
from anthracite, and to the production of coke 
from soft coal. Coal, in fact, is not merely a 
fuel, but is the source of hundreds of products 
and by-products indispensable in the arts, 
science, and industry. Coal tar, for example, 
so widely used in the manufacture of pavement 
material, roofing, and tar paper, is separated 
by distillation into scores of useful products, 
many of which are enumerated on the reverse of 
the full-page illustration (preceding pages, 1501 
and 1502). One of the latest discoveries is a 
process for making wood alcohol from water 
gas, which, as noted above, is derived from 
coal. A study of the illustration and reference 
to the related subjects at the close of this 
article will make possible a comprehensive 
survev of the wealth stored in coal. 


Coal occurs in veins which lie in a horizontal 
or an inclined position. Occasionally, the veins 
arc near enough to the surface to be stripped 
of the overlying rock and worked as open quar- 
ries. In hilly or mountainous regions, the coal 
may be reached by a tunnel bored into the 
side of the hill or mountain. Deep veins and 
those found in level regions are reached by 
sinking a shaft, and this method is the one 
most frequently employed. In different parts 
of the world, the veins are in varying thick- 
nesses. Some in Wales are thirty to forty feet 
thick; in India are veins about 200 feet in 
thickness. But these are very rare exceptions. 
In the United States, the average may be 
stated as from six to twelve feet, with veins 
overlying one another with rock layers between. 

The Shaft. In America, shafts are usually 
square or oblong. They vary in size and depth. 
Where the veins are near the surface, it is 
more economical to sink small shafts at short 
distances from each other than it is to haul 
the coal from all parts of the mine through 
tunnels to one shaft. But in deep mines it is 
less expensive to use one shaft. Deep shafts 
sometimes extend downward over a mile. 
They are usually divided into compart- 

ments, two of these arc used for the eleva- 
tors, or cages, on which the coal is hoisted to 
the surface and in which the miners are let 
down and hauled up from the mine; one is for 


An increasing amount of coal is being mined in the 
United States by the use of steam shovels. This is 
possible only when the coal lies near the surface. 

pipes, ladders, and pumping apparatus, and one 
for ventilation, or the same compartment may 
be used for pipes, ladders, and ventilation. 




The shaft is lined with timbers, and over the 
mouth a strong frame, fifty or more feet high, 
is constructed for holding a part of the hoist- 
ing machinery. The cages are raised and low- 
ered by a wire cable which passes over a large 
wheel at the top of this frame, then around 
a drum that is operated by a steam engine. 
There is a cable for each cage, and the arrange- 
ment is such that as one cage is hoisted the 
other is lowered. 

Mining the Coal. The miners work from the 
foot of the shaft, following the vein in differ- 
ent directions. First thev excavate the coal so 

Photo Vlsiml Education Service 

Both the building and the apparatus are known by 
the name. Here loaded cars are emptied by tipping 

as to form a large gallery or passage in one 
direction. This must be broad enough and 
high enough for cars to be hauled by mules 
or by an electric or steam locomotive. As fast 
as thib passage is extended, a track for the cars 
is laid in it. The next step is to excavate other 
passages at as near right angles to the first 
as the position of the vein will permit. As the 
mining proceeds, tracks are laid in most of these 
passageways, all leading to the track in the 
main passage. All the coal is taken out except 
pillars, three or four feet square, which are left 
at frequent intervals to support the roof. The 
map of the passages in a coal mine would look 
like the map of a city's streets, except that the 
passages in the mine are more irregular and 

The coal is loosened by hand picks and drills, 
by machinery, and by blasting. Hand tools are 
now used only when the miner begins a new 
excavation, and then only so long as is neces- 
sary to make an opening in which a machine 
drill or pick can be placed. These machines, 
which are driven by compressed air or elec- 
tricity, will cut into the coal at from six to 
twelve inches a minute. One of these machines 
is a chain-cutter, which has knives attached to 
the links; the chain moves in either a horizontal 

or a vertical direction, and as the chain moves 
over the coal the knives cut a channel. The 
machine is so mounted on a carriage that it can 
cut into the coal several feet. The miner 
usually makes his cut as near the bottom of 
the vein as possible; then he breaks the coal 
down by blasting with a light charge of powder. 

The loosened coal is loaded into cars, which 
are run upon the main track, where in large 
mines they are joined into trains and hauled to 
the shaft by small locomotives. In some mines, 
these cars are hauled more than a mile. 

Dangers and Remedies. Nearly 3,000 men 
are annually killed by accidents in the coal 
mines of the United States alone. For every 
177,000 tons of coal mined, one man lays down 
his life. In other countries, the hazards of coal- 
mining are about as serious. Nearly half of 
these deaths result from falls of roofs and coal. 
To counteract this danger, pillars of coal are 
left in the mine to support the roof, or timbers 
are placed to prevent a cave-in. Explosions 
of gas and coal dust account for about one- 
fifth of these fatal accidents. The remainder 
result chiefly from blasting, moving cars, 
and electricity. 

The gases which accumulate in coal mines, 
especially soft-coal mines, arc fire damp, which 
is very explosive; carbon dioxide, which suffo- 
cates those who breathe it; and carbon oxide, 
the white damp of the mines, both poisonous 
and easily set afire. Gas explosions are gener- 
ally local, and in themselves usually do not 

Photo. Viaual Education Service 


The coal is passed over shaker screens in which arc 
holes of various size*, through which the lumps drop. 

cause the sacrifice of much life. They set off, 
however, the much-dreaded coal-dust explo- 
sions. Following an explosion, miners are 
sometimes suffocated by the formation of car- 
bon dioxide, or choke damp. Canary birds have 
been found very useful in detecting choke 
damp, since they usually fall from their perches 
from its effect, before men breathing the same 
air feel distress 

The Mining of Cotl. (i) Surface plant of a coal company. (a) Surveying in a mine. (3) Loading coal by 
modern conveyor system. (4) Undercutting, preparatory to blasting down for loading. (5) Using a flame 

safety lamp to detect dangerous gases. 1505 







I. Definition 

(1) Nearly all carbon 

(2) Relation to peat 

II. How Coal Was Formed 

(1) Decayed vegetation 

(a) Submergence 

(b) Heat and pressure 

(2) Repetition of process 
(a) Veins 

III. Varieties 



(a) Graded according to size 

(2) Bituminous 
fa) Cannel 

(3) Lignite 

IV. Where Coal Occurs 

(T) United States 

(a) Appalachian coal fields 

(b) In Eastern interior 

(c) Rocky Mountains 

(d) Size of fields 

(e) Annual production 
(2) Canada 

(a) Size of fields 

(b) Output 

(3) Great Britain 

(4) Germany 

(5) Other countries 

V. Products and By-Products 

(1) Important derivatives 

(2) Innumerable products of derivatives 

VI. Methods of Mining 

(1) Open quarries 

(2) Deep veins 

(a) Shafts 

1. Number 

2. Size 

3. Division into compartments 

(b) Actual mining operations 
i. Galleries and pillars 

2 Loosening the coal 

.? Bringing it to the surface 

(c) Dangers of coal- mining, and remedies 

VII. Preparation for Market 

(1) Breaking 

(2) Screening 


How can man imitate nature's work in making coal? 

Where is the largest Canadian coal field? The second largest? 

What country in Asia has very large fields, but averages a comparatively small 

Why are canary birds sometimes kept in coal mines? 

What, in comparatively recent years, indicated the importance of the coal-mining 

What is the undesirable feature of burning soft coal in closely built regions? 

How many of the Canadian provinces have coal fields? 

What is the greatest source of danger to coal-miners? 

What is the difference between coal and peat? 

What does the name "cannel" coal mean? Why is it appropriate? 

If about 1,500,000,000 tons are used each year, how long will the world's esti- 
mated coal supply last? 

What are the duties of a "breaker boy"? 

What causes the difference between "man-made coal," or charcoal, and real coal? 

What three countries take the lead in coal production? 

Why do some mines have but one shaft, while others have several? 

Describe the process or processes by which coal was formed. 

How does lignite differ in looks from other varieties? Why is it not so well suited 
for manufacturing purposes as these others? 

When is "open quarrying" possible? 




A Booklet on Coal 

Use three sheets of paper 9x12 inches, or 
larger, and fold once, making twelve pages. 

Cover page Story of Cod in center, 
made in "black diamonds." 

Illustrations : At left side ferns and 
other vegetation. At lower right side 
pile of coal 

Inside cover Blank. 

Page one Kssay, Origin of Coal 
"Buried Sunshine " 

Illustrations. Rank fern vegetation, 
coal with fern-leaf impression 

Page two Kssay, Mining of ( nal 

Illustration: At left shaft connected 
at bottom with cross-section of mine, with 
miners at work 

Page three Kssay, A/rfs of Coal 
anthracite, semi-anthracite, bituminous, 

Illustration Lumps of coal of various 

Page four Essay, {/ACS of Coal in 
heating, manufacturing, transportation 

Illustrations: Stove, furnace, steel mill, 

Page five Kssay, Coal in My County 
importance, location, development 

Illustration. Outline map with shaded 
coal fields 

(Jraphic Ten leading counties 

Page six Essay, Coal in My State or 

Illustration. Map with shaded area 

Graphic Leading states or provinces. 

Page seven Essay, Coal in Canada, or 
Coal in the United Stales 

Illustration- Shaded map 

Page eight Original page suggested by 

Inside back cover Blank. 

Back cover Poem on coal 

In recent years, there has been a world-wide 
movement toward studying the causes and the 
prevention of coal-mine explosions. The re- 
sources of science and engineering have been 
drawn upon in devising methods and apparatus 
for rescuing miners quickly from danger fol- 
lowing an explosion. Men wearing helmets and 
armed with artificial-breathing devices enter 
the death-laden atmosphere below, and bring 
the victims to the surface, where many are re- 
vived. The United States Bureau of Mines has 
done praiseworthy pioneer work in this field. 

Preparation for Market. When anthracite 
comes from the mine, fragments of rock are 
mixed with it, and it is in larger lumps than 
are practicable for use. The coal is hoisted to 
the top of a high building called the breaker, 
where it slides down inclined chutes to the 
rolls, which break it into the various sizes at 
which it is placed on the market. Boys, on 
seats placed across these chutes, pick out the 

fragments of rock as the coal passes along. 
These boys, called breaker boys, become very 
skilful and will detect rock where an inex- 
perienced person would not see it. After the 
coal passes through the breakers, the sizes are 
separated by screens. These sizes, in order, 
from the largest commercial form to the 
smallest, are furnace, egg, small egg, stove, 
nut, and pea. 

Soft coal is usually run over a screen to 
clean it of dirt and small fragments, after 
which it is ready for sale. Some mines, how- 
ever, wash small sizes, and assort them by 
screening, placing them on the market as 
"washed coal," which is a desirable fuel. E.s. 

Related Subjects. The following articles in these vol- 
umes will give added information as to coal, its method of 
formation, and other related topics 

Aniline Distillation 

Carboniferous Period Dyeing and Dyestuffs 

Catalysis Fuel 

Charcoal Gas 

Coal Tar Geology 

Coke Mining 

Conservation Peat 

Diamond Pennsylvania (Minerals) 

COAL GAS. See GAS, subhead. 

COALITION, ko a lish' un, in domestic or in- 
ternational politics, a temporary alliance of 
political parties or nations for a definite pur- 
pose. When the emergency for which the al- 
liance was made has passed, the former status 
is resumed. An excellent example in domestic 
politics is the coalition Ministry formed in 
Great Britain in 1914, soon after the beginning 
of the World War; its Premier was a Liberal, 
but it included among its members men of all 
shades of political opinion, all willing to sink 
their differences in the great need of their 

In international politics, important coalitions 
have been directed against France, first in the 
days of Louis XIV and later in the Napoleonic 
era. The great coalition against Louis XIV, 
known in history as the Grand Alliance, com- 
prised England, Spain, Sweden, Holland, and 
all Germany, and it had the secret support 
of the Pope and many of the Italian princes. 
This coalition came to an end at the Peace of 

The first coalition against France in the 
Napoleonic era was formed by the same coun- 
tries, with the exception of Sweden, in 1793, 
and lasted until 1795. The second coalition, 
formed in 1799, comprised England, Russia, 
Austria, Naples, Portugal, and Turkey. This 
coalition was broken in 1801 by a treaty of 
peace between Austria and France, but a third 
one was formed in 1805 bet ween England, Rus- 
sia, Austria, Turkey, Sweden, and Naples. The 
fourth coalition is usually called the Great 
Coalition-, it included nearly all the nations of 
Europe, and resulted in the final fall of Na- 
poleon, in 1815. 



In 1914 and 1915 over twenty nations joined 
in a sort of coalition, took the name of the 
Allied Nations, and fought the Germanic 
powers in the World War. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 
Napoleon I Ryswick, Peace of World War 


COAL TAR, OR GAS TAR. In the manu- 
facture of illuminating gas from bituminous 
coal, a thick, sticky, dark-colored substance 
with a disagreeable odor is obtained as a by- 
product. This is coed tar, one of the most use- 
ful substances known. It is important in the 
manufacture of roofing and tar paper, is uti- 
lized in making road pavements, and enters into 
the production of a commercial disinfectant. 
Coal tar contains a large number of substances 
which can be separated from it and from each 
other by distillation. These derivatives give 
us beautiful aniline dyes, perfumes, drugs, 
explosives, and numerous other articles in 
everyday use. Since the World War, the coal- 
tar industry, formerly almost monopolized by 
Germany, has been developed in both the 
United States and Canada. 

Important Derivatives. The following in- 
clude the more important derivatives of coal 

Anthracene, a colorless crystalline substance, in- 
soluble in water and but slightly soluble in alcohol 
It is used in the manufacture of alizarin, the coloring 
matter found in madder (sec ALIZARIN) 

Benzene, a colorless liquid used in the manufacture 
of aniline See BENZENE 

Carbolic Acid, a valuable antiseptic. See CAR- 

Creosote, a preservative of wood. See CREOSOTE 

Naphthalene, a crystalline substance soluble in 
ether and hot alcohol, used in the manufacture of 
coloring matter When acted upon by chlorine, nitric 
acid, and other chemicals, it yields various derivatives 
valued by dyers 

Pyridine, a nitrogenous base found in nicotine and 
other plant alkaloids It is used in denaturing alcohol 
and as a germicide. 

Toluene, a colorless liquid used in making dye- 
stuffs, explosives, drugs, photographic chemicals, and 
perfumes It is a constituent of the powerful explo- 
sive TNT. See EXPLOSIVES. T B j 

Related Subjects. In addition to the references given 
above, the reader is referred to the following articles. 


Dyes and 

UNITED STATES (Size: Coast Line). 

COAST AND GEODETIC, je o del 1 ik, 
SURVEY, a bureau of the United States govern- 
ment which had its beginning as far back as 
1807, when Congress, at the suggestion of 
President Jefferson, authorized the establish- 
ment of the national Coast Survey as a bureau 
under the Treasury Department. The Coast 
Survey was actually organized in 1816, but 

little actual work was accomplished before 
1832. In 1871 the scope of the Bureau was en- 
larged to furnish geographic positions and other 
data for state surveys. In 1878 it became the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey; it was transferred 
to the Department of Commerce and Labor in 
1903, and to the Department of Commerce in 

Work of the Bureau. The Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey operates under two divisions- 
field and office. The chief function of the field 
force is charting the coasts of the United States 
and its island dependencies. Some idea of the 
magnitude of the task may be gathered from 
the fact that while the general coast line of 
the United States and Alaska is 11,50x5 miles 
in extent, and that of the Philippines, Hawaii, 
Porto Rico, Guam, and Tutuila is 5,400 miles, 
the actual shore line, which includes all the 
islands, bays, sounds, and rivers in the tidal 
belt, is 103,000 miles QI, ooo for the United 
States and Alaska and 12,000 for the latter 
group. The topographic work extends only 
three to four miles from the coast, but the 
ocean is charted out as far as necessary for 
safe navigation. 

The geodetic work of the Bureau consists of 
spherical surveying, or earth measurement 
This includes triangulation, first-order leveling, 
and astronomic observations. By triangulation 
the accurate positions of stations are obtained, 
as well as the distance between them. This 
furnishes the control for all other public 
surveys, including state and national boun- 
daries, and often for city surveys, as well. 
From the first-order leveling are obtained the 
accurate elevations of a great many marks re- 
ferred to mean sea level, and these are used by 
surveyors and engineers for the control of 
local work. 

The Survey has covered the entire United 
States, in a general way, with a network of 
triangulation and first-order levels. The 
Survey also studies the features of terrestrial 
magnetism in different localities, makes seis- 
mological investigations, produces airway 
maps for aviators, and records tides and tidal 
currents. In the geography of the ocean, it 
pays attention to the physical characteristics 
of the ocean its currents, density, tempera- 
ture, etc. 

In the office of the Bureau, the results of the 
field work are computed, and charts are made 
from original surveys; these are engraved, 
printed, and sold for the actual cost of paper 
and labor. The publications of the Bureau 
consist of about 700 different charts, covering 
all the coasts of the United States and outlying 
possessions; annual tide tables for all the lead- 
ing ports in the world; coast pilots, furnishing 
sailing directions for all navigable waters along 
the coast; special publications, giving geo- 
graphical positions, first-order leveling results, 





Photo* Chicago Tribune 

and other useful data, in a form suitable for 
surveyors and engineers; data for magnetic 
stations; and special reports which give the 
results of scientific research. K.L.F. 

COAST GUARD. Those who "go down to 
the sea in ships" from the ports of nearly all 
countries in the world north of the equator, 
except China, know that everywhere dangerous 
shores are patrolled by men skilled in the most 
scientific means of saving life. In most coun- 
tries, this humane service is supported by 
private contributions. In four only does the 
government assume its organization, man- 
agement, and expense. The South American 
republics, the vast stretches of African coasts, 
and the semi-civilized Asiatic countries afford 
no means of saving life other than unorganized 
effort. The present article deals with such 
efforts in the United States only. For an ac- 
count of other nations, see LIFE-SAVING 

A Change in Name. Until iqi5, dating from 
its organization in 1871, the Life-Saving Service 
of the Federal government was officially known 
by that name, and it existed as a bureau of 
the Treasury Department. On January 28, 
1915, by an act of Congress, it was reorganized, 

and another bureau, the Revenue-Cutter 
Service, was transferred to the same bureau, 
and the two became the Coast Guard. The 
new law contained the following provision : 

There is hereby established in lieu of the existing 
Revenue-Cutter Service and the Life-Saving Service, 
to be composed of those two existing organizations, 
the Coast Guard, which shall constitute a part of the 
military forces of the United States, and which shall 
operate under the Treasury Department in time of 
peace, and operate as a part of the navy, subject to 
the orders of the Secretary of the Navy, in time of 

Organization. The officers of the Coast 
Guard are on the same footing, with respect 
to pay and rank, as the officers of the army 
and navy; indeed, the Guard is an integral 
part of the military arm of the nation. The 
Coast Guard stations, which doubtless will 
continue to be popularly known as life-saving 
stations, are nearly 300 in number, and are 
scattered throughout more than a dozen dis- 
tricts into which the country has been divided, 
embracing the Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific, Great 
Lakes, and Alaska. Not all stations are on 
tidewater, for one is located at the Falls of 
the Ohio, near Louisville, Kentucky . Most of 


Photo.: U ft U 

A Day's Work. A Norwegian steamer was on the shoals in the Atlantic Ocean. The Coast Guard launched its 
lifeboat in the manner shown, and succeeded in saving the lives of the endangered crew. Below is a picture 
of the rescuers, only four in number, who accomplished the dangerous task. The vessel could not be salvaged. 

Photo.: P4 A 

Varied Duties. Above, a line is shot from shore to a stranded vessel; it will bring heavier ropes ashore on 

which the crew may reach land in breeches buovs. Below is a frozen bell buoy. It is the duty of the Coast 

Guard to keep the buoys free from ice; otherwise they would be soundless. 



Photo- P ft A 

A Coast Guard crew in the act of capsizing one of its boats. In this drill, the men become familiar with the 
method necessary in handling a boat which may be capsized while at sen 

maintained throughout the 

the stations are maintained throughout 
year, but some of them, particularly on the 
Great Lakes, where there are sixty-two stations, 
are closed during the winter months, when 
navigation is suspended. 

Equipment. Each Coast Guard, or life- 
saving, station is equipped with a serviceable 
building for living quarters for the guardsmen, 
seven to nine in number, and for boats and 
equipment. A surf boat is provided, from 22 
to 27 feet in length, and of 6 to 7 feet beam, 
containing air chambers to render it unsinkable, 
or a self-bailing and self-righting boat about 36 
feet long, air chambered, and equipped with a 
gasoline engine, sail, and oars. There are also a 
breeches buoy; a life car of metal, open at the 
top, which operates on the breeches-buoy 
principle; a small cannon, which fires an iron 
rod at the end of a light rope, to connect with 
a vessel in distress so that heavy ropes may be 
attached for the operation of the breeches- 
buoy; rockets for night signaling; a pulmotor; 
life-buoys, and a beach cart to transport the 
above apparatus. 

Following is a brief description of the more 
important life-saving items not explained 

A life-buoy is a device for keeping persons afloat in 
deep water. The commonest kind is a canvas belt 
filled with cork, which the wearer fastens about his 
body under the arms. It must be buoyant enough to 
support at least two persons for a considerable time. 
Another style of buoy consists of a sort of jacket, con- 
structed of plates of cork held together by a stout 
casing. Each of these buoys is commonly known as a 
life preserver, and no passenger vessel or freight boat 
may sail without such equipment. Since such dis- 
asters as the General Slocum fire in New York and 
the Titanic loss, laws relating to number and quality 
of life-buoys have become more strict. There must 
be on all vessels as many life preservers as there are 
people aboard. 

A life-saving gun is a mortar capable of hurling an 
arrowlike projectile or other missile from the shore to 
a vessel in distress. The projectile carries a light rope, 
with which the ship's crew can haul a heavy hawser 
aboard When this has been accomplished, passengers 
and crew may be conveyed to safety by means of the 
breeches buoy, traveling over the hue A rocket is 
often substituted for a gun At its head it carries a 
coil of rope, which runs out as the nukct approaches 
its object 

Some ol the guns that are used have a range of 
700 yards, and the more powerful m<ke1s can reach 
objects 1,000 yards distant 

Service Rendered. The cost to the govern- 
ment of maintaining the Coast Guard runs as 
high as $11,000,000 per year. The vessels in 
distress which are given aid during a year are 
worth on the average, with their cargoes, from 
$40,000,000 to $55,000,000. Over 2,000 vessels 
per year are seized for violation of Federal laws, 
and their owners pay from $500,000 to $600,- 
ooo in fines and penalties. An average of 3,000 
persons are annually rescued from peril of the 
seas, while the number of persons on vessels in 
distress, and therefore in potential danger of 
their lives, may average 20,000. An average of 
over 45,000 vessels are boarded each year for 
the purpose of examining the ships' papers. 

Early Organizations. As early as 1807 
benevolent organizations placed life-saving 
apparatus along the Massachusetts coast; the 
New Jersey shores, approached by a greater 
number of vessels, were equipped by the 
government with apparatus, but it was used 
by volunteers, for no Federal appropriations 
for salaries were made until the organization 
of the Life-Saving Service in 1871. 

Revenue-Cutter Service, since 1915 a part 
of the organization of the Coast Guard, is an 
armed maritime service of the Federal gov- 
ernment. It has existed since 1790 seven 
years before the first United States war vessel 





In tin- first illustration, a collapsible boat is in a flat position; the men arc in position to extend it into shape 

for use lielow is, the collapsible boat ready for service It will hold about twenty people, and is sufficiently 

strong to withstand the angry waters of a rough sea 

was launched. The first revenue-cutter fleet 
consisted of ten small, single-masted sailing 
vessels, each with a crew of ten To-day the 
revenue-cutters range in tonnage from 400 to 
2,000, and of vessels of all classes there are over 
one hundred. 

Duties. The most important work of the 
Revenue-Cutter Service is rendered, in time of 
peace, in the enforcement of statutes affecting 
the country's interests at sea. This includes 
customs, neutrality, and quarantine laws; the 
destruction of derelicts (boats which have been 
abandoned) ; the suppression of mutiny, piracy, 
and illegal traffic in firearms and liquor; the 
inspection of lighthouses; and the examination 

of the condition and life-saving equipment 
of vessels. 

Certain cutters are detailed to coast-patrol 
service on both seaboards for the purpose of 
giving aid to steamers in distress and of caring 
for the shipwrecked. Other boats patrol 
Alaskan waters from May to December, to 
protect the seal fisheries, to rescue lost or 
wrecked seamen, and to give medical aid to the 
scattered inhabitants of the coast. In these 
waters alone, the service has rescued hundreds 
of whalers who otherwise would have perished. 
It is said that the revenue service "blazed 
the way to Alaska," and for many years after 
that possession was acquired, the cutters 


were the only representatives of the authority 
of the government in the waters north of 

One vessel is detailed to give medical aid to 
the fishing fleets of the North Atlantic, and by 
an international agreement among the great 
maritime nations, several cutters patrol the ice 
fields of North America to gjuide and aid ships. 
A number of cutters are assigned to service on 
the Great Lakes during the navigation season, 
and others are detailed to harbor duty. 

[See illustration of Coast Guard service, in the article 

The officers are commissioned by the Presi- 
dent, with the approval of the Senate. The 
captain commandant is the highest officer, 
and he is under the orders of the Secretary of 
the Treasury (except in war time). Cadets are 
required to complete a three months' course 
of training in the Coast Guard Academy at 
New London, Conn., after which they are com- 
missioned as lieutenants. Men are promoted 
only after passing rigid mental and physical 
examinations. Cadet engineers are required 
to serve a probationary period of one year at 
the New London Academy. Strict naval dis- 
cipline and routine are maintained, and the 
ships are kept in readiness for long voyages 
in the performance of duty. 

COAST RANGE, a range of mountains in 
the Western United States and Southwestern 
Canada, made up of a number of smaller 
ranges, which contribute largely to the wealth 
of the country, by reason of their valuable min- 
eral products. This range extends almost the 
entire length of California, across Oregon and 
into Washington and British Columbia, and 
forms the southwestern boundary of the great 
central valley of California; there it consists of 
a series of great ridges. Between these ridges 
are long and narrow valleys which, because of 
a remarkable system of irrigation, are noted 
for fertility and beauty. 

The Coast and Sierra Nevada ranges, which 
interlock near Mount Shasta on the north and 
near Santa Barbara on the south, are unsur- 
passed in the production of mineral products; 
gold, formerly the chief product, has been super- 
seded by petroleum in respect to value of out- 
put. The manufacture of cement and asphalt is 
of first importance among the mineral in- 
dustries; silver, copper, zinc, quicksilver, and 
borax are found in the mountain slopes and 
foothills. Among the best-known summits of 
the range, which rise to heights of from 2,600 
to 4,200 feet, are Diablo; Hamilton, the site of 
the famous Lick Observatory; and Tamalpais, 
the latter overlooking the Golden Gate, or San 
Francisco Bay. 

(back of map). 



COBALT, ko' bawlt, a silver-white metal, re- 
sembling iron in its physical and chemical 
properties, and still more closely related to 
nickel (which see). Nickel and cobalt are 
often found in the same ore. The symbol of 
cobalt is Co (see CHEMISTRY). Pure cobalt is 
heavier, harder, and stronger than iron, and 
does not rust or tarnish. It takes a good polish 
and, like nickel, can be used for plating other 
metals. The metal is not in much demand 
because nickel, which costs less, usually serves 
the same purpose. The compounds of cobalt 
are used to a considerable extent as coloring 
matters. Cobalt blue, coerulcum, new blue, 
and smalt are blue pigments used by artists, 
and there are, besides, cobalt yellow and cobalt 
green. Cobalt oxide is used to color glass and 
enamels blue. 

Cobalt chloride is used as a so-called sympa- 
thetic ink. If a weak solution of the compound 
(which is pink) is used to write on rose-colored 
paper, the writing is invisible, but when the 
paper is gently heated, the pink substance 
turns blue, and the writing appears. If a piece 
of blotting paper or of light calico is dipped 
into a solution of one part cobalt chloride 
and ten parts gelatin to 100 parts water, and 
dried, it will be blue in very dry weather, violet 
in weather of medium humidity, and pink in 
wet weather, thus serving as a crude weather 
indicator. Cobalt is found in largest quantities 
at Cobalt, a town in Ontario. T.B.J 

newspaper man, short-story writer, novelist, 
and dramatist, born at Paducah, Ky. He 
received his early 
training in journalism 
as shorthand reporter 
for various papers and 
as a contributor to 
humorous weeklies. 
When nineteen years 
of age, he became edi- 
tor of the Paducah 
News. In 1004, after 
several years of news- 
paper work in various 
cities of Kentucky, he 
removed to New York 
City, where he became 
a special and humor- 
ous writer on the 
Evening Sun and the New York World. After 
the outbreak of the World War in 1014, he 
represented the Philadelphia Saturday Evening 
Post as war correspondent in Europe; and in 
1915 he lectured in all the leading cities of the 
United States on his experiences at the front. 
His many contributions to war literature in- 
clude Europe Revised and Paths of Glory. 
Cobb has written vaudeville sketches and 
monologues, as well as several plays, including 
Under Sentence, Funabashi, and Mr. Busybody. 

Photo. U & U 





Thr tiny mongoose in the background is preparing to spring upon the head of the giant cobra. As shown, this 
small enemy is out of range of the serpent's eye, awaiting the proper moment to attack. 

He is also the author of several books, among 
them Back Home, Ole Judge Priest, From 
Place to Place, The Abandoned Farmers, A 
Laugh a Day, and Here Conies the Bride. 

Cobb's writings have a freshness and an orig- 
inality which give his readers constant delight. 
People read what he writes both to be amused 
and to be informed. An example of his blend- 
ing of fact and fancy occurs in an essay on 
Kentucky, his native state' 

The state of Kentucky is shaped like a camel lying 
down The straw that broke the camel's back was 
the first time the state went Republican 

COBDEN, RICHARD (1804-1865), an English 
statesman and political economist known as 
the "apostle of free trade " His father was 
too poor to give him a good education, and at 
the age of fifteen the boy found work in a 
London warehouse. He labored diligently, 
studied at night, and learned everything he 
could about business, and by 1831 had become 
a partner in a calico-printing establishment. 
In 1835 Cobden published an epoch-making 
pamphlet, England, Ireland, a fid America, and 
in 1836 a pamphlet, Russia. In these he set 
forth the theory to which he adhered through- 
out his life, that the foundation of prosperity 
is free intercourse between the nations. He 
was one of the earliest English leaders in the 
movement for free trade, and when he entered 
Parliament, in 1841, he began a crusade against 

the Corn Laws which resulted in their repeal 
five years later. During the critical days of 
the War of Secession in America, Cobden was 
one of a very few Englishmen of note who 
protested against British recognition of the 
Confederate States of America as a belligerent 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Bright, John Corn Laws Free Trade 

SCOTIA (Surface and Drainage). 

COBH, kohb, formerly Queenstown, a city 
of the Irish Free State'. See IRELAND (The 

COBL1JNZ. See GERMANY (Cities). 

de ka pel' o, a very poisonous hooded snake 
which infests all India an.d Ceylon; it is found 
in the Himalaya Mountains at altitudes as 
great as 8,000 feet. A related hooded snake, 
not quite so dangerous, is found in most parts of 
Africa (see ASP). The king cobra, about twice 
the size of the true cobra and very venomous, is 
also found in all parts of India, and is said to 
eat only snakes. Several cobras are to be found 
in the large markets of the East, where they 
are sold for food. 

The full-grown cobra is nearly six feet in 
length and has a girth of about six inches. In 
color it is yellowish to dark brown, with a 




large black and white spectacle mark on the 
back of its head, from which it is sometimes 
called the spectacled snake. It feeds on such 
small animals as frogs and lizards, and it is 
especially fond of birds' eggs, often climbing 
trees in search of the latter. It has been known 
to swim across rivers. When the cobra goes 
out to seek food, it is a most terrifying sight. 
The deadly serpent glides along the ground 
with the upper third of its bodv erect, its hood 
puffed out, and its eyes glaring. It hisses 
loudly when it prepares to strike. An enemy 
the cobra dreads is the tiny mongoose, which 
attacks it with ferocity and is usually able to 
kill it. See MONGOOSE. 

The bite of the cobra will cause death in a 
few minutes, and there is no known antidote for 
it; however, prompt amputation or cauterizing 
will sometimes save life. As it is found cvery- 

Photo. Wide World 


The hooded, or spectacled, cobra is a true albino 

(see ALBINO). A naturalist has said that it is "more 

subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord 

God has made " 

where in fields and jungles, and even enters 
huts, it is estimated that from 15,000 to 20,000 
natives, as well as thousands of cattle, perish 
each year from its bite. Perhaps there would 
not be so many of these reptiles if the natives 
were not too superstitious to kill them. The 
cobra is very revengeful, and, it is said, will 
pursue anyone who injures it until it kills him. 
The jugglers and snake charmers of India 
usually select the cobra for exhibition pur- 
poses, carrying the hideous creatures around 
the country in baskets and making them per- 
form at the sound of the flute; and it is not 
unusual to see one of these snake charmers 
trudging down a dusty road in India with half 
a dozen wriggling, hissing serpents around the 
upper part of his body. It is said that the 
fangs of the snake are extracted, but this is 
not always the case. See SERPENT CHARMING. 
By allowing themselves to be bitten by small 
animals with little venom, these men may 
develop an immunity to the poison of this 
snake. L.H. 

Scientific Name. The cobra belongs to the family 
Elapidae. It is known as Naja tripudtans 

COBWEBS, the irregular webs spun in 
neglected corners by certain types of spiders. 

COCA, ko' kah. See COCAINE. 

COCAINE, ko' ka in, also ko kane', a bitter 
alkaloid prepared from coca leaves. Cocaine 
is a valuable drug if properly used, but in 
large doses it is poisonous, and when taken 
habitually, it causes moral and physical de- 
generation. It acts first as a nerve and heart 
stimulant, and then as a narcotic, dulling the 
sensibilities. Dentists use it as a local anes- 
thetic, and oculists employ it as a drug to 
dilate the pupil of the eye. Within recent 
years it has also been successfully employed 
in surgical operations, especially those of the 
nose and throat. When it is injected into the 
spinal canal, the entire body below the point of 
injection becomes insensible to pain. To be 
effective, cocaine must come in contact with 
mucous surfaces or be injected beneath the 

Cocaine is one of the worst of habit-forming 
drugs. Its continued use causes sleeplessness, 
nervous twitching, mental and moral weakness, 
and certain death. Its presence in some patent 
medicines has in many cases started this deadly 
habit. A "coke fiend" will lie, beg, steal, or do 
anything to obtain this drug. In 1014, when 
the Harrison Act prohibited the sale of cocaine 
in the United States except under a physician's 
prescription, many habitual users were nearly 
crazed for want of it. As a result, benevolent 
societies were kept busy trying to furnish relief 
to the victims and to bring them back to a nor- 
mal moral and physical state. W.A.E. 

Coca, the shrub from whose rusty leaves 
cocaine is made, is native to South America, 
but is now also cultivated in Ceylon, India, 
and Java. It grows from three to six feet 
high, and bears yellow flowers. The South 
American Indians, especially in Peru and 
Brazil, chew as a stimulant the dried leaves 
mixed with finely powdered chalk. A small 
quantity will enable a person to resist fatigue 
and for a time to need less food, and it makes 
breathing easier in mountain climbing; but the 
reaction is always depressing. This habit, like 
the use of the drug, is also detrimental. 

Classification. The shrub belongs to the flax 
family, Linaceac. Its scientific name is Lrythroxylum 


COCHABAMBA, ko chah bahm' bah. See 
BOLIVIA (The Cities). 

COCHIN-CHINA, ko' chin chi 1 nah. See 

COCHINEAL, koch' i necl, a natural dye- 
stuff used for the production of crimson and 
scarlet tints, and for the preparation of carmine 
(which see). It is derived from the bodies of 
minute scale insects called cochineal, native to 



Mexico and Central America. Countless 
swarms of the insects are brushed from cactus 
plants, upon which they feed, and are killed 
by immersion in hot water or by exposure to 
the sun, steam, or the heat of an oven. The dye 
is prepared from the dried bodies of the females. 
It requires 70,000 of these to make a pound of 
coloring matter. The insects have been intro- 
duced into Spain, Algeria, and Java, but the 
industry has fallen off greatly 
with the development of the 
coal-tar dyes. Cochineal dye 
was formerly used to color the 
scarlet coats of the British sol- 
diers, and is still employed for 
dyeing handmade rugs. The 
color is not fast to light. See 

COCHLEA, kok' Ic ah. See 
EAR (The Internal Ear). 

COCKATOO, kok a too', a 
climbing bird of the order of 
parrots, the sulphur-crested 
species of which i* an object 
of interest in zoological gardens 
The cockatoos are natives of 
Australia, the East Indies, and 
neighboring islands, but are 
found in captivity elsewhere, 
especially in Europe, for they 
can be tamed easily. Unlike parrots, however, 
they can be taught only a few words Their 
cry is harsh and unmusical, and its sound sug- 
gested the name. Cockatoos have large, hard 
bills, highly curved; long wings, and long, broad 
tails, \\hich are usually rounded. They can 
raise or lower their crests and expand them 
like fans at will. True cockatoos have whitish 
plumage, but the name is extended to allied 
species whose plumage is tinged with red, 
orange, yellow, and other colors. New Guinea 
is the home of the great black cockatoo, the 
largest of the order. See PARROT. D.L. 

Scientific Names. Cockatoos are placed by some 
naturalists in the family Cticatuidae. by others, in the 
subfamily Cacatuinac in the family Pnttacidac True 
cockatoos belong to the genus Cacatua. 


COCK'FIGHTING, a cruel sport \\hich con- 
sists of pitting gamecocks against each other 
and permitting them to fight to the death. 
This amusement originated in the Far East, 
is mentioned in the earliest Chinese records, 
and was also a source of enjoyment to the 
ancient Greeks and Romans. From Rome it 
spread to the various countries of Northern 
and Central Europe, and was later introduced 
into America. The training and breeding of 
cocks for fighting became an important indus- 
try in Great Britain a hundred years ago, and 


large sums were wagered on the results of 
the battles. Cockfighting is now illegal except 
in the Orient, in Spain, and among peoples of 
Spanish origin. Elsewhere humane laws have 
abolished this so-called sport. 

any one of various species of weeds belonging 
to the Composite family. They are character- 
ized by the possession of spiny burs, within 
which are found the seeds, usu- 
ally two to a bur. One of these 
germinates a season ahead of 
the other. The seed pods, cov- 
ered with sharply hooked 
prickleb, stick to one's clothing 
or to the hair of cattle, and in 
sheep-raising districts do great 
damage to the wool, from which 
they can be disentangled only 
with great difficulty. Hogs and 
young cattle are sometimes 
killed by eating the burs, which 
either are poisonous, as some au- 
thorities believe, or else cause 
death by choking the throat 
and intestinal tract and lacerat- 
ing the internal membranes. 
Cocklcburs are coarse annual 
plants, growing from one to 
three feet high, and bearing 
rough, heart-shaped leaves. 
The pollen-bearing flowers grow on the upper 
branches and the seed -bearing ones on the 
lower. To exterminate cocklebur, it is neces- 
sary to destroy the plants before the seeds 
ripen, but special efforts have to be made to 
prevent new plants forming from the seeds 
that germinate in the second season. B.M.D. 

Botany of the 
Cockleburs. These 
weeds belong to the 
family Composihn 
and to the genus 
Xanthium One of 
the most common 
species, the spiny 
cocklebur, X \pin- 
osum, was intro 
dured into \merica 
from Europe Then- 
arc several nutixe 
American species 

TON. See BUR- 

COCK OF THE ROCK, a handsome South 
American bird, with rich orange plumage and 
a prominent, flat-sided crest. The bird is so 
named because it builds its nest of mud on the 
rocks. These birds dwell along the rocky 
streams and on bushy hillsides in the lower 
Amazon Valley. The males gather together 
during the mating season and woo the females 





by dances and other peculiar antics. As the 
plumage of the birds is much sought for the 
millinery trade and by Indians for decorative 
purposes, the species is becoming rare. D.L. 

Scientific Name. The cock of the rock belongs to 
the subfamily Rupicolinae of the family Cotingidac. 
The species described above is Rupicola rupicola. 
There are three other species. 


"COCKPIT OF EUROPE," a term applied 
for many years to Belgium (which see). 

COCKROACH. Cockroaches are among the 
most persistent and disagreeable of the insect 
pests that infest dwelling houses. The thousand 
or more species are 
found all over the 
world, and can 
boast an ancient 
lineage, for cock- 
roaches were the 
dominant insects 
in the coal-making 
(Carboniferous) pe- 
riod of geologic 
times. A roach 
is easily identified. 
The flattened, slip- 
pery body, with its 
leatherlike, shiny 
casing; the long, 
strong, bristle-cov- COCKROACH 

ered legs; the thin, Natura i s i ze O f the species in 
lengthy antennae, warm climates, as the South- 
or feelers, belong ern United States The cock- 
fn a rrpatiirp nnt roach of cooler zones is about 

to a creature not one-half as large 

easily mistaken for 

any other insect. Bakeries, groceries, office 
buildings, restaurants, hotels, flour mills, and 
libraries, as well as homes, are infested, for 
roaches will eat anything food, garbage, 
clothing, furniture, bookbindings, and other 
insects, including bedbugs. They are well 
fitted to slip through cracks and crevices, and 
when the lights are out at night, they emerge 
in droves from their hiding places in search 
of something to eat, swarming over and con- 
taminating everything that is explored. 

The most common species in America are the 
croton bug of the Eastern states, a German 
cockroach whose name refers to its connection 
with the Croton waterworks system of New 
York City; and the Oriental cockroach, or 
black beetle, more prevalent in the South and 
Middle West. The croton bug is smaller than 
the Oriental roach, but is more prolific and 
destructive. It is a pale yellowish-brown, with 
two dark stripes on the fore part of the body. 

Control. Dirt, grease, moisture, and bad 
air are favorable to cockroaches. At the same 
time, many good housekeepers are annoyed 
by these pests. Roach powders, which contain 
such ingredients as sodium fluoride, borax, or 

pyrethrum, may be dusted into crevices and 
hiding places, particularly around sinks and 
water pipes, or boiling water may be poured 
down. There are various methods of trapping 
these insects. An English plan is to put some 
molasses on a board and set it afloat in a basin 
of water. The insects will be so anxious to 
get the food that many will drown trying to 
reach it. w.j.s. 

Classification. Cockroaches comprise the famib 
Blattidae, in the order Orthoptera (which see). They 
are related to locusts, grasshoppers, and crickets 

COCKSCOMB, koks' home, an odd-appear- 
ing, easily cultivated plant, bearing brilliant 
flowers, which in some varieties take a frilled, 
crested form like the cock's comb. In light, 
rich, moist soil, the cockscomb will bloom from 
midsummer until frost. It is very popular as 
a border plant, with its colored, long-stemmed 
leaves and gay flowers. Cockscombs range 
through all the lovely shades of red and yellow, 
some of the flowers are stiff crests, while other 
varieties are waving and graceful, like ostrich 
feathers. Though a native of the tropical 
regions of America, Asia, and the East Indies, 
the cockscomb is now grown throughout the 
United States. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The cockscomb belongs to the 
family Amarantaceae (see AMARANTH) Its botanical 
name is Celosia cristata 


COCOA, ko' ko, originally ko ko' ah, is a red- 
dish-brown powder obtained by grinding the 
kernels from the seeds of the cacao, or cocoa, 
tree. It is widely used in making the popular 
table beverage known as cocoa. The name, 
now in general use in English-speaking coun- 
tries, is a corruption of the more correct form 
cacao (which see). 

The Tree. The cocoa is a small tropical 
evergreen tree cultivated extensively in Mexico, 
Central America, the islands of the West 
Indies, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil, Cuba, 
Portuguese East Africa, the Gold Coast of 
Africa, and Ceylon. Heat, moisture, and a deep, 
rich soil are the conditions which favor its 
growth. The straight, regular trunk usually 
attains a height of twenty to thirty feet, and 
puts forth branches which bear shining, oval 
leaves, dark green above and red underneath. 

The flowers, which have five narrow, bright- 
red petals, grow directly from the trunk or the 
older branches, and are almost stemless; the 
fruit, a cucumber-shaped pod with a thick, 
deeply grooved rind, has the same peculiarity, 
as may be seen in the accompanying picture. 
Each pod contains many almondlike seeds, 
covered by a thin, reddish-brown shell, and 
within each of the seeds is a dark -brown ker- 
nel, the valuable portion of the plant. The 
seeds have the commercial name of cocoa 
beans, while the kernels are called nibs. 


Preparing for Shipment. Much of the work 
of getting the beans ready for shipment is done 
by negroes. After the pod is picked, a slit is 
made in the side with a knife; the pods are 
then broken open with the hand, and the beans 
and their enveloping pulp are scooped out and 
carried to the sweating house, to go through 
a process of fermenting. This fermentation 
makes the pulp easily removable, and also 
improves the quality of the kernel. 

From the sweating house the beans are taken 
to sieves or troughs and stirred under water 
until they are clean and smooth. They are 
then dried, either in the sun or by artificial 
heat. Finally, in order that the beans may 
be protected against mold and fungous growths, 
they are finished, or polished; they are then 
placed in bags or barrels for shipment. 

Manufacture of Cocoa Products. Powdered 
cocoa, chocolate (which see), and cocoa butter 
are the chief products of the cocoa beans. In 
the process of manufacture, the seeds are 
roasted and the shells removed, and the kernels, 
or nibs, are placed in a grinding mill with 
steam-heated rollers. Because of the heat, the 
cocoa mass flows out of the mill in a semi- 
liquid state; it is then run into deep pans 
and allowed to harden. If cocoa is to be made, 
the mass is remelted and placed in a great 
press which extracts a large proportion of the 
fat. The substance is then taken from the 
press and reduced to a fine powder in a mill 
consisting of a pair of rollers armed with teeth. 

coco \ 

(<;) How the pods grow O n the tree; (b) pods with 

the shells removed; (r) longitudinal and cross-sections 

of pod; (</) beans removed from pod 

Before it is placed on the market, the powder 
is pulverized in a second mill, then is sub- 
jected to a thorough sifting. 

Chocolate is the cocoa mass with the fat left 
in. If sugar and flavoring are added, the prod- 
uct becomes sweet chocolate, for without such 


treatment the mass has a somewhat bitter 
taste. The fat extracted from the cocoa is 
sold under the name of cocoa butler, and is used 
as a basis for creams and pomades for the hair 

Millions of Pounds Exported 

(< M f ^ 

British '( 
West Africa 


Indies 68 

Ecuador Dominican 
65 Republic49 


The above comparisons indicate the amount of cocoa 

exported to the United States, in average years, from 

the countries named. 

and skin, and in candy-making. The shells 
of the cocoa beans, usually regarded as a waste 
product, are sometimes roasted with coffee 
to add to its flavor, and in some sections peas- 
ants use them as a substitute for tea and coffee. 

Food Value. The cocoa bean yields a val- 
uable food product, whether in the form of 
chocolate or of commercial cocoa. When used 
in moderation, the beverage made from either 
of these substances is agreeable and nutritious, 
and superior to both tea and coffee, for the 
latter are excitants and are without food value. 
Cocoa and chocolate contain an alkaloid which 
is an excitant, and most people should not 
indulge too generously in these beverages. 
Some people will be made wakeful at night by 
even a single cup of strong cocoa drunk during 
the evening. Too free indulgence in chocolate 
drinks at soda-water fountains, and the ex- 
cessive eating of chocolate candy will prove 
harmful, partly because of the effect of the 
excitant, the bromine, which is similar to 
caffeine, found in coffee and tea. These alka- 
loids stimulate the nervous and circulatory 
systems and the kidneys. See CACAO. B.M.W. 

COCOANUT, a variant of coconut (which 

COCONINO, ko ko ne' no, FOREST. See 
ARIZONA (Climate and Vegetation). 

COCONUT, OR COCOANUT, ko' ko nut. 
This hard, brown-shelled oval fruit of a tropical 
palm tree is familiar everywhere, either in its 
natural state or in shredded form, as used in 




. VuunJ Education Service, O R O C 

The fruit grows near the ground as well as in the upper branches The tree at the left was photographed in 

one of the East Indies To secure the nuts high among the branches, the natives climb the trees, when a tree 

slopes, as in the illustration at the right, the lithe-limbed laborer climbs it with ease 

pastries. Boys and girls like to break the thick, 
hairy shells of the nuts and eat the sweet, 
white interior and drink its cool "milk," 
but except in the countries where the coconut 
is grown, the kernel is used chiefly for pies, 
puddings, and candies, after it has been chopped 
into fine pieces, or shredded. 

It has long been generally believed that co- 
conuts have spread through tropical lands in 
some such manner as this: Ages ago, a tall 
straight palm grew near a tropical ocean. 
Its naked trunk, sixty to 100 feet high, was 
topped with a crown of featherlike leaves, 
among which hung a cluster of a dozen or 
more nuts. One day possibly a monkey climbed 
up to look for food and shook down a few ripe 
nuts, which, falling into the water, floated 
away and were washed to the shore at spots 
here and there. 

From these nuts sprang new palms, and in 
time the coasts of India and the islands of the 
South Seas were covered with the trees. 
Subsequently, coconut palms were planted in 
Africa and North and South America in 
fact, almost everywhere in tropical countries, 
principally near the seashore. Florida now 
produces an abundant supply for winter 
tourists. More recently, the theory has been 
advanced by an authority in the United States 

Department of Agriculture that the coconut 
tree originated in the interior of Colombia, 
South America, and was carried by human 
means to the lands of the East. At all events, 
coconuts are now produced for commerce on 
plantations scientifically managed, and are not 
known to grow wild naturally. 

Anybody who handles one of the nuts will 
notice three dark spots at one end. P'rom these 
"eyes/' roots and stems are produced when the 
nuts are germinated. After the seedlings are 
well grown, they are transplanted to groves in 
which they are protected and cared for ac- 
cording to the best modern practices. Coconuts 
flourish in regions of brilliant sunshine and 
salty air or soil, and they find these require- 
ments in perfection on tropical coasts; plan- 
tation owners also profit by cheap and abundant 
native labor. 

To the natives of the countries where the 
coconut palm grows, the nut is an important 
article of food. The fruit is eaten ripe or green; 
the cabbagelike bud at the top of the tree is 
edible when boiled. Palm wine is made from 
the sap, which when distilled produces a very 
strong liquor called arrack. The roots, which 
are narcotic in effect, are chewed by the na- 
tives. The coconut oil, or butter, of commerce 
is pressed from the fruit, to be used in making 

r_ - /j 

Photo: K.y.ton. 

The Raft and the Cargo Are One. Natives of the Philippine Islands are poling their cleverly constructed raft 
of coconuts down a river from grove to harbor, from where ships will carry the nuts to all parts of the world 





oleomargarine, soap, shampoo preparations, 
and candles, and for numerous other purposes. 
The dried kernel is shipped to other countries 
under the name copra (which see). Coconut 
leaves are utilized for forage and to thatch 
cottages. From their fibers, cordage, baskets, 
sacks, and other useful articles are made. 
The midrib of the leaves is employed by natives 
for spears, arrows, and torches. Many of the 
mats on which we wipe our feet are made of 
coconut fiber, or coir, which is obtained from 
the husks of varieties raised especially for 

Carbohydrates, 31.5 

in, 6.3 


that purpose. From coconut shells are made 
useful cups, ladles, and other ornamental 
utensils. The wood of the lower part of the 
tree takes a beautiful polish, and is valued 
for boats and houses. See PALM. B.M.D. 

Classification. The botanical name of the coconut 
palm is Coco* nudfera 

COCOON, ko koon'. Most boys and girls 
have tried the experiment of imprisoning cater- 
pillars in a box, in order to watch the strange 
change from worm to fluttering moth or gor- 
geous butterfly. In many cases they have seen 
a caterpillar wind about itself a casing formed 
of thread which it draws out of its head. This 
casing is the cocoon. It is a firm shell, com- 
pletely covering the insect, which lies quietly 
in it during the time it is casting off its old 
skin and preparing for its new life in the air. 

During this resting period, between the cater- 
pillar (larval) and adult states, the insect is 
said to be in the pupa stage. Any caterpillar 
that spins a cocoon is the larva of a moth; 
the young of butterflies encase themselves in 
hard skins and becomes chrysalids. 

The most valuable insect known is an 
Oriental moth whose caterpillar spins a cocoon 
from which we get the material for our real silk 

Though there are undomesticated silkworms 
in America, and their cocoons may be found 
hanging hammocklike close to the under side 
of small branches or carefully concealed within 
a folded leaf, the cocoon-spinner which children 
know best is the fuzzy, furry, brown and black 
caterpillar which curls up when touched. If 
one of these interesting little creatures is put 
in a box in the fall, it should be kept in the 
open air all winter, for its natural process of 
development is to sleep through the cold 
weather and build its cocoon in the late spring. 
When its winter's nap is over, it will wind 
itself about with threads of silk, weaving its 
head back and forth until its whole body is 
hidden in a coarse coat of mingled silk and 
hair. Strange to say, the completed cocoon 
is much smaller than the caterpillar before 
it starts its work. In a few weeks, the end is 
broken open and the moth crawls out, looking 
at first like a dilapidated worm, but soon un- 
folding its patterned wings and showing itself 
a fully developed insect. Spiders also spin 
cocoons, but these are used as egg cases, w j.s. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles, where numerous illustrations 
will be found 




COD, one of the world's most important 
food fishes, common to both shores of the 
North Atlantic Ocean, as far south as France 
and Virginia. It is a near relative of the hake 
and haddock (both of which see). The cod 
fisheries along the Grand Banks of Newfound- 
land and the shores of New England are 




famous. The prosperity of Newfoundland, one 
of Great Britain's oldest colonies, depended for 
many years solely on cod-fishing, and the flesh 
of the fish was salted and used in trade like 
money. The importance of the cod in the 
early history of the United States is shown in 
the fact that it had a place on the seal of 
Massachusetts Colony, and to-day a gilded 
codfish hangs in the state house of represen- 
tatives opposite the Speaker's desk, between 
two central columns. The abundance of the 
fish along the eastern shores of America was 
noted by the early voyagers and recorded in 
the stories of their travels. 

Description. The cod has a slightly flat- 
tened body which tapers abruptly to the tail, 
and is usually greenish or olive on the back and 
sides, which are dotted with numerous small 
brown spots. The larger fish weigh from twenty 
to thirty-five pounds; the smaller, about twelve 
pounds. However, some extraordinary speci- 
mens have been caught; the largest ever cap- 
tured off the New England coast weighed 21 i$ 
pounds and was over six feet long, and there 
are stories of others which weighed from 100 
to 175 pounds. 

The cod preys on lobsters, shrimps, crabs, 
and other crustaceans, mollusks, small fishes, 
and various kinds of seaweed, but is such a 
greedy eater that it will swallow almost any 
kind of refuse that comes its way. In the 
stomachs of captured fish have been found 
pieces of rubber and leather, scissors and oil 
cans, glass, stones, and garbage. Along the 
northern coast of Europe, the cod spawns in 
February, March, and April; on the American 
coast, from October to June. Summer and 
winter are spent in deep water, spring and 

Photo Vi.u*) Education Service 


At the ocean stage of its career. 

fall near the shore. These fish produce an 
astonishing number of eggs. David Starr 
Jordan estimates that if all the eggs from a 
seventy-five pound fish during its life should 
hatch and grow to maturity, the ocean would 
be filled with an almost solid mass of cod, and 
that a cod weighing twenty-one pounds will 
produce 2,700,000 eggs in one spawning period. 
The eggs are very small, averaging one-nine- 
teenth of an inch in diameter, and float on 
top of the water. Hence, they are destroyed 
or eaten by fishes or birds in countless numbers, 
and the cod does not multiply as rapidly as 
might be supposed. In fact, artificial prop- 
agation is practiced to maintain the supply. 

The Fisheries. The chief cod fisheries of 
the world are those of Norway and Sweden, 
Great Britain, France, Canada, Newfoundland, 


and the United States. From 55,0x^0,000 to 
65,000,000 pounds are landed annually at 
the chief Atlantic ports of the United States. 
American fishermen usually go to the Grand 
Banks of Newfoundland (ridges in the ocean 
where the water is only a few hundred feet in 
depth), and to the George's Bank, off Cape 
Cod. Nearly all of the ships of the United 
States cod-fishing fleet hail from Gloucester, 
Mass., the headquarters of the industry. 

The fishermen start out in swift little schoon- 
ers, which have attached to them several 
small rowboats, called dories. When the 
fishing grounds are reached, they set their 
trawls, which are long lines anchored at both 
ends and held up by buoys. To these trawls 
smaller lines with baited hooks are fastened 
every few yards. A few hours later, some of 
the men visit the trawls in the dories and re- 
move the cod which have been caught on the 
hooks; they then carry the catch back to the 
schooner, and when the vessel has received a 
load, it returns to port. 

Codfish is usually sold salted and dried. 
Cod-liver oil, obtained from the liver of the 
fish, is rich in vitamins needed by growing 
children, and is taken by persons who are ill- 
nourished and need building up. About 
30,000,000 pounds of dried codfish are pre- 
pared each year in the United States, but the 
export trade is for the most part carried on by 
Norway, Newfoundland, and Canada. The 
chief markets of the world are France, Spain, 
Portugal, Italy, and Brazil. See FISH (Deep- 
Sea Fisheries; Fish Culture). L.H. 

Scientific Name. The common codfish is Gadus 
callana*. The Alaska cod of the same genus is G 

CODE NAPOLEON, the French civil code 
of laws compiled under the direction of Na- 
poleon Bonaparte, and largely a reenactment 
of the Justinian Code, or systematized body of 
Roman law. Properly, it is the entire body of 
French law as contained in the Five Codes pro- 
mulgated between 1804 and 1810. The term is 




especially applied to the first of these codes, 
established by Napoleon as a result of the 
labors, under his direction, of eminent French 
jurists. The great merit of the code is its sim- 
plicity, but in spite of this, it has aroused con- 
troversies, and there has been considerable 
legislative amendment. To Canadians and 
Americans, interest in the Napoleonic code lies 
in the fact that it is the foundation of the codes 
of the state of Louisiana and of the province 
of Quebec, which were French in their early 
periods. All the other states in the American 
Union and the provinces of the Dominion of 
Canada base their laws upon the Roman code. 

CODE WRITING, a method of writing a 
message so that none but those possessed of the 
key may decipher its meaning. It is of an- 
cient origin, and its study has been one of 
great interest in all ages. Ingenuity is required 
to conceal the meaning of a written message, 
but it has been said that, no matter how in- 
genious a code or cipher may be, someone will 
be found with sufficient cleverness to decipher 
it. Julius Caesar used one of the simplest forms 
of code by employing the third letter of the 
alphabet ahead of the one he wished to indicate. 
Thus, instead of writing a he would write </, 
instead of m he would write />, and so on. In 
using the word man, for instance, he would 
write it pdq. References to code writing only 
to be understood by the initiated appear 
frequently in the Bible. Jeremiah, referring to 
Babylon, wrote the word shcshak\ instead of 
using the second and twelfth letters from the 
beginning of the Hebrew alphabet, he wrote 
the second and twelfth from the end. 

Charles I constantly employed a code in 
writing to his adherents, and numbers of his 
letters fell into the hands of his enemies at 
the Battle of Naseby. At the present time, 
codes are largely used in diplomatic circles and 
in business, when it is desired to keep transac- 
tions secret or to make one word stand for 
several, in order to save expense in telegraphing 
or cabling. The great telegraph companies 
have compiled codes, and copies of these in 
book form are 
placed at the P 
disposal of any- 
one using their 

kahd'isil. See 

MOTH, a small 
moth who se 
larva is the most common cause of wormy 
apples. It is estimated that this pest causes 
the apple-growers of America a loss of about 


EuacaUon Scrrie* 


$20,000,000 a year. The mother moths deposit 
their eggs on the leaves of apple trees about 
three weeks after the blossoms appear. The 
young, as soon as they are hatched, may 
feed on the leaves, or may eat their way into 
the fruit, beginning usually at the blossom end. 


After feeding on the cores, the worms leave 
the apples and find a sheltered place to spin 
their cocoons. The moths appear a few weeks 
later, and a second brood of grubs attacks the 


apples in midsummer. These larvae feed on 
the fruit until they are mature, and then go 
into cocoons for the winter. 

The best measure against the codling moth is 
a thorough spraying with arsenate of lead and 
lime sulphur, just after the blossoms have 
fallen, and again about three weeks later. 
Another spraying, ten weeks after the first, 
will catch the second brood of worms. Fallen 
apples should also be destroyed, to kill the 
larvae, and the orchard should be kept clear 
of rubbish which may hold cocoons. wj.s. 

Classification. The codling moth belongs to the 
family Tortricidae. Its scientific name is Carpocapsa 

COD-LIVER OIL, a thin, pale-yellow oil 
obtained from clean, fresh cod livers by a steam 
process. Cod-liver oil is highly regarded by 
physicians as a nutrient in wasting diseases, 




such as rickets, pulmonary consumption, and 
scrofula. Not only is it nutritious, but it is 
easily digested and assimilated. Especially 
is it a valuable food for 
young children; infants 
who cannot be breast- 
fed are given cod-liver 
oil to ward off colds as 
well as rickets. Vita- 
min A (see VITAMINS), 
the element that makes 
the oil so valuable for 
babies, can be im- 
parted to the milk of 
cows if the animals are 
given two ounces of the 
oil a day. They need 
lo have it in winter, 
when fresh grass is not 
available Cod-liver oil 
is distasteful to some 
persons, and is con- 
sidered more palat- 
able when taken in the 
form of an emulsion. 
It may also be pur- 
chased in the form of 
gelatin capsules. See 
COD. W.A.E. 

CODRUS, kod' rus, 
in the legends of an- 
cient Greece, the last 
king of Athens. When 
the Dorians invaded 
Attica, Codrus was 
told by an oracle that 
his country would be 
saved if the Athenian 
king were struck down 
by the hand of the 
enemy He therefore 
entered the Dorian 
camp disguised as a 
peasant, and, provok- 
ing a quarrel, was 
slain. The enemy then 
withdrew, and the 
grateful Athenians, 
esteeming no one 
worthy to succeed their 
king who had sacrificed himself for them, gave 
to the son of Codrus the title of arc/ion and 
abolished the royal office. See ARCHON. 

CODY, ko' die, WILLIAM FREDERICK (1846- 
1917), the BUFFALO BILL of the great plains in 
the pioneer days of the West in the United 
States, and organizer in his later years of the 
"Wild West Show," with which he toured 
America, and Europe. With its bands of In- 
dians, cowboys, rough riders, "bucking bron- 
chos," "Dead wood Coach," and buffaloes, the 
famous exhibition portrayed much of the actual 
early life on the plains. Cody was born in 

Photo*. Keyntouo, Vwuul JdULutiun Service 


The equestrian statue of "Buffalo Bill" is in Central 

Park, New York City His grave, on Mount Lookout, 

near Denver, Colo, [bee portrait, page 1526.) 

Scott County, Iowa. As an express rider during 
his early life on the Western frontier, he gained 
a reputation as a keen, fearless rider and 
plainsman. During the 
War of Secession, he 
rendered valuable ser- 
vices as a Union scout, 
and he was the last 
of the six great scouts 
of America, the others 
being Boone, Carson, 
Crockett, Bridger, 
and "Wild Bill." The 
name Buffalo Bill was 
given Cody during 
the construction of the 
Union Pacific Rail- 
road, for he contracted 
to supply fresh buffalo 
meat to the troops and 
laborers there, and 
killed over 4, ooo buffalo 
in eighteen months. 
school in Cedar Rap- 
ids, la. See CEDAR 

COECUM, se' hum. 

ko cd u ka' shun. Public 
schools were first estab- 
lished for boys only, 
and the education of 
girls under public aus- 
pices was given little 
or no attention. When 
society awakened to 
the realization of the 
necessity for educat- 
ing girls, there were 
no schools for them, 
so both boys and girls 
attended the same ele- 
mentary schools. Later, 
in Germany, France, 
and England, separate 
schools were estab- 
lished for the sexes. 

Necessity compelled 
the early colonists in America to send boys 
and girls to the same elementary schools, and 
the system of coeducation early established 
has continued to the present time, although 
in some sections of the country, notably in 
certain Southern states, the high schools are 
not coeducational. Over one-half of the pri- 
vate institutions are coeducational. The ar- 
guments of those opposed to coeducation em- 
brace the following theories: 

(i) During the adolescent period, coeducation pre- 
vents the development of certain of the finest feminine 
qualities in the girl and certain masculine qualities in 


sumes that the orbit of an electron is a series 
of different positions, not a continuous line, 
and that the radiation of energy is a discontinu- 
ous process. Professor R. A. Millikan has 
stated that the spectroscope is furnishing "as 
exacting proof of the orbital theory of electronic 
motions as the telescope furnished a century 
earlier for the orbital theory of the motions of 
heavenly bodies." 

Chemical Compounds 

If a small quantity of very fine iron filings 
be mixed thoroughly with a small quantity of 
powdered sulphur, the iron remains iron and 
the sulphur remains sulphur. They may be 
distinguished from each other when looked at 
through a microscope, and a magnet held over 
the mixture will quickly draw out the iron, 
leaving the sulphur. But if the mixture is 
placed in an iron spoon (or a glass test tube) 
and held over a hot flame, something is formed 
which is neither iron nor sulphur which is not 
like either iron or sulphur. The new substance 
may be pounded to a powder, but no magnet, 
however strong, can now draw out the iron, for 
the simple reason that, as iron, it is not there. 
The new substance is just as real and has just 
as distinct properties of its own as had the two 
elements which combined to make it, but there 
is one difference. Any person who knows the 
proper chemical means for decomposing the 
new substance could reduce it again to iron 
and sulphur, while no ordinary chemical process 
could have divided either of the original 

The iron and sulphur before they were heated 
formed what is known as a mechanical mixture, 
each keeping its own properties; after they were 
heated they formed a chemical compound. 
Many of the very commonest things, which 
seem as simple as anything could well be, are 
really chemical compounds. Water and salt, 
for example, are of this nature. Air, on the 
other hand, is a mere mechanical mixture of 

There are definite ways in which chemical 
compounds are made up. When a certain num- 
ber of atoms of one element are brought close 
to atoms of another element, various things 
may happen. They may remain exactly as 
they have been, neither substance showing the 
slightest interest in the other; one atom of one 
kind may seize upon one or more atoms of the 
other kind and unite with them to form a tiny 
particle of a new substance a chemical com- 
pound-, or both kinds of atoms may wait until 
some force, as heat or electricity, puts them in 
such a condition that they can unite. 

Atoms which will thus unite with each other, 
either with or without aid, are said to have a 
chemical affinity for each other, and unless two 
substances have such affinity they cannot be 
forced to unite. No amount of mixing or melt- 


ing or heating will make of them anything but 
a mechanical mixture. In the experiment de- 
scribed above, the sulphur and iron filings 
united to form a new substance with properties 
of its own, not just because they were melted 
together, but because they also have a chemical 
affinity for each other. 

In the very simplest form of a chemical com- 
pound, one atom of one substance unites with 
one atom of another. But often one atom of 
one element will seize upon two or three or 
even four of another, or two atoms of one may 
combine with three of another. It is easier for 
some elements to enter into combination than 
for others, because some elements are gases 
and some are solids, and the latter are much 
more dependent on outside forces to make it 
possible for them to unite with substances for 
which they have even the strongest chemical 

From the standpoint of the new chemistry, 
chemical combination is explained in terms of 
electronic activity. Briefly, such power of com- 
bination is believed to be the ability of the 
atom to attract one or more electrons from 
another atom, or to yield electrons to such an 
atom. The movements of electrons outside 
the nucleus are supposed to effect chemical 
changes; more particularly, those in the outer 
orbits, which chemists call valence electrons. 
The theory is that the external electrons are 
arranged in so-called spheres, or shells, and that 
the valence electrons are in the outermost shell. 
The inert elements, those that do not enter 
into chemical combination, have no valence 
electrons. As the atomic numbers of the ele- 
ments in the periodic table increase by unity, 
the number of valence electrons held in the 
outside shell increases from o to 7. For ex- 
ample, starting with helium (no valence elec- 
tron) we have the following series: helium (o), 
lithium (i), glucinum (2), boron (3), carbon 
(4), nitrogen (5), oxygen (6), fluorine (7). Fol- 
lowing fluorine in the table is neon, another 
inert element (with no valence electron). It 
begins another series with valence electrons 
increasing by i until chlorine is reached, with 
7 valence electrons. The recurrence of prop- 
erties at regular intervals is thus explained. 

Chemical activity depends upon the valence 
electrons. The nucleus and remaining external 
electrons are said to form the kernel of the 
atom, and are thought to be beyond the reach 
of reagents. Chemical combination differs 
from transmutation in that transmutation in- 
volves a breaking up of nuclei. So long as the 
nucleus remains intact, an atom which has 
undergone chemical combination may be 

Chemical Symbols. It is customary to as- 
sign to each element a symbol representing an 
abbreviation of its common or Latin name. 
Examples are for oxygen, N for nitrogen, Li 


bridges, and transit facilities is under the 
supervision of a city-planning commission. 
Of the seventy-seven parks, Eden Park, on the 
east side, near the Ohio River, is one of the 
finest. The Art Museum and Art Academy are 
located within its grounds, and adjoining it, 
on Mount Adams, is the Rookwood Pottery 
establishment. The park contains two beauti- 
ful reservoirs and a tall water tower which 
affords delightful views of the country round- 
about. Much admired, too, is its medieval 
entrance, Elsinore Gateway. Burnet Woods 
Park, in the Highland section to the north, 
includes the grounds of the University of 
Cincinnati. In Lytle Park, a chief point of 
interest is a statue of Lincoln by Barnard, the 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Taft. A con- 
spicuous structure in the heart of the city is 
the Tyler-Davidson Fountain, on Fountain 
Square, between Vine and Walnut streets. 

The Central Parkway has been opened from 
the heart of Cincinnati to Ludlow Avenue, 
and is one of the most outstanding accomplish- 
ments for the promotion of the city for many 
years. It was completed and turned over to 
the city government and the people by the 
Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners in 
1928. It cost $4,250,000. 

Other parks and recreation centers include 
Ault, Lincoln, Washington, Mount Storm, 
Alma, and Mount Echo parks, the Mount Airy 
Forest project (1,132 acres), the Zoological 
Garden, with one of the largest collections of 
wild-animal life in America, and scores of 
playgrounds and athletic fields. The Cincin- 
nati "Reds" have a fine baseball park in the city. 
Institutions. Cincinnati is recognized as a 
leading educational center. Its municipally 
owned university is famous (see subhead, be- 
low). Among other important institutions of 
higher learning are Saint Xavier College, Lane 
Theological Seminary, Ohio Mechanics Insti- 
tute, Hebrew Union College (the principal one 
in the United States for the education of rabbis), 
and two conservatories of music of national 
repute. The Symphony Orchestra is also 
nationally famous. Among the benevolent 
institutions are the General and Children's 
hospitals. The former is one of the largest 
municipal hospitals in America, having twenty- 
four buildings on a tract of sixty-five acres. 

Transportation. Because of its various 
trunk lines leading southward, Cincinnati is 
called "the gateway to the South." The 
principal lines connecting with the Southern 
states east of the Mississippi are the Southern 
Railway, the Louisville & Nashville, and the 
Illinois Central. Other trunk lines radiating 
from the city include the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
the Norfolk & Western, the Baltimore & Ohio, 
the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Big Four. 
The municipally owned Cincinnati Southern 
Railway, extending from Cincinnati to Chatta- 


nooga, a distance of 338 miles, is leased by the 
Southern Railway. The city also has numerous 
mterurban and motorbus lines. The Ohio 
River is used for heavy freight like coal, lum- 
ber, and iron, and packet service is maintained 
between Cincinnati and Louisville and other 
river points. The great movable Fern Bank 
Dam, twelve miles down the Ohio, facilitates 
commerce. Near the city are the Lunken and 
Watson airports; Cincinnati is a station in the 
air-mail service. 

The new Union Station will be located in 
the western part of the city. It will not only 
include a passenger terminal, but freight and 
transfer terminals, as well. The total cost 
will be not far from $75,000,000. 

Commerce and Industry. The immediate 
trading area of the city extends north and east 
for thirty miles, westward over a fifty-mile 
radius, and southward for ninety miles. With- 
in a radius of 800 miles are over three-fourths 
of the country's inhabitants. Profiting by its 
facilities for receiving and shipping raw mate- 
rials and manufactured goods, and its strategic 
position with respect to markets, Cincinnati 
has enjoyed long-continued industrial pros- 
perity. Over 3,000 industrial plants in the 
city and suburbs produce goods having an 
annual value of nearly a billion dollars. Ac- 
cording to the United States census of manu- 
factures, Cincinnati proper ranks fifteenth 
among all American cities in value of products, 
and of 333 major types of industry listed in 
the census report, it is represented by about 
one-third. The most important products in- 
clude soap, machinery and other metal prod- 
ucts, clothing, shoes, radio sets, synthetic 
plastics, engineering specialties, furniture, play- 
ing cards, and printing inks. Printing and pub- 
lishing, including music publishing, is also well 
represented, and theexquisite Rookwood pottery 
produced at Mount Adams is nationally famous. 
The city was once important as a center for 
the manufacture of iron and its various 
products. This industry has languished, but 
manufacturers of many articles of iron and 
steel consume iron that is manufactured else- 
where. Slaughtering and meat-packing is 
now less important than formerly. 

The city is a leading soft-coal center, han- 
dling over 650,000 carloads annually, and is also 
an important lumber market. It ranks, too, 
among the first five American centers recog- 
nized by foreign buyers. It is a prominent 
banking and insurance center; the Union 
Central Life Insurance Company has erected 
here a building thirty-four stories high, one of 
the tallest buildings west of New York. 

The Lunken airport, in the eastern part of 
the city, comprises 700 acres, has a 3,8oo-foot 
runway, and is only five miles from the city 
postofnce. Watson airport, formerly Grisard, 
at Blue Ash, comprises 100 acres. 




After leaving the pulping machines, the 
beans are run through a series of fermenting 
and washing tanks, to remove the saccharine 
matter adhering to the parchment, and are 
then put through the drying process, either by 
exposure to the sun or by artificial heat. Before 
the parchment covering is removed, the beans 
are left to cure 
for several weeks. 
This process im- 
proves the qual- 
ity and aids in 
retaining better 

The next step is 
hulling and peel- 
ing. This consists 
in the removal, 
generally by mill- 
ing, of bo'th the 
parchment and 
the silver skin. As 
the beans emerge 
from the huller, a 
fan removes the 
detached skins, 
and the beans then 
go to the separa- 
tor. Sand and dust 
drop through the 
first section; small 
and broken beans 
through the next, 
and so on until 
only the best and 
largest beans re- 
main. Then fol- 
lows a careful hand-sorting of the better grades, 
to eliminate any discolored or otherwise un- 


Here is pictured a custom similar to the ceremonial tea in Japan. 

The neighborly group is probably engaged in harmless gossip 

over the small coffee cups which the natives of Palestine have 

long used 

a third of all that is raised. The government 
estimates that the average American drinks ten 
and one-half pounds each year. In Canada, 
where tea is the favorite breakfast beverage, 
the individual allowance slightly exceeds two 
pounds. Below are approximately correct 
figures for the number of pounds consumed 

by each coffee- 
drinker in some 
of the other na- 

Netherlands 15 
Sweden . 12} 

Denmark 12 
Norway . n 

Belgium 10 

Finland Q$ 

Cuba . . o 

Description of 
Varieties. Mocha 
coffee is a small, 
bean. The name 
was taken from an 
Arabian port of 
that name, which 
exported at one 
time the finest cof- 
fee in the world, 
but names no long- 
er signify the 
places from which 
the coffees come. 
Until the begin- 
ning of the eight- 
eenth century, 
Mocha furnished 
practically all the world's supply. Jam, or 
East Indian, coffee is a large, yellow bean. 


COFFERDAM, kof er dam, a temporary 
enclosure erected in water, usually formed of 
two or more rows of piles driven close together, 
with the spaces between packed with clay, 
making the interior water-tight. When the 
enclosure is complete, the water is pumped out. 
There is then a dry foundation on which piers 
or other superstructures can be erected. The 
most remarkable use of cofferdams in recent 
times occurred when the sunken battleship 
Maine, in Havana harbor, was raised in 1912 
for examination. The vessel was surrounded 
by a huge cofferdam, the water was pumped 
out, and when the damage to the vessel had 
been ascertained, the water was allowed to 
flow back into the cofferdam, which was then 

of map). 

COFFIN, a burial case, usually a box or 
chest, in which the dead are placed, commonly 
called a casket. Coffins at the present time are 
most generally made of wood, though metal, 
stone, glass, and terra cotta are sometimes 
employed. The outside is ordinarily covered 
with cloth or velvet, white being used for young 
persons, and black and various shades of gray 
for the more aged. A modern method is to 
enclose a coffin in a shell of cement. 

The Greeks made their coffins of burnt clay; 
sometimes this was first molded around the 
body and then baked. Urn-shaped and tri- 
angular coffins, the body being placed in the 
latter in a sitting position, were also common. 
The Romans at first burned the bodies of their 
dead, but at the beginning of the Christian 
Era stone coffins were introduced. Many ex- 
amples of these, dating from the Roman period, 
have been excavated in England. Among the 
wealthy Romans, limestone coffins were in 
favor. As this stone was supposed to consume 
the body, the name sarcophagus was applied to 
limestone coffins, for the word sarcophagus 
means, in Greek, flesh-eating. 

A wooden coffin made of a tree trunk, cut 
through the center and hollowed out, formed 
the burial case of primitive man This variety 
v\as used in England in the Middle Ages by 
those who could not afford stone coffins, while 
the poorest people were buried with only a 
cloth for a covering. References in English 
fiction show that in later times \\ooden coflins, 
of which the more elaborate present-day de- 
signs were a natural development, were in com- 
mon use. 

Literary References. George Eliot's carpenter-hero 
of her novel Adam Bede made his own father's coffin, 
and in the masterpiece of Dickens, when little David 
Copperfield was on his way from school to attend his 
mother's funeral and stopped at a shop in Yarmouth 
to be measured for his mourning, he heard in an ad- 
joining room the tap. tap of the workman who was 
making the coffin for his mother 


Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles: 

Burial Cremation Sarcophagus 

COGNAC, a wine, first made in France. 

actor and playwright who wrote as many 
successful comedies as have been credited to 
any American author. At the age of nine, he 
became an actor, and while yet a boy appeared 
in vaudeville for several successive years with 
his father, mother, and sister, as one of "The 
Four Cohans." Even after he had attained 
fame and wealth, he frequently acted. 

What He Wrote. While many of Cohan's plays 
were light and trifling, a few were of a high order of 
comedy; two of these most worthy of notice by critics 
were Forty-five Minute* from Broadway and Seven 
Keys to Baldpate. In the latter, he reached his highest 
standard of excellence Other plays were Little 
Johnny Jones, George Washington, Jr , The Yankee 
Prince, Broadway Jones, The Song and Dance Man, 
Hit the Trail Holliday, and The Rise of Rosie O'Reilly. 

COHEN, OCTAVUS ROY (1891- ), an 
American short-story writer, best known for 
his humorous negro-dialect stories. He was 
born in Charleston, S. C., and educated at 
Porter Military Academy in his native city and 
at Clemson College. After working for a short 
time as a lawyer, and later as a civil engineer, 
he turned to light fiction for a career, but feeling 
that an apprenticeship as a reporter would 
give him the breadth 
of experience essential 
to greatest success, he 
joined the staffs of 
daily papers in 
Charleston, and New- 
ark, N. J. After 1015 
he gave his time en- 
tirely to independent 
literary activity, and 
became very soon one 
of the highest-paid 
writers of short 

stories in America. 

His greatest fame ortAVOS , OV ^" H " 
was achieved as a de- 
lineator of negro life, his home is in Birming- 
ham, Ala., which is the scene of the stories 
in which his dusky characters appear. 

COHESION, ko he' zhun, in physics, is one 
of the properties of matter, the force which 
makes particles of the same substance stick 
together. Solids have the greatest amount of 
cohesion, liquids have much less, and gaseous 
substances none at all. If it were not for the 
force of cohesion, the particles composing brick, 
stone, iron, or any other substance would not 
hold together, and all the buildings of a city 
would crumble to ruin if this force should sud- 
denly become ineffective. For example, the 
different parts of a solid iron wheel are held 
together by this force. When the wheel is 




rotated it is cohesion which prevents it from 
flying to pieces. As the speed of rotation is 
increased, the centrifugal force increases rap- 
idly, and at high speeds may exceed the co- 
hesive force which holds the parts of the 
wheel together. Each part then moves off in 
a straight line instead of in a curved path, and 
the wheel flies to pieces. Proof that liquids 
have this property to but slight degree is seen 
in the case of water, which assumes the shape 
of any container into which it is poured. Gases, 
if relieved of pressure, tend to scatter; the 
particles become divided and are dissipated into 
the air Cohesion differs from adhesion in that 
it applies to particles of the same kind, while 
adhesion is the force that holds together unlike 
particles, as mud to a tire. A.L.F. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 

Adhesion Capillarity Molecule 

Attraction Matter Physics 

COHO, ko' ho, a species of salmon (which 

COHOES, N. Y. See NEW YORK (back of 

COHORT, ko' hawrt. See PRAETORIAN 

COHOSH, ko' hosh See SNAKEROOT. 


Monetary Standards). 

COIR, coconut fiber used for mats, rope, etc. 


COKE, kohk. Bituminous, or soft, coal, 
when burned with a limited supply of air in 
kilns, called ovens, produces a variety of char- 
coal called coke. The best ovens are long and 
narrow and are heated by gas. As fast as the 
charge is coked, it is pushed out through doors 
at the bottom and a new charge is put in at the 
top. Coal tar, ammonia, and gas are obtained 
as by-products in the manufacture of coke. 
Some of this gas is used in heating the coke 
ovens, and the remainder is sold for heating 
and lighting purposes 

Good coke has a blackish-gray color, is hard, 
brittle, and porous. It burns without flame or 
smoke, and produces intense heat. It is used 
in smelting iron ore, because it is free from sul- 
phur and other substances that injure the iron. 
It is also used in melting metals for casting and 
to an increasing extent in furnaces for warming 
houses. Coke is manufactured extensively in 
England, and in Western Pennsylvania, West 
Virginia, and Tennessee in the United States, 
and to a limited extent in British Columbia. 
Pennsylvania leads all other sections of the 
American continent in production. Not all 
bituminous coal makes good coke, and coke 
ovens are located only in those regions that 
have good coking coal. See COAL (Bituminous 

of one of the Vice-Presidents of the United 
States. See WILSON, HENRY. 


COLCHICINE, kol' ki sin. See COLCHI- 


COLCHICUM, kol' ki kum, the poisonous 
meadow saffron, a plant of the lily family, 
valued because of the medicinal properties of 
its seeds and root, or corm. From these is 
obtained a poisonous, bitter alkaloid, called 
colchicine, used in preparations for the relief 
of gout. The meadow saffron grows wild in 
the moist meadow lands of England and Ire- 
land, Middle and Southern Europe, and in the 
Swiss Alps. Its pale-purple flowers, which 
bloom in the autumn, are much like those of 
the crocus, and it is called autumn crocus by 
florists. As it is one of the most beautiful of 
the autumn-flowering plants, colchicum is 
often found in gardens. It is easily cultivated 
if planted in a light, sandy loam, where there 
is plenty of moisture. B.M.D. 

Scientific Name. The species described above be- 
longs to the family Lttiaccae. Its botanical name is 
Colchicum autumnale. 

COLCHIS, kol' kis, father of Medea (which 
see). See, also, ARGONAUTS 

COLD, an ailment. See CORYZA. 


COLD STORAGE, the method employed 
to preserve perishable articles by keeping them 
at a low temperature, constantly maintained, 
and a fixed humidity. What the housewife 
does on a small scale with her refrigerator, the 
operators of cold-storage plants do on a large 
scale (see REFRIGERATION). Sometimes as 
many as a hundred million cases of eggs 
(3,600 million dozen eggs) arc in storage ware- 
houses at one time. Nearly all fruits, vege- 
tables, meats, milk, butter, and eggs placed on 
the market in large cities come from such 
warehouses. Every local meat market, hotel, 
grocery, and modern apartment house has its 
cold-storage room, in which are kept all articles 
of food that would perish at ordinary tem- 
peratures. Refrigerator cars transport fruit, 
milk, butter, and meat long distances, and 
deliver them in a condition of perfect pres- 
ervation. Refrigerator ships, equipped with 
cold-storage systems, carry food from one 
country to another. 

All of this results in a tremendous economic 
advantage. Fruits, eggs, and other perishable 
articles of food can be purchased in large quan- 
tities and preserved until needed. Fresh meat 
may be preserved until it becomes tender. 
In this way, shiploads of fruit are saved from 
decay, because the apple, peach, orange, and 
grape crops cannot be properly cared for as they 
ripen. Eggs can be purchased during the spring 






and summer and stored for winter, when the 
production is small. Without the system of 
cold storage to supply the population of large 
cities with these articles, the food question 
would become a very serious problem, and the 
cost of many foods would be prohibitive more 
than a short distance from the place of pro- 
duction. By means of cold storage, the proc- 
ess of meat slaughtering and packing may be 
consolidated; this is a great advantage to the 
public, because it makes possible government 
inspection, with resulting attention to sani- 
tation, and gives better facilities for the safe 
preservation of meats. 

The Cold-Storage Plant. The necessary 
parts of a cold-storage plant are the machinery 
for cooling the air and storage rooms for the 
articles to be preserved. Practically all large 
plants use the method of evaporating a volatile 
liquid (one that evaporates readily) for reduc- 
ing the temperature. Ammonia, sulphuric 
ether, sulphurous acid, and carbonic acid are 
all suitable for the purpose, but ammonia 
(which see), because of its cheapness and the 
low temperature at which it changes to a gas, 
is used much more extensively than all the 
others. The ammonia used is a liquid, formed 
by condensing ammonia gas, which is easily 
converted into a liquid at 32 above zero F. 
or o Centigrade (the freezing point), under a 
pressure of about sixty-one pounds to the 
square inch. This liquid contains no water, 
and is generally known as anhydrous ammonia. 

The refrigerating apparatus consists of a force 
pump for condensing the ammonia gas to a 
liquid; a tank for holding the liquid ammonia; 
coils of pipe or an expansion chamber, in which 
the ammonia changes to a gas; and pipes for 
returning this gas to the pump, to be again 
condensed to a liquid. In its change to gas, 
the ammonia rapidly reduces the temperature 
of surrounding objects. 

In large plants, the evaporation takes place 
in a closed chamber containing coils of pipe 
filled with strong brine, which freezes at a much 
lower temperature than does water. The cold 
brine is conducted through pipes to all parts of 
the storage room, and in this way an even tem- 
perature is maintained. After completing the 
circuit of the pipes, the brine returns to the 
refrigerating coils and is used over and over 

The storage rooms usually have double walls, 
with an air space between to protect them from 
the temperature of the outside air. The ceiling 
is low, seldom exceeding eight or nine feet, 
and the pipes are so distributed as to maintain 
a uniform temperature in all parts of the room. 
There must be enough ventilation to keep the 
air pure and to provide free circulation about 
the stored articles, but too much interferes 
with the temperature. Ozone, used exten- 
sively as a purifier of water, is also used in 

large cold-storage plants for purification of air 
and the arresting of mold growths. 

The plants are in charge of workmen who 
thoroughly understand the system, and they 
maintain any temperature desired. Rooms for 
preserving beef, mutton, and pork for a short 
time are kept at just below the freezing point; 
for long storage, 20 colder. Those for the 
preservation of poultry and fish must be several 
degrees below freezing, because these articles 
must be kept frozen. Eggs and fruits require 
a temperature of about 36 F., but it is claimed 
that butter retains its flavor better if kept at 
a temperature below the freezing point. Milk, 
however, should not be frozen. The rooms in 
which butter, eggs, and milk are stored must 
be scrupulously clean, and the air free from 
odors, or these articles may become tainted and 
unfit for use. 

Cold-Storage Temperatures. Many people 
do not know at what temperatures different 
articles should be kept to preserve them in best 
condition. The following table is approved by 
authorities, the figures being Fahrenheit de- 
grees of temperature: 

Apples (long storage) 31-34 

Apples (short storage) 40-45 

Bacon and hams . . 40-45 

Butter (long storage) . 10 

Butter (short storage) . 20-25 
Cheese (strictly cool cured) . . . 60 

Cheese (ordinary cured) . . 35-40 

Eggs ... 29 

Fish (frozen) . . . 15-18 

Fruit . 30 

Furs and woolens 30-40 

Grapes. . . 35-38 

Meats and dressed poultry (10 to 20 days) ^o 

Meats and dressed poultry (long storage). 10-15 

Pears. . 33-36 

Peaches . 34-40 

Potatoes. . . .36 

Disadvantages. While cold storage has be- 
come a necessity, it is not without its disad- 
vantages. Because of high cost of construction 
and maintenance, it is natural that small 
capital cannot compete successfully in these 
enterprises; large and powerful companies 
control most of the business, and this fact has 
given rise to charges that combinations exist to 
control prices, by holding produce from the 
market until times of scarcity; however, strict 
official investigation has not developed facts 
which give warrant for such suspicions. It 
is true that vast quantities of produce are kept 
in storage for many months. 

Again, articles, especially eggs, may be held 
in storage so long that they lose much of their 
good qualities, and may even become unwhole- 
some. The third disadvantage is that these 
large combinations drive small dealers out of 
the market. 

Special Uses of Cold Air. Cold air is used 
for protecting furs from insects during the 




summer; for preserving bulbs, ferns, and flowers; 
for cooling hotels, hospitals, theaters, and other 
public buildings; and to harden chocolate 
candy before it is placed on the market. In 
cities, there are firms which engage to furnish 
cold air for cooling buildings, running it through 
pipes, the same as gas, and they find many 
customers. See REFRIGERATION. E.V.M'C. 

a Canadian geologist, equally distinguished as 
an investigator and a teacher. He was born 
at Lachute, Que., but in boyhood removed to 
Ontario, where he attended the Cobourg Col- 
legiate Institute and Victoria University. After 
graduation from the latter in 1876, he pursued 
his study of the natural sciences at the Uni- 
versity of Breslau, Germany, and upon his 
return to Canada was professor of geology at 
Victoria University until 1890. For several 
years he taught metallurgy and assaying at the 
School of Practical Science, Toronto, and was 
also geologist to the Ontario Bureau of Mines. 
In 1895 he became professor of geology at 
the University of Toronto. Professor Cole- 
man explored and mapped several sections of 
the Rocky Mountains and also made a geologi- 
cal survey of the Sudbury district in Ontario. 
His reports on the geology and mineral re- 
sources of Ontario are authoritative. 

COLEOPTERA, kohl e op' tur ah. See BEE- 
TLE; INSECT (Classification). 

(1772-1834). In his youth, this English poet 
showed both the brilliance and the impulsive- 
ness which characterized his whole life. During 
his second year as a student at Cambridge, he 
became discouraged with his progress and de- 
cided to give up all attempts at academic 
success. He went secretly to London and en- 
listed in the Fifteenth Dragoons, under the 
name Silas Tomkyn Comerback; this was 
evidently chosen to retain his initials S. T. C., 
which later became so famous. When his friends 
learned what he had done, they obtained his 
discharge and induced him to return to college. 

Coleridge was the tenth child of a poor 
clergyman of Ottery Saint Mary, and at the age 
of ten was placed as a charity pupil in the 
famous Christ's Hospital, London, where he 
had Charles Lamb for a schoolmate. Cole- 
ridge remained at this school for eight years, 
and in i7Qi entered Cambridge University, 
but was unable to finish his course. A visit to 
Southey, in 1794, was notable from the fact 
that the two young men, enthusiastic be- 
lievers in the principles of the French Revo- 
lution, planned to found, on the banks of the 
Susquehanna River in America, an ideal 
brotherly community. Lack of capital put an 
end to this dream. 

In I7Q5 Coleridge married the sister of 
Southey's wife, and settled near Wordsworth's 
home, at Nether Stowey. The result of their 

companionship was the publication, in 1798, 
of The Lyrical Ballads, the remarkable volume 
of poems that marks the beginning of the 
Romantic Period of English literature. To 
this Coleridge contributed that masterpiece 
of modern ballad writing, The Rime of the 
Ancient Mariner. During the same year, 
he traveled in Germany with Wordsworth, 
where he became an eager student of the 
philosophy of Immanuel Kant. 

On his return to England, he settled in Kes- 
wick, in the beautiful Lake country, to be near 
Wordsworth and Southey, and at this time did 
some of his best writing. It was during this 
period, also, that he 
began to suffer from 
rheumatic pains that 
brought him into the 
grip of the terrible 
opium habit. Unable 
to fight the battle 
alone, he lived from 
1816 until his death 
in the home of a Lon- 
don friend, leaving his 
family to the care of 
Southey. His great 


The poet and the cottage in which he lived. 

book of literary criticism, Biographia Liter aria, 
appeared in 1817, but his creative powers 
were so weakened that in his later years 
he produced little that was noteworthy. His 
personal charm and extraordinary gifts in con- 
versation, however, made Coleridge to the end 
a notable figure in his own circle. He influenced 
the poetry of Byron, Shelley, and Keats. 

Splendor of imagination and a sense of 
melody characterize his poetry. His ability 
as a literary critic was hardly less remarkable, 
and he is honored as the father of modern 
Shakespearean study. Furthermore, he exerted 
a tremendous influence on nineteenth-century 
thought by his introduction into England of 
German literature and philosophy. 

[Coleridge's most famous poems are The Ancient 
Mariner, Christabel, and Kubla Khan. See ANCIENT 




UEL (1875- 

whose best-known work is a 
orchestra and chorus entitled Hiawatha , 
ding. He was born in London, and on his 
father's side was of African descent. At the 
age of fifteen, he entered the Royal Academy, 
continuing his studies until i8g6, when he began 
an independent career as a composer. Both in 
England and America, which he visited in 1904, 
1906, and rpio, his work was held in high re- 

What He Composed. His chief compositions in- 
clude a Symphony in A minor, Four Waltzes for 
orchestra; a Concerto, for violin and orchestra; an 
operetta, Dream- Lovers; an oratorio, The Atonement, 
five choral works, pieces for the piano; and songs. 

COLFAX, kohl' faks, SCHUYLER (1823-1885), 
an American statesman, was born in New York 
City, but moved to Indiana in 1836. Elected 
to Congress in 1854, 
he served seven 
terms, and during 
this time he was 
Speaker of the House 
from December 7, 
1863, to March 4, 
1869. During Grant's 
first term as Presi- 
dent, Cplfax was 
Vice-President of the 
United States. While 
holding that office, 
he was accused of 
postal frauds and his 
name was connected 
with the Credit Mo- 
bilier scandal, but 
nothing was proved 
against him. He was 
the founder of the 

Daughters of Rebekah branch of American 
Odd Fellowship. See CREDIT MOBILIER; ODD 


COLIC, kol' ik, a severe cramping pain in 
some abdominal organ. Colic in babies is a 
frequent disorder. When located in the 
stomach or intestines, it is caused by bubbles 
of air or gas. Holding the baby with his head 
up, jolting him, or patting his back may give 
relief by dislodging the gas. Warm applica- 
tions to the abdomen also may give relief, 
and so may warm drinks. For this purpose, 
warm aromatic teas are used. 

If the attacks are not too frequent, and if 
the child is otherwise happy and thriving, it is 
better not to alter the diet. If, on the other 
hand, sleep, rest, or nutrition is being inter- 
fered with too much, an effort to control the 
colic by changing the diet should be made. 
This may consist in giving less food, or in- 

Photo UAU 


Vice-President of the 

United States during the 

first administration of 

Ulysses S Grant 

FbuUi Brown Bros 


tuting dried milk paste for whole milk. 

Colic in adults may signify lead poisoning. 
It may mean gallstones or kidney stones, or it 
may be a symptom of appendicitis or strangu- 
lation of the bowel. W.A.E. 
COLIGNY, OR COLIGNI, ko leen ye, GAS- 
PARD DE (1517-1572), a noble French admiral 
and Huguenot leader, remarkable for his 
prudence, bravery, 
and high character, 
when the tendency of 
the times was treach- 
ery, murder, and self- 
ish ambition. He was 
born at Chatillon-sur- 
Loing. At the age of 
twenty-two, he was 
introduced at court. 
He won distinction in j 
the wars of Francis I I 
and Henry II, and in I 
1552 was made ad- ] 
miral of France. As 
commander in chief of 
the Huguenots after 
the death of Conde, he 
exerted every effort in 

the cause of his religion. Through his influence 
with King Charles IX, he aroused the jealousy 
of Catharine de' Medici; it was she who urged 
the massacre of the Huguenots on Saint Bar- 
tholomew's Day, and Coligny was the first one 
put to death. See SAINT BARTHOLOMEW'S 
under which employers deal with their work- 
men as a single body, rather than individually 
Collective bargaining is recognized as one of 
the most important functions of a trade union, 
and through it organized labor has achieved 
most of its success. The employer, instead 
of negotiating with each of his employees, 
or determining wages and conditions of work 
in a one-sided way, makes all arrangements 
through the representatives of the union. Col- 
lective bargaining, however, is not restricted 
to agreements with unions, for any agreement 
between employees or employers as groups 
falls under this head. In the United States, in 
Canada, in England, and in most other indus- 
trial nations, collective bargaining exists in the 
form of many local trade agreements, and in a 
number of cases there are national agree- 
ments. EJ. 

Related Subjects. For further information on this topic, 
the reader is referred in these volumes to the articles LABOV 






_ ! OLLEGE, a term which in the United 
States, and to some extent in Canada, has 
become confused with university, has in reality 
a distinct meaning. 

In the United States. In the best usage, the 
word applies to an institution for higher educa- 
tion which confines its instruction to the so- 
called liberal arts, that is, science, mathematics, 
history, literature, etc., giving its members a 
general education, but no special professional 
or vocational training. Only those schools are 
truly universities which maintain, in addition 
to the liberal arts department, special depart- 
ments for teaching some of the professions, 
such as law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, the- 
ology, architecture, engineering, and forestry, 
or for research by students beyond that re- 
quired for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
Bachelor of Science, or their equivalents. Some 
colleges, such as Tufts, which comprises schools 
of divinity, medicine, and dentistry, are entitled 
to be termed universities, while others unjustly 
claim this title. A college may be included 
within a university, as at Harvard, Wisconsin, 
and the like, or it may exist as an independent 

The first college in America for higher educa- 
tion was Harvard College, founded in 1636. It 
was followed in 1603 by William and Mary, by 
Yale (1701), the College of New Jersey, now 
Princeton University (1746), and King's Col- 
lege, now Columbia University (i754^- The 
University of Pennsylvania was chartered in 
1770 to succeed the college founded by Franklin 
in 1753. Dartmouth College dates from 1760- 
In Canada. The Canadian use of the word 
is similar to the meaning employed in the 
United States. The tendency in recent years is 
for isolated colleges to become units in a uni- 
versity, but no regard is paid to geographical 
location; McGill University of Montreal, for 
instance, has colleges in Vancouver and Vic- 
toria, B. C. Some Canadian schools of sec- 
ondary education are called colleges, and the 
term collegiate institute is sometimes used to 
indicate a high school of the first rank. The 
University of King's College at Windsor, N. S., 
founded in 1700, was both the first Canadian 
college of higher education and the first Cana- 
dian university. 

In Europe. The name college is employed 
in Europe only in accord with its historical 


significance. Originally, the word did not deal 
with education at all, but referred to any 
organized group of men, such as a labor union. 
The College of Cardinals, which elects the 
Pope, is a typical medieval college. In the 
twelfth century, first at the University of Paris, 
then at the English universities, groups of 
poor students were given aid in return for 
slight services, and each body, usually about 
twenty students, was called a college. From 
these institutions have developed the colleges 
at Oxford and Cambridge, which are groups 
of students who sleep and eat together, though 
mingling in classes with men from other col- 
leges of the university. In recent years, many 
of the English private schools preparatory to 
the university have been named colleges. 

Colleges for Women. Mount Holyoke Col- 
lege, founded in 1837, was the first college for 
women in the United States. Smith, Wellesley, 
Vassar, and Simmons colleges are the largest 
of the present-day women's colleges. Barnard 
College of Columbia University and RadclifTe 
College, at Harvard, aim to give to women the 
same instruction as that which the men receive 
in their colleges at those universities. 

Student Enrollment. In the year IQOO, there 
were enrolled in degree-conferring institutions 
in the United States 65,274 students, nearly 45 
per cent of them being women. Educators 
then deplored the general lack of interest in 
college training, and wondered why so few con- 
tinued their education beyond the high school 
Ten years later the enrollment had advanced 
to 104,098, with women totaling 51 per cent. 
At the end of the quarter century, the figures 
had reached over 500,000, and the proportion 
of women had fallen to 42 per cent. A few 
years later, over 800,000 students of both 
sexes were enrolled in the colleges and uni- 
versities of the country. 

To-day the facilities of all great schools are 
overtaxed. Formerly any student of moral 
character who could present entrance qualifi- 
cations which met requirements was welcomed 
at the college of his choice, but the pressure for 
several years has led college administrators 
to establish selective standards. Now those 
students who give promise of future usefulness 
in high degree, as far as may be determined by 
past records, and who have very definite out- 
looks upon the future, are given preference over 




those who wish to enter college merely because 
college training appears to be a proper thing to 

Intelligence tests are being used to supple- 
ment other data regarding students who seek 
admission to most of the more important 
privately endowed higher institutions of learn- 

Enrollment in Medical Colleges. The facili- 
ties in the so-called Class A medical colleges 
throughout the country are utterly inadequate 
to accommodate students who seek admission 
and who are properly qualified to pursue medi- 
cal courses. Many of the leading medical 
colleges turn away as many students every 
year as they admit. This is particularly true 
in respect to women students. The privately 
endowed medical colleges, principally those 
located in the eastern section of the United 
States, restrict the enrollment of women to a 
fraction of their total enrollment; but the num- 
ber of women seeking admission to the medical 
colleges and who are properly qualified to 
pursue medical courses is continually increasing, 
with the result that a large proportion of these 
women are unable to gain admission to any 
medical college of high standing. This situa- 
tion is causing a good deal of concern, among 
women particularly, who believe that there 
should be no sex discrimination in administer- 
ing educational facilities. M.v.o's. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the articles UNIVERSITY and COEDUCATION, and to 
the leading colleges named above, as well as many others 
State universities are treated in articles relating to the 
states, as are also numerous colleges in the various states 




a free college for men, maintained by the city 
of New York. It was established by the board 
of education upon the vote of the city, in 1848, 
as the Free Academy. The purpose was to 
make it possible for ambitious students without 
funds to receive college training. In 1866 the 
school was raised to collegiate rank and became 
the College of the City of New York. High 
academic standards are maintained. Seven 
years of instruction are offered; three are pre- 
paratory and four are collegiate. The prepara- 
tory courses are the same as those given in the 
city high schools. There are no professional 
or graduate courses. Tuition, textbooks, and 
apparatus are free, except in certain technical 
courses. Students must take prescribed courses 
until the end of the sophomore year. 

In Townsend Harris Hall, the preparatory 
department of the college, is conducted a night 
school, largely attended by boys and men who 
have been unable to complete their high-school 
work in the day schools. The teachers of the 

city may also complete courses at the college, 
which relieves them of taking certain examina- 
tions given by the city board of education. In 
1908 the college was moved to its present loca- 
tion on University Heights. The magnificent 
buildings and equipment there were furnished 
by the city at a cost of $5,000,000. The 
faculty consists of over 500 members. There 
are about 20,000 students enrolled, including 
those in the preparatory department and in 
the evening schools. 


FORNIA (Educational Institutions). 


COLLIE, kahl' ie, originally the sheep dog of 
Scotland, and now a faithful friend and com- 
panion in households everywhere. It is a dog 


of medium size, about twenty-two inches high 
at the shoulder, and weighs from forty-five to 
sixty pounds. It has long, thick hair, with a 
soft, furry undercoat of shorter hair. Black 
and tan, black and white, tan and white, or all 
white, with fox-shaped head, ears erect but 
drooping at the point, and bushy tail curved 
upward, the collie is one of the handsomest of 
dogs, and one of the most intelligent. It will 
take a flock of sheep to pasture, keep them 
together, protect them from wolves, and bring 
them all back safely at night. Or, alert as a 
fox, quick as a deer, with intelligence almost 
human, it will protect its master or his property. 
A Scotch collie is the hero of Oliphant's fine 
story, Bob, Son of Battle. M.J.H. 

COLLIMATOR, kol' im a tur. See SPEC- 

COLLINS, MICHAEL, President of the Irish 
Free State for ten days. See IRELAND (The 
Two Governments and Constitutions). 

and Drainage). 




Photo. Brown Bros. 


known as the "father of the detective story," 
was an English novelist. He was born in Lon- 
don, the eldest son of the landscape and por- 
trait painter, William Collins. The name 
Wilkie, by which he is best known, was received 
from Sir David Wilkie, 
the painter. Though 
he spent a number of 
years in the business 
world and also studied 
law, he turned from 
choice to literature, 
and when he became 
acquainted with Dick- 
ens, he decided to de- 
vote his time to writ- 
ing. The Woman in 
White and The Moon- 
stone, among his best- 
known works, are 
masterpieces of baf- 
fling mystery, and al- 
though the literary value of these and others 
from his pen has often been questioned, a num- 
ber of his novels dramatized were at one time 
popular on the American and the English stage. 
He also wrote Armadale, Man and Wife, The 
New Magdalen, The Law and the Lady, and 
The Evil Genius. In 1873 Collins gave public 
readings in the United States and Canada from 
his own short stories. 

COLLODION, kol o' di on, COTTON. See 

COLLOIDS, kol' oidz, a word derived from 
the Greek kolle, meaning glue. It was originally 
applied to gluelike substances, such as starch 
and gelatin, which, when mixed with a liquid, 
diffuse through animal and vegetable mem- 
branes very slowly or not at all. This peculi- 
arity of gelatinous substances was discovered 
by a Scotch chemist, Thomas Graham, in a 
series of experiments with solutions, beginning 
in 1 86 1. Graham also noticed that substances 
in solution which readily pass through mem- 
branes, such as salt and sugar, usually crys- 
tallize well, and he suggested the division of 
all substances into two classes colloids and 
crystalloids. Modern scientists prefer to speak 
of matter in the colloidal or crystalloid state, 
since many substances can exist in both forms; 
the name colloids is retained, however, for 
convenience. There are actually many degrees 
of the colloidal condition. 

When a colloidal substance is mixed with a 
liquid, its molecules arrange themselves into 
masses, which are sometimes large enough to 
be seen through a microscope. According to 
the size of the solid particles, colloidal mixtures 
are designated as suspensions and colloidal solu- 
tions. In the former, the dispersed particles 
are of sufficient size to "settle out." In the 
latter, they are so fine that they do not settle 

out, but still are not single molecular units. In 
a true solution, such as a mixture of sugar and 
water, molecules of the solid are distributed 
homogeneously throughout the fluid. 

If a colloidal suspension is subjected to a 
strong light in a dark room, a converging beam 
being sent through it horizontally, and the 
lighted part is viewed from above through an 
ultra-microscope, minute points of light can 
be seen. These are produced by the diffraction 
of light rays from the surfaces of the myriads 
of particles. The particles will be noticed in a 
lively movement, caused by the impact upon 
them of the molecules of the solvent. This 
movement has been given the name Brownian, 
in honor of an early observer of the phenome- 
non, an English botanist. 

Colloids are said to have the gel state when 
fairly rigid, or gelatinous, and the sol state 
when the particles are so far apart that the 
material resembles a true solution. They 
easily pass from one condition to the other, 
though not all colloids readily change back to 
the original state. Protoplasm, the life sub- 
stance of cells, is a complex system of colloids, 
and because of its colloidal condition it exhibits 
those peculiar properties associated only with 
living matter. The body ferments that cause 
the elaborate processes of digestion and assimi- 
lation are themselves colloidal. See BIOLOGY; 

COLOCASIA, kol o ka' shi ah, a genus of 
plants belonging to the arum family. One 
species is the caladium, or elephant's ear, popu- 
lar in American gardens when planted with 
cannas. In the South Sea islands, a plant of 
this genus is extensively used as food, for its 
starchy roots, when boiled, are much like po- 
tatoes. The large, shield-shaped leaves, too, 
are eaten roasted by the natives of the Ha- 
waiian Islands. In most of the Pacific Islands 
this plant is called taro\ in Hawaii, poi; in 
Japan, satoimo; in China, yu-tao\ and in Central 
America, oto. Its botanical name is Colocasia 
antiquorum esculenta. G.M.S. 

COLOGNE, ko lokn f , in German, Koln 
(officially COLN). It is not often that a city 
combines beauty of situation with buildings of 
surpassing artistry, yet Cologne possesses both. 
The towers and turrets of this city on the Rhine 
would be monuments of beauty if set on a 
barren plain; but when they are made to crown 
the hills on the bank of a great historic river, 
they afford a picture which the traveler long 

This ancient city, one of the most interesting 
historically of Rhenish Prussia, is situated on 
the left bank of the Rhine, 358 miles by rail 
southwest of Berlin. It was in ancient days a 
town of the tribe of Ubii, but in A.D. 50, it 
received the name of Colonia Agrippina, in 
honor of the wife of the Roman Emperor 
Claudius. It steadily grew in importance, and 

Photo: O R O G 

Cologne Cathedral. This is one of the most notable Gothic structures in the world. The twin towers rise 
512 feet. The building is 444 feet long. In the illustration, the River Rhine appears in the distance. 



eventually became one of the most influential 
towns in the Hanseatic League (which see). 
In the sixteenth century, its power waned, and 
it did not regain its importance until the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century. 

The old portion of the city has crooked, nar- 
row streets, but the new section is thoroughly 
modern. The removal of the ancient city walls, 
in 1885, and the later construction of a new 
line of fortifications nearly doubled the city's 
area. A fine system of boulevards, the Ring- 
strasse, now occupies the site of the old walls. 
The city has extensive manufactures of sugar, 
tobacco, glue, and machinery, and several fac- 
tories producing the famous perfume known as 
can de Cologne. Population in 1925, 698,000. 

Besides the cathedral, described below, some 
of the objects of interest to the city's many 
visitors are the Church of Saint Gereon; the 
Church of Saint Ursula, where the bones of 


j 1,000 martyred virgins are reputed to be 
buried; the 'Rathaus, or Town Hall; and the 
Iron Bridge, connecting Cologne with its sub- 
urb, Dcutz, across the Rhine. 

Cologne Cathedral, the chief ornament of the city 
of Cologne and one of the most remarkable specimens 
of Gothic architecture in the world. The present 
structure was begun in the thirteenth century, on the 
site of an earlier cathedral which had been destroyed 
by fire. Early in the nineteenth century, it was 
thoroughly restored It is in the form of a cross, and 
has two of the loftiest towers in the world, each 512 
feet high. For many centuries, there existed a tradi- 
tion to the effect that the Three Wise Men who came 
from the East to view the infant Christ were buried 
in Cologne Cathedral. The three skulls were ex- 
hibited as late as the eighteenth century, and were 
credited with miraculous healing powers. The ca- 
thedral is noted for its stamed-gl.iss windows, its 
statuary, and paintings 



f OLOMBIA, once known as NEW 
GRANADA, is a republic in the northwestern 
corner of South America, which until igo3 in- 
cluded within its area the present republic of 
Panama. The latter is now geographically in 
Central America. Colombia was named in 
honor of Christopher Columbus, who explored 
a section of the country in 1502. It is a vast 
land of plains, or llanos, table-lands, and moun- 
tains, the plains comprising more than half of 
its area. There is an almost unbroken coast 
line of over 1,100 miles; 468 miles are on the 
Pacific Ocean, and about 640 are on the Carib- 
bean Sea. The area is 462,024 square miles. 

This republic of very irregular shape is as 
large as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and 
Louisiana; it contains over 30,000 square miles 
more than the great province of Ontario. Still, 
in such a country, rich in natural resources, 
live but about 6,620,000 people; there are only 
about fifteen inhabitants to the square mile of 

The People. The southern and southeastern 
plains, or llanos, are still inhabited by only 
partially civilized Indians, of tribes which 
formerly inhabited all of Colombia. The 
civilized population is centered in the northern 
and western portions, mostly on the high 
table-lands from 3,000 to 9,000 feet above the 
sea level, where the climate is temperate all the 
year. The religion of the republic is Roman 

Catholicism, but other forms of religion are 

The population is singularly diversified. 
Twenty per cent of the people are \\hite, most of 
them of pure Spanish blood, imbued with the 
characteristics of the ruling class of Spain. Span- 
ish is the language of the country. The Indians 
of unmixed blood constitute nine per cent, and 
some of them still speak their native languages; 
most of the other tongues have become extinct. 
More than fifty per cent of the population is a 
mixture of Spanish and Indian, and about 
nine per cent is made up of negroes. The 
seclusion of the inhabitants of the mountain 
cities, by reason of the difficulties of travel 
and transportation, has been productive of 
conservation of the old Spanish mode of life 
and habit of thought. This is seen in home fur- 
nishings, forms of courtesy, taste in literature, 
in art, and in amusements, and to a great degree 
in forms of dress. 

Education. Free education, which is not 
compulsory, is largely maintained by the state, 
but some of the schools are under the direction 
of religious orders. The oldest university is 
at Bogota. Besides, there is a school of mines 
at Medellin, and there are nearly forty schools 
of arts and trades. A national library , museum, 
and observatory are maintained at Bogota. 

Cities. The four towns named below 
are those of first importance. The sixth city 




in size, Manizales, which had 43 people, 
was completely destroyed by fire in 1925. 

Bogota, bo go tah', the capital, founded in 1538, lies 
8,600 feet above the sea; though it is only 4* north of 
the equator, it has a "climate of eternal spring." The 
San Francisco and San Agustin rivers flow from the 
mountains through the city and divide the town into 
four parts. There is a large central square, around 
which some of the principal buildings are grouped. 

Bogota is a center of culture, with public libraries, 
a national university, several endowed colleges, a 
botanical garden, and a museum. The manufactures 


Showing, also, the proportion of the continent occu- 
pied by the republic. 

are rather limited. It was first the capital of the 
Spanish province of New Granada, and in 1819 it 
became the capital of the new republic. It has the 
first observatory to be erected in the tropics. Pop- 
ulation, 168,000. 

Medellin, ma thel yeen', lying inland in a beautiful 
mountainous region, about 5,000 feet above the sea, 
is in a mining district, and is growing in importance 
as a commercial center It excels in educational fa- 
cilities, having a college, a national school of mines, 
and two normal schools. The city was founded in 
1674. Population, 85,000. 

Barranquilla, bahr fan keel' yah, founded in 1629, 
the chief commercial port, is on the Magdalena River, 
near its mouth, a few miles from the Caribbean Sea. 
The river is an artery of trade for many miles inland. 
Population, 66,000. 

Cartagena, kahr tah je' nah, founded in 1533, is 
southwest of Barranquilla on the Caribbean coast. 
There is a good harbor, but the commerce is not 
large. Population, 53,000. 

Physical Features. One-third of Colombia is 
mountainous land, with poor transportation 
facilities. The eastern and southern half con- 
sists chiefly of well-watered, treeless plains, 
or llanos, adapted to pasturing; this section 
swarms with cattle, but is as yet sparsely 
settled. Crossing those plains are the rivers 
Guaviare and Meta, branches of the Orinoco 
River, which forms part of the eastern bound- 
ary; and the rivers Vaupes, Apoporis, Caqueta, 
and Putumayo, branches of the Amazon. 
South of the plains lies a tropical forest belt, 
the most useful trees of the region being rubber. 

In the central and western half of the re- 
public are concentrated the principal wealth of 
the country and the bulk of the population; 
but it is a mountainous section, whose fertile 
uplands are of difficult access in spots. There, 
running from south to north, are three ranges 
of the Andes Mountains, continuations of 
ranges in Ecuador. The western range, the 
Cordillera Occidental, or "de Choco," rises to 
heights of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet, dividing 
at the north and extending in one direction 
into the republic of Panama; in the other 
ending near the Caribbean Sea. 

The central range, the Cordillera Central, or 
"de Quindio," was so named because crossing 
its central portion is the famous Quindio Pass, 
which connects Cali and Ibague. This range 
has the highest peaks in Colombia, several 
of which are lofty volcanoes; some are active, 
some semi-active, and others extinct. Tolima, 
the highest volcano, rises 18,400 feet above sea 
level. Huila and Purace are nearly as high. 

The eastern range, the Cordillera Oriental, 
is free from volcanoes, and its highest elevation 
is 16,700 feet. There lie the great temperate 
table-lands which form the most thickly popu- 
lated portion of Colombia. Disconnected 
from the Andes, there is an isolated range run- 
ning parallel with the Caribbean Sea, in the 
department of Magdalena. It towers into the 
Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, which is cov- 
ered with perpetual snow, and whose summit 
rises, as if emerging from the ocean, to a height 
of IQ,OOO feet. Important American settle- 
ments and banana and coffee plantations are 
found on the slopes of the Sierra. Dividing 
the eastern range from the central is the great 
valley of the Magdalena River, commercially 
the most important river of the republic, and in 
length and volume of water the fourth river of 
the continent. It flows north to the Caribbean 
Sea, and is navigable for nearly 850 miles of 
its 1,000 miles of winding length. There is 
just one break in its even course, 600 miles 
from its mouth, at the rapids of Honda. These 
extend for twenty miles. 

All the mountain slopes are thickly forested, 
cedars, hardwood, guayacan, mahogany, other 
fine woods, cinchonas, aloes, and sarsapa- 
rilla trees being found in abundance In this 




western section, too, are found several kinds 
of serpents, a few species of monkey, jaguars, 
pumas, tapirs, anteaters, and deer. Lending 
touches of bright color to the forest greens are 
humming birds, parrots, and fruit-eating 
toucans; and flying high are condors and 
vultures. On the northern coast are the best 
harbors, Cartagena, Puerto Colombia, and 
Barranquilla. On the Pacific side are several 
natural harbors. 

Climate. Within a day in the republic of 
Colombia one can experience almost the ex- 
tremes of temperature. From the intense 
heat in the valleys, one can rise to a table- 
land of almost perpetual spring. Then climb- 
ing the mountains and rising above the timber 
land, about 10,000 feet above the sea, a zone 
of severe cold and perpetual snow will be 
reached. The greatest heat is experienced 
in the belt south of the plains. The upper 
regions of the mountains have a pleasant 
climate and abundant rain. On the coast is a 
region of heat and rains throughout the year 

Agriculture. Although agriculture is the 
chief industry of Colombia, only a small sec- 
tion of the country is under cultivation, be- 
cause of lack of means of transportation and 
communication. Primitive methods are still 
employed in many sections. In the hot regions, 
tobacco, sugar cane, cotton, and cacao are the 
important crops. 

In the temperate western plateaus, coffee, 
potatoes, wheat, corn, and barley are grown, 
but the crops are not sufficient to supply all the 
home demand. Wheat is imported from the 
United States and rye from Germany. Banana 
cultivation is extending, and much of the 
fruit is sent to the United States. Hevea 
(rubber) trees and tolu balsams are cultivated 
for their products; wild copaiba trees are 
likewise tapped. Dyewoods and cedars are 
abundant on the Magdalena River, but little 
lumber is exported. Inexhaustible tracts of 
mangrove are found on the coasts. Cattle- 
raising is an important industry. 

Mining and Manufactures. Colombia is 
rich in precious metals, and nearly all the 
fine emeralds mined to-day come from that 
republic; the working of the mines is a govern- 
ment monopoly. In the production of platinum, 
Colombia is next to Russia. 

Gold and silver abound in the mountain 
regions. The chief centers of gold-mining are 
Antioquia and Caldas. The centers of silver- 
mining are Antioquia, Caldas, and Tolima. 
Other minerals which abound, but which are 
little developed, are copper, mercury, cinnabar, 
and manganese. 

It is interesting to note that salt mines 
north of Bogota, the capital, are also a govern- 
ment monopoly and a great source of revenue. 
Coal and petroleum exist in extensive deposits, 
and have attracted the attention of American 

and British capital. Iron works, north of 
Bogota, manufacture wrought iron, rails, 
castings, etc., and large steel mills are estab- 


Colombia compared with Texas, New Mexico, and 

lished at Pradera. There are valuable pearl 
fisheries on the coasts. 

Although manufacturing industries are still 
of little importance, great strides are being 
made in the manufacture of Suaza, or Panama, 
hats from jipijapa and toquilla fiber. 

Petroleum is becoming an important element 
in the natural resources of the country. It is 
carried by pipe line from the interior to the 
coast at Cartagena. From there it is shipped 
to the United States. 

At Barranquilla are a great number of facto- 
ries for the making of matches, glassware, 
shoes, nails, cotton-goods, and ice. 

Transportation and Communication. Al- 
though much of the inland traffic is by river on 
the Magdalena and its branches, most of the 
commercial intercourse must be carried on 
over simple mule tracks and cart roads, for 
there are only 1,060 miles of railway. The lines 
are short, from twenty-five to a hundred miles 
in length, and form no connective means of 
travel. The 14,500 miles of telegraph lines are 
owned by the government. Colombia is in 
communication with America and Europe 
by cable and regular lines of steamers. The 
country has developed no important seaports 
on the Pacific (its principal city on the western 
coast being Buenaventura, with a population 
of little more than Q,OOO), since to reach this 
coast from ports on the North Atlantic has 
necessitated, until recently, the very long 
journey around the continent. Likewise, 




before the completion of the Panama Canal, 
Colombian ports on the Caribbean had been 
barred by the Isthmus of Panama from a 
direct sailing route to the ports of the Pacific. 
Coffee, petroleum, platinum, and bananas 
are the chief exports, and the country imports 
machinery, cotton goods, pipe and fittings, 
foodstuffs, and metals. Within fifteen years, 
ending in 1028, the imports increased eight- 
fold; the exports, in the same ratio. 

Government. The present fourteen "depart- 
mentos," three "intendencias" (intendencies), 
and seven ' 'commissaries" of the republic of 
Colombia are governed under a central Consti- 
tution. A President is elected for a term of 
four years, by direct vote, and may not serve 
two terms in succession. Congress elects two 
substitutes for a term of two years, one of whom 
would fill a vacancy during a Presidential term. 
Legislative power rests with a Congress com- 
posed of a Senate and a House of Representa- 
tives. The Senate has one Senator for each 
120,000 inhabitants, chosen indirectly by elec- 
tors; Senators serve four years. The members 
of the House of Representatives, one for each 
50,000 inhabitants, are elected by direct vote 
of the people, for two years. Governors of the 
"departmentos" are appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the republic. A Cabinet of eight 
Ministers, appointed by him, assists the Presi- 
dent. Every able-bodied man in Colombia is 
liable to military service, but service is not 
generally enforced. A Supreme Court, with nine 
judges, four appointed by the Senate and 
five by the House, district supreme courts, and 
provincial courts administer justice. 

History. From HQQ to 1536, the coasts of 
Colombia were explored at various times by 
Ojeda, Bastida, Columbus, Balboa, Pizarro, 
Heredia, and Almagro. Between 1536 and 1540, 
united forces of Spaniards overcame the In- 
dians occupying that region, and Spanish settle- 
ments rapidly grew. Until 1718 it was known 
as the province of New Granada. It was then 
made a vice-royalty. 

The great leader, Simon Bolivar, a native of 
Caracas, liberated from Spain the presidency 
of New Granada, which included, besides 
New Granada, the divisions of Ecuador (or 
Quinto) and Venezuela. These were united, 
under the name of the Republic of Colombia, 
by the Constitution of i8iq. General William 
Henry Harrison, afterward President of the 
United States, was sent as American minister 
to the new republic, which was welcomed with 
enthusiasm into the family of nations. But 
dissensions arose. Venezuela and Ecuador 
seceded in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, 
leaving only New Granada to represent the 
republic on which high hopes had been built. 

Civil war raged from 1825 to 1841. A re- 
formed Constitution in 1843 promised better 
things. Slavery was abolished in 1852, A 

Outline and Questions on 

I. Position and Size 

(1) Location 

(2) Name 

(3) Actual area, 476,016 square miles 

(4) Comparative area 

n. The People and Cities 

(1) Races 

(2) Numbers 
U) Education 
(4) The Cities 

m. Physical Features 

(1) Distribution of mountains and plains 

(2) Rivers 

(3) Vegetation 

(4) Climate 

IV. Industries and Transportation 

(x) Agriculture 

(a) Distribution 

(h) Chief crops 
(2) Mining 
(0 Manufacturing 
(4) Transportation and commerce 

V. Government and History 
(r) Republican form of government 
(2) Departments 
(.0 Early conquest 

(4) The work of Bolivar 

(5) Civil struggles 

(6) The Panama question 


How great a variation in climate may be 
experienced in one day's traveling? 

How has one of the greatest engineering pro- 
jects ever undertaken by the United States 
brought it into conflict with Colombia? 

Who was the hero of the struggle for indepen- 
dence? What other South American countries 
owe their liberty, in whole in or part, to him? 

For whom was> the country named? Did he 
ever actually see this part of the world? 

Why has not agriculture become more wide- 
spread and important? Of what crop does the 
United States receive the poorer grades? 

What are the chief elements of the popula- 

How long a stretch of railway has the 
country for each hundred square miles of its 

What city of the United States has a popula- 
tion larger than that of this entire country? 

Of what valuable mineral resource does the 
government hold the monopoly? 

What effect does the Panama Canal have on 
the trade of Colombia? 

new Constitution, in 1863, restored, under Fed- 
eral reform, the old name of Colombia 
"Estados Unidos de Colombia" and reduced 
the Presidential term to two years. In 1886 a 
new central Constitution was adopted, dis- 
placing the former one, and the Presidential 
term was extended to four years. 

In 1903 Colombia rejected the Hay-Herran 
Treaty with the United States for the conces- 
sion of the ship canal right-of-way through the 
Isthmus of Panama to the latter country, de- 
manding a vastly greater payment for the 




concession. On November 3 a revolution broke 
out in the city of Panama, and the new republic 
of Panama was recognized by the United States 
four days later. United States marines were 
landed for the protection of property and the 
preservation of order, and Colombia was not 
permitted to attempt the subjugation of the 
new republic. The suddenness of the move- 
ment, and the fact that the United States had 
long guaranteed to Colombia the possession of 
Panama, caused great indignation among the 
Colombians; they were promised $25,000,000 
for their loss, but the treaty authorizing pay- 
ment was not agreed to in the United States 
Senate for twenty years; ratification occurred 
in 1022 A.M. 

Related Subjects. The reader is referred in these vol- 
umes to the following articles 
Bolivar Emerald Panama (History) Panama Canal 

COLOMBO, ko lorn 1 bo, capital of Ceylon 
(which see). 

COLON, ko lahn', a city at the northern end 
of the Panama Canal. See PANAMA (The 

COLON, a coin of Costa Rica. See MONE\ 
(Foreign Monetary Standards). 

COLON, ko' Ion (in physiology). See IN- 


COLON, the official name of the Galapagos 
Islands (which see). 

COLONEL, kur' net, the title of a military 
officer, borne in the United States army by an 
officer who holds rank between lieutenant 
colonel and brigadier general. The correspond- 
ing rank in the navy is that of captain; the 
pay of a colonel ranges from $3,000 to $4,000 
a year, determined by length of service. A 
colonel is the commanding officer in a regiment. 
Staff colonels, who hold no command, are as- 
signed to the various staff corps; that is, lo the 
several departments or bureaus into which 
the War Department is subdivided, such as the 
medical, pay, and engineering corps. In the 
English army, the title of colonel is held by 
the officer in active command of a regiment. 

triotic society of women, who, following their 
original purpose, have done much toward the 
preservation of places and things of historical 
interest. This society was organized in iSqo in 
New York City, in commemoration of the 
success of the Revolution and to collect manu- 
scripts, mementos, relics, etc., of colonial and 
revolutionary times. Membership is obtained 
only on invitation of one already enrolled, and 
is restricted to women directly descended from 
a distinguished ancestor who resided in America 
in colonial times. One of the most interesting 
and valuable collections of the society is in 
Van Cortlandt Park, New York City. 

Powdered wigs and flowered gowns, the steps 
of the stately minuet, the sober garments of the 
Puritans, which appear in every pageant of 
Thanksgiving, give us glimpses of colonial 
days before national life began. So does the 
yellowed "sampler," where we find the work 
and words of the sober little daughter of 
Miles Standistr 

Lora Standish is my name 
Lord guide my heart that i may do Thy will, 
Also fill my hands with such convenient skill 
\s will conduce to virtue void of shame 
And I will give the glory to Thy name 

None of these examples is typical in itself 
alone of the years of colonial life. They are a 
few glimpses among the many that have been 
preserved for us, from the days when a few 
little settlements clustered along the Atlantic 
coast and slowly won from the wilderness a 
living and a nationality. 

In order to understand colonial times at 
all, it must be remembered that from the day 
when the first colony settled at Jamestown to 
the day when the settlers were all united 
closely enough to demand freedom from 
England, stretched a period of more than one 
hundred fifty years. Customs and manners 
changed no( only in different colonies, but 
from one decade to the next. 

It is natural that each colony should have 
differed in some measure from the others, 
since each had its own reasons for embarking 
on the perilous journey across the ocean. The 
Jamestown settlers came under the charter 
of an English mercantile company, to a land 
where they were sure gold was waiting for them 
to gather it in and carry it home. The Pil- 
grims and Puritans came because they disagreed 
with the forms of the Church of England, but the 
fact that the Pilgrims were "Separatists" and 
came for religious freedom, made them distinct 




from the Puritans, who did not wish to sepa- 
rate, but only to be free to work out their own 
reforms unmolested. Maryland, the "home 
of tolerance" in America, was open to all who 
believed in the doctrine of the Trinity; its 
settlers under Lord Baltimore came for wealth, 
as did most of the colonists. Each group added 
its part to the amalgam into which the thirteen 
colonies slowly grew. The fear of the hostile 
Indians was the only strong bond between 
the colonies, for the feeling between them was 
not particularly friendly. 

To know about colonial life and customs is 
to know not only the founders of the United 
States, but the grandparents, far removed, of 
many people who are United States citizens 
to-day. To read what 
they wore, what they 
ate, how they lived, 
what they thought, and 
how they worshiped, 
has all the fascination 
of stepping back three 
hundred years in his- 
tory, and finding oneself 
on incredibly familiar 
ground. Many books 
have been written on 
the life of colonial days, 
and only the briefest 
outline can be given 

How They Lived. As 
is the case in nearly all 
newly settled countries, 
agriculture was the 
chief occupation of the 
colonies. But the types of agriculture in the 
north and in the south were very different. 
The soil and climate, the people and their pur- 
pose in settling, all had an effect upon the 
farms and villages. To mention New England 
and Virginia is not to restrict consideration to 
those places, but to select modes of living typi- 
cal of two sections of the country. All of the 
southern colonies exhibited the characteristics 
of Virginia in lesser degrees, and New England 
comprised four of the northern colonies. The 
middle colonies should be mentioned because 
of the variety of their settlers, the Dutch and 
the Quakers and other settlers of Pennsylvania, 
and the interesting, if unimportant, differences 
in their manner of living. 

It was^the necessity for small farms on hard, 
stony soil, the fishing industry and commerce 
of ^ the coast, and the fear of Indians, 
which led the northern colonists to group 
themselves into villages, instead of living 
in scattered farmhouses hard to protect; 
they built these villages at the natural har- 
bors along the Atlantic. The religious 
life and the democratic system of gov- 
ernment also contributed to this tendency. 


Elder Brewstcr's chair and the cradle of little 
Peregrine Wlute, he was the nrht hany born in 
the Puritan colony. These two specimens of 
house furnishings are preserved in Liberty Hall, 
Plymouth, Mass,. 

In the south, the chief revenue-producing 
crop was tobacco, and it so drained the soil of 
vitality that new fields had to be planted 
frequently. Tremendous areas of ground were 
required, and the individuals to whom these 
great tracts were given had hundreds of 
servants to do the work of cultivation. The 
owner of the plantation lived in a huge house, 
surrounded with buildings to house the serv- 
ants, or slaves, and the many small industries 
which made the estate a self-sufficient com- 
munity. Each plantation had its carpenter, 
cobbler, and other workmen who were specially 
skilled; it was located usually on a river, and 
had its own dock, so that ocean vessels might 
come directly to the plantation. With these 
arrangements, there 
was little inducement 
for towns to grow in the 
southern colonies until 
late in the period. Mt. 
Vernon (which see), the 
home of Washington, is 
a splendid example of 
the type of plantation 
home which was com- 
mon, and it preserves in 
a remarkable degree the 
old atmosphere of lei- 
sure and beauty which 
photo Keyton U the finest traditions of 
southern colonial life 
have given us. 

In spite of the fact 
that we hear only of 
huge estates in tales 
of colonial Virginia, a 
traveler through the south would have seen 
the farms of many smaller land-holders, as 
well as of the tenant farmers who often rented 
land from the plantations. These people 
lived much as the middle-class farmers lived 
in all the colonies. 

In New England, the social classes were 
rather well defined as the people of wealth 
and office-holders, landowners, merchants, and 
servants, and, although there was not the 
aristocracy of birth and breeding which ex- 
isted in England, the colonists soon created a 
sort of aristocracy of office-holding or wealth. 
The typical New England household was 
thrifty, and its members were hard-working, 
for the things which we find already made for 
us to-day had to be made by hand, usually 
in the home. A fireplace like that pictured 
here was the center of many households. Here 
all of the cooking was done, in the "Dutch 
ovens" or in kettles hanging from the huge 
crane which swung in and out over the fire. If 
meats were to be roasted, they were hung 
over the fire, with a basting pan beneath. If 
bread or cakes of Indian corn were to be 
baked, hot coals were used to heat the oven 

In Early New England. Religious services were held in the homes of the Puritans. Below, the old kitchen 

in the Wayside Inn, South Sudbury, Mass. 1547 




beside the fireplace, and when they were with- 
drawn, the pans of bread were put in. Beside 
the fireplace, the spinning wheel creaked busily 
while some elder daughter spun thread to be 
woven into garments on the loom which was 
the property of every thrifty family. 

In the evening, the family gathered again 
around the fire, grateful for the protection given 
against the freezing winds by the high back 
of the old settle. Precious tallow or bayberry 
candles might be used, but oftener, when the 
firelight died down, the family retired to icy 
bedrooms, where curtains and a canopy over 
the four-poster beds kept out some of the cold; 
warming pans, with hot coals within, had taken 
some of the chill from the huge feather beds. 
The fire had to be 
banked carefully, 
for if it died out, 
either a tedious 
trip to a neigh- 
bor's for live coals 
was necessary, or 
another fire had to 
be started with 
tinder. Friction 
matches, such as 
we use now, were 
unknown in colo- 
nial times. 

Furniture va- 
ried, naturally, 
from elaborate 
outfits in the 
homes of the 
wealthy to the 
simplest necessi- 
ties in the homes 
of the poor. The 
great oak chest, 
and an open-shelf cupboard on which to dis- 
play the burnished pewter utensils, were com- 
mon necessities of furnishings; in homes of 
wealth, furniture was often imported from 

How They Dressed. When the colonists 
first came to America, the grueling fight 
against the wilderness made plain, serviceable 
clothes a necessity, but the increasing comfort 
and ease of the eighteenth century, together 
with the removal to town and city life of many 
of the colonists, brought the style of dress in 
some cases to a peak of extravagance. Home- 
spun^ dyed in bright colors, remained the 
favorite material for everyday garments, and 
deerskin continued to be worn for garments 
by those who worked in the open. Distinctions 
between social classes made great differences 
in costume, and colonial women who dressed 
in finery which the community judged beyond 
their means were sometimes arrested and 
fined. The fashions of Europe were generally 
imitated, even in those days. 

Not only did the costumes indicate the social 
classes and the work each individual did, but, 
as the contact with the mother country re- 
mained close, it indicated political sympathies 
as well. The Puritans, or "Roundheads," 
wore plain clothing, not only because of the 
hardships of their life, but because the Puritans 
in England wore the same. The cavaliers of 
Virginia copied the clothing of the king's 
court as closely as they could, and many a 
ship's captain carried back to England lengthy 
shopping orders for clothing which he was 
commissioned to buy. Often he was an un- 
skilled shopper, and the distance between 
the buyer and the shop did not aid him, so 
that many complaints on the service are in 

old records, and 
many goods were 
"damnified" in the 
voyage. Tailors in 
America were not 
skilled, and as a 
result, the clothes 
of the colonists 
were usually not 
well formed or 
neatly made. 
Each garment was 
cut down and 
made over, except 
in the wealthy 
families, until 
hardly a scrap of 
the original mate- 
rial was left. Offi- 
cial classes had 
special costumes 
lawyers wore 
black velvet; 
judges, robes of 
red; ministers usually wore homespun, like their 
parishioners, during the week, reserving their 
broadcloth for Sundays. Children were quaint 
images of their fathers and mothers, for in all 
classes children's clothing was like the grown 
person's, except in size. 

What They Ate. To people who in England 
had seldom had more than enough barely to 
satisfy needs, America must have seemed a 
land of limitless plenty. Deer, wild turkey and 
other fowl, abundant fisheries, grain, all 
vegetables of the coarser sort, supplemented 
by delicacies from England and condiments 
from the tropics, insured that the colonists 
should ^ not go hungry. Their outdoor lives 
made it possible for them to eat amounts 
which seem hardly credible to us. The greatest 
difficulty was in keeping perishable foods fresh, 
for the storing of ice was not practiced for 
many years. 

Tableware of an elaborate and beautiful 
sort graced the homes of the rich, but the 
average colonial household had for its table 

Visual Education Service 


A Puritan maiden is reprimanded by her pastor for a violation of 

the stern moral code of the period. [From a painting by Francis 

Davis Millet.] 


Photon Visual Education Sarrlce 


Making merry out-of-doors. A typical living room. 

equipment cups of pewter, horn, or wood, 
spoons of the same materials, and plates or 
u trenchers" of hollowed wood. Napkins were 
numerous, for much food was taken in the 
fingers. The first fork was brought to America 
in 1633. Service varied as widely as tableware, 
and ranged from the most elaborate and 
delicately served foods to (in poor families) 
the one steaming dish placed in the center 
of the table, from which each member helped 

How They Traveled. Trails were so poor, 
forests so thick, and the danger from lurking 
Indians so great, that it is no wonder that the 
colonists had more communication with Eng- 
land than with other colonies. Riding on 
horses was the simplest way of traveling, but 
from the rare one-horse chaise to a coach with 
several fine horses, the carriage was the con- 
veyance of the wealthy families. Stage coaches 
carried people from one town to another, and 
oxen hauled the rude carts and pulled the 

What They Read and Thought. Few of the 
colonists were well educated, especially those 
in the north. Some could not read and write, 
and there were many who could barely claim 
that ability. The reading in the New England 
colonies was confined to the Bible, the hymn 
book, and the almanac, which was a source of 
amusement and information for a year. Many 
of their superstitions and religious beliefs 
seem to us the height of absurdity and in- 
tolerance; the belief in the supernatural had 
terrible consequences in the witchcraft agi- 
tation and the persecution of innocent people. 

In spite of superstition and ignorance, they 
had a wholesome respect for knowledge, and 
early in colonial days schools were established 
in New England. Many of these were pay 
schools, even after a few free schools were 

established; most of them taught only reading, 
writing, arithmetic, and the Catechism. Sur- 
veying and navigation seem unusual things to 
teach small boys to-day, but they were often 
part of the courses. Girls were not considered 
capable of receiving the same education as 
boys, and for them private schools functioned 
to teach the things which were thought de- 
sirable for a housewife and a young lady of 
fashion to know. Harvard, William and 
Mary, and Yale were small colleges to which 
the colonial boys looked forward; they pre- 
pared for them in grammar schools and with 
private tutors. Many of the southern planters 
employed tutors for their children, and sent 
their sons to England for college. 

Their Amusements. Because life was so 
stern and hard in New P^ngland, it must not 
be thought that people had no amusements. 
Every opportunity to turn their work to play 
was seized, and husking bees, sleigh rides, and 
quilting parties were as popular as singing 
schools and spelling bees, diversions which 
lasted to much later days. Wrestling and out- 
door sports were popular with these people, 
to whom physical prowess was a necessity. 

In Virginia, life was easier and gayer. 
Parties at the plantations lasted for several 
days, because the guests had to travel long 
distances, and consisted of aristocratic balls, 
with their minuets and more rollicking country 
dances, and included fox hunts and horse 
racing. Cock-fighting was a rival of racing, 
and both gave opportunity for the heavy 
gambling which was a popular amusement. 
Drinking in all of the colonies, north and south, 
was a favorite diversion; rum of the north 
and the fruit brandies of the south were sold 
in great quantities in all of the colonies. 

Their Religion. Two chief denominations, 
among the manv smaller ones, claimed the 



allegiance of the colonists. These were the 
Church of England in the south and the Con- 
gregational in New England. Religion played 
a less important part in the lives of the southern 
colonists than it had in England, perhaps, for 
they were somewhat isolated from it. Religion 
in New England, however, was the essence 
of life, and everything else was subordinated 
to it. The New England Sabbath is so famous 
in accounts of colonial days that it is quite 
familiar. From Saturday at sundown, no work 
which could be avoided was allowed to disturb 
the Sabbath devotions. The dreary meeting- 
house, with tall, straight-backed pews, hours 
of sermons, and the ever- watchful "tithing" 
man to prod drowsy children into wakefulness, 
sent boys and girls out of doors with whoops 
of joy when sundown marked the end of the 

This account does little more than touch 
the surface of the interesting material which is 
available about these pioneer ancestors. The 
Dutch settlers of New York and the Quakers 
of Pennsylvania, while they lived under the 
same conditions as the other colonists, are 
distinctive enough to deserve separate treat- 
ment. Dozens of folkways which are as inter- 
esting as, and more picturesque than, those 
mentioned here may be found in books devoted 
to early America. 

A fierce love of liberty, with the realization 
that laws were necessary to keep personal 
liberty from harming others, and a high respect 
for education and the progress it made possible 
are the chief characteristics which a new land 
gave to the colonists; these qualities, with 
their strength and determination, were valuable 
assets in the great mass of elements which 
formed the first government of the United 

Related Subjects. An illustration of the typical clerical 
dress of the colonial period in the north is given in The 
Puritan, in the article PURITAN The reader is referred to 
the following titles in these volumes 

Blue Laws Minuet Puritans 

Cavaliers Pilgrims Witchcraft 

word colonist is derived from two Latin words 
meaning a farmer and to cultivate. Even in 
the days of early history, the resources of a 
country were sometimes in danger of be- 
coming exhausted as the population increased. 
Added to the necessity of acquiring more 
land on which to raise necessary crops for 
food, was also that desire for expansion which 
is implanted in the ambitious human breast. 
The result was that bodies of men in various 
nations set out in search of new lands which 
they might cultivate while still enjoying the 
protection of the mother country. The object 
was not necessarily to found a new nation, 
but to go out into the world where oppor- 
tunities were greater and new land awaited 

the plow. These men were strictly colonists. 
They set out to cultivate the soil and develop 
commerce and defense. There is a considerable 
difference between a country that is colonized 
and one that is subject only to military occu- 

The British have been the world's greatest 
and most successful modern colonizers; they 
planted settlements based on permanency 
on agriculture and promotion of commerce. 
Most of their early struggling colonies have 
grown to giant strength, and have achieved 
a degree of independence. On the other hand, 
some countries have instituted military occu- 
pation, in the main for the exploitation of 
overseas resources, with little concern for 
the treatment due to native races. Germany 
before the World War presented a typical 
example of the latter class. See map herewith. 

Within comparatively recent years, coloniza- 
tion has become of vital importance to most 
of the world's nations. Many nations have a 
surplus of population, which must somewhere 
find an outlet. Year by year it becomes 
harder for a thickly settled country to be self- 
supporting. In this respect, most of the coun- 
tries on the American continents have great 
advantages. Their resources are unimpaired; 
their population is not overcrowded; colo- 
nies are not yet needed. It is otherwise with 
European nations. Europe has been over- 
crowded for centuries, and year after year 
many of its people have gone forth to seek 
homes in new lands. 

The Greeks were ahead of all other early 
nations in the fine art of colonization. Their 
colonies became flourishing commercial centers, 
and in time assumed such importance as to 
rival Greece itself in power and culture. The 
Romans established military posts only, and 
their influence over conquered territories 
lasted only as long as their military occupation ; 
Britain can show little of the results of Roman 
conquests, and less of Roman colonization. 

The lands of the world are now so much 
divided among nations that there is compara- 
tively little room for colonization. There are no 
more virgin countries to be appropriated, al- 
though there are vast spaces under existing 
governments for new settlers. E.D.F. 

Colonies of the World. The articles on the great 
countries contain lists of their colonies, with areas and 
population. In addition, supplementary lists, divided 
according to continents, will be found with the politi- 
cal maps of the various grand divisions. 


COLOR, kul' ur. A world without color! 
Who can imagine it? We could as easily pic- 
ture a world without light as a world without 
color. In our homes we are surrounded by color. 
In the street, we see color in every object. In 
our hours of work and play, in the town, in 





Coats Land 



Kurile Islands 



Portuguese East Africa, 

Aden, 54,923 



Cocos Islands 



Labrador, 3 977 







Afghanistan, 6,380,500,, 


Colombia, 5,855,077. 



Laccadive Islands 



Queen Charlotte Islands 



Africa, 137,361,000 ... 



Congo River 



Lagoon or Elhce Islands 



Queen Mary Land . . 



Alaska, 54,899 



Cook Island 



Latvia, 1,844,805 





Albania, 817,000.. 



Coral Sea . 



Lena River 



Reunion, 173,'l9(i.. .'." 



Aleutian Islands . . . 



Cuba, 2,889,004 



Liberia, 1,500,000 






Alexander Land 




Libia, 1,000,000 






Algeria, 6,064,865. . 



13,595,816 . 



Lithuania, 2,293,100 



Roosevelt River 



Amazon River 


Davis Strait. . 



Lord Howe Island 



Ross Island . . 



Amur River 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 



Denmark, 3.419.6S6 . 
Denmark, Strait of 



Low Archipelago 
Lower California 



Rumania, 17,393,149 . 
Russia, 147,013,609 . . 




5,850,000 . 



Dutch Guiana, 113,181 . 



Luitpold Land . 



baint Helena Island, 

Angola, 4, 119,000. 



East China Sea . 



Mackenzie River 






Antarctic Ocean . 



Easter Island . 



Madagascar, 3,5 12, 690 



Saint Lawrence River . 



Arabia, 5,000,000 , . . 



East Indian Archijxlago 


Madeira Islands, 1 70,000 G 


Sakhalin, 203,504 



Arabian Sea 



Ecuador, 2,000,000 . 



Magellan, Strait of 



Samoa Islands, 8,676 



Antic Ocean 



Egypt, 14,168,756 



Maidive Islands 



Sandwich Islands 



Argentina, 9,839,431 



Ellue or Lagoon Islands 



Manchuria, 2 7, 490,000 



Sarawak, 600,000. 


Ascension Island, 200... 



Enderby Land 



Manihiki Islands 



Seychelles, 24,523 


Asia, 920,000,000 



Eritrea, 450,000 



Manua Island 



Siam, 9,121,000 


Aair, 850,000 



Estonia, 1,1 10,538 .. 



Miriana Islands, 5 ,392 



Siberia, 10,377,900 . 


Atlantic Ocean 



Ethiopia, 8,000,000 . . 



Marquesas Islands 



Sicily, 4,061,452 . 



Australia, 5,436.704 



Europe, 471,204,000 . 



Marshall Islands, 9, 108 



Sierra Leone, 1,541,311 



Austria, 6,535,759 . 



Falkland Islands, 1,240 



Mauritius, 385,074. 



Society Islands, 28,000 



Azores, 242,613 .. . 



Fanning Island 



Mediterranean Sea 



Solomon Islands, 167 ,000 A 


Baffin Bay. 



FIJI Islands, 157,266 



Mexico, 14,334,780 



South America, 

Baffin Land 



* inland, 3.49S, 186 



Mexico, Gull oi 



64,536,000 , , 



Bahama Islands, 53,031 



Formosa, 3,994,236 .. 



Midway Island 



South China Sea 


Baker Island 



France, 40.743.8S 1 



Mississippi River 



South Georgia Islands . 



Ballcny Islands 



Franz Josef Land 



Missouri River 



South Orkneys (islands) 



Baltic Sea .. . 



French Equatorial Africa 

Mongolia, 1,800,000 



South Shetlands (islands) E 


Banks Land . . 



2,845 936 



Morocco, 4 816,824 



South Victoria Land. . 



Barents Sea : 



French Guiana, 44,202 . 



Mozambique Channel 



South West Africa, 

Beaufort Sea 



French Indo China 

Nepal, 5 ,000, 000 



237 237 . 



Belcher Islands. 





Netherlands! 7,526,606 






Belgian Congo, 8,500,000 K 


French West Africa, 

New Britain / rchi]>elago 



Spitsbergen. 300 . . 



Belgium, 7,478,840 






New Caledonia 50,600 



Sumatra, 5,848,872 . 



Bengal, Bay of, 



Galapagos Islands, 400 



Newfoundland, 26 1,683 



Sweden, 5,903,762, 



Bering Sea 



Germany, 62,474,872 . 



New Guinea 



Switzerland, 3,880,320 



Bermuda, 20,127.. 



Gibraltar, 17,690 



New Hebrides IslanJs, 

Syria, 2,139,082 . 



Biscay, Bay of... 



Gilbert Islands 






Tahiti Island 



BUkSca . 



Gold Coast, 2,078,011 



New Siberia 



Tanganyika Territory, 

Bolivia, 2,889,970. . 



Graham Land . 



New Zealand, 1,344,384 






Bonm Islands 



Greece, 5.53S.240 



Nigeria, 16,500,000 



Tasmania, 2 13,87 7 



Borneo, 1.625.4S1. 


Greenland, 13,459 



Niger River 



Tasman Sea 



Bothnia, Gulf of 



Guam, 13,275 



Nile River 



Timor, 377,81 5 



Brazil, 10,615,60* 



Guinea, Gulf of 



Nordenskiold Sen 



Togo, 854,340 



British Guiana 297,691 



Haiti, 2,028,000 



Norfolk Island 



Trinidad. 165,913 . 



British Isles, 46,996,664 



Hawaii, 25S.9I2 



North America, 

Tristan D'Acunha 

British Somaliland, 

Heiaz, 900,000 












Hoang River 


North Sea 



Tunisia, 2,159,708 



Bulgaria, 5.483.I2S 



How land Island 



Norway ,2, 646, 106 






Cameroon, 2,541,871 



Hudson Bay 



Nova Zambia 



Turkey, 14.000,000 



Campbell Island 


Hungary, 7,945,878 



Oates Land 



Tutuila Island 



Canada, Dominion of, 

Iceland, 94 690 



Ob River 



Uganda, 3,361, 000 






India, 319,075,112 



Okhotsk, Sea of 






Canary Islands, 506.4 14 



Indian Ocean 



Oman, 500,000 



Union of South Africa, 

Cape Verde Islands, 

Indus River 



Orange River 






149,793 , . 



Irak, 2,849,282 



Pacific Ocean 



United States f l()5,710,620C 


Caribbean Sea 



Italian Somali land, 

Palestine. 75 7, 182 



Uruguay, 1,494,953 



Caroline Islands, 39,000 






Palmyra Island 



Vancouver Island 



Caspian Sea 



Italy, 42,1 15,606 



Parana River 



Venezuela, 2,4 11, 952 



Celebes, 3,089,263 


Jamaica, 857,921 



Paraguay, 616,000 . 



Virgin Islands, 26,051 



Central America, 

Japan, Empire of. 

Parry Islands 



Volga River 









Persia, 9,500,000 . . 



Wake Island 



CVvInn 4 104 2K3 



TaDtin Sea 



Persian Gulf 



Walker Island 



v. lyiuii, v , iWr , * (v> 
Ch t A 1 nit* 



Java, 33, 4 17, 204 


Peru 4 569 752 



West Indies, 8, 132,795 



v. nau, LMK.C 
Charcot Land 






Philippine Islands, 

White Sea 



Chatham Island 



Kara Sea 






Yangtze River 



Chile, 3,754,721 



Kenya, 2,610,000 



Phoenix Islands 



Yellow Sea 



Chinese Republic, 

Kerguelen Island 


Pitcairn Island 



Yemen, 7 50,000 






Kermadec Island 



Plata River 



Yenesei River 



Chosen (Korea), 

King George \ Land 



Poland 27,184.816 



Yugoslavia, 12,017,123 






Korea (Chosen), 

Porto Rico, 1,299809 



Yukon River 



Christmas Island 






Portugal, 5,957,985 



Zanzibar, 197,000 



1<0 R 180 8 un 



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the country, in shops and factories, in churches, 
schools, and playgrounds, in the parks and 
on the river, on the sea and in it, in the clouds 
and stars, and even in the air, we are ever 
ih a world of color. 

Color cannot be studied or understood apart 
from light, for color is a property of light, 
just as pitch is a property of sound. Many 
years ago people believed that of all the known 
colors white light was the simplest and purest; 
but the great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, 
disproved this by an interesting experiment. 
He admitted a beam of sunlight through a 
small aperture in the shutter of a darkened 
room, and let the beam pass through a glass 
prism to a white screen. On the screen there 
appeared not the colorless image of the sun 
but a band of many colors, arranged in the 
following order violet, indigo, blue, green, 
yellow, orange, red. Such a band of colors is 
called a spectrum. Newton proved by his 
experiment that white light is a mixture of all 
the colors of the spectrum; these same colors 
appear in beautiful form in the rainbow, which 
is produced when the sun shines on raindrops. 
The drops act like tiny prisms, and separate 
the rays into the seven colors by refraction. 

Newton further proved his theory by another 
interesting experiment. He painted a disk 
with sections of the seven colors found in the 
spectrum. When this disk was rotated rapidly 
it appeared while. Thus, he not only split 
up a beam of light into seven colors, but he 
also combined them again to produce white 
light. See illustration on next page. 

(Particular attention is here directed to the article 

Scientists have learned many other interest- 
ing facts about color. Light waves, they tell 
us, have different lengths, and each color cor- 
responds to a certain wave length. The waves 
that produce the sensation of red light are 
seven two-hundred-and-fifty-thousandths of an 
inch in length ( a&0 T 000 inch). They are about 
twice as long as those that produce violet 
( 7 .o oo inch), which is the last color in the 
spectrum whose wave length is capable of 
producing visible effects. We are enabled